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  • 1. Eeva, Tapio
    et al.
    Rainio, Miia
    Berglund, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kanerva, Mirella
    Stauffer, Janina
    Stoewe, Mareike
    Ruuskanen, Suvi
    Experimental manipulation of dietary lead levels in great tit nestlings: limited effects on growth, physiology and survival2014In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 23, no 5, 914-928 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We manipulated dietary lead (Pb) levels of nestlings in wild populations of the great tit (Parus major L) to find out if environmentally relevant Pb levels would affect some physiological biomarkers (haematocrit [HT], fecal corticosterone metabolites [CORT], heat shock proteins [HSPs], erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity [ALAd]), growth (body mass, wing length), phenotype (plumage coloration) or survival of nestlings. The responses to three experimental manipulation (control, low and high: 0, 1 and 4 mu g/g body mass/day) are compared with those in a P. major population breeding in the vicinity of a heavy metal source, a copper smelter. Our Pb supplementation was successful in raising the fecal concentrations to the levels found in polluted environments (high: 8.0 mu g/g d.w.). Despite relatively high range of exposure levels we found only few effects on growth rates or physiology. The lack of blood ALAd inhibition suggests that the circulating Pb levels were generally below the toxic level despite that marked accumulation of Pb in femur (high: 27.8 mu g/g d.w.) was observed. Instead, birds in the metal polluted environment around the smelter showed decreased growth rates, lower HT, higher CORT, less colorful plumage and lower survival probabilities than any of the Pb treated groups. These effects are likely related to decreased food quality/quantity for these insectivorous birds at the smelter site. In general, the responses of nestlings to metal exposure and/or associated resource limitation were not gender specific. One of the stress proteins (HSP60), however, was more strongly induced in Pb exposed males and further studies are needed to explore if this was due to higher accumulation of Pb or higher sensitivity of males. In all, our results emphasize the importance of secondary pollution effects (e.g. via food chain disruption) on reproductive output of birds.

  • 2. Li, Zhi-Hua
    et al.
    Zlabek, Vladimir
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Velisek, Josef
    Machova, Jana
    Randak, Tomas
    Enzymatic alterations and RNA/DNA ratio in intestine of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, induced by chronic exposure to carbamazepine2010In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 19, no 5, 872-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of long-term exposure to carbamazepine (CBZ) on the enzymatic alterations and RNA/DNA ratio in intestine tissue of rainbow trout. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CBZ (1.0 microg/l, 0.2 or 2.0 mg/l) for 42 days. Digestive enzymes (proteolytic enzymes and amylase) and energy metabolic enzyme (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and glutathione reductase [GR]) in fish intestine were measured. In addition, intestinal RNA/DNA ratio was determined after 42 days exposure. Carbamazepine exposure at 2.0 mg/l led to significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx in CBZ-treated groups gradually increased at lower concentration of CBZ (1.0 microg/l and 0.2 mg/l), then significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) at 2.0 mg/l. After 42 days, the RNA/DNA ratio in fish intestine was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups exposed to CBZ at 2.0 mg/l than in other groups. However, there was no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in the activities of digestive enzymes (proteolytic enzyme and amylase) and GR in all groups. In short, prolonged exposure to CBZ resulted in different responses of various enzymes and significantly lower RNA/DNA ratio in fish intestine. Furthermore, molecular and genetic mechanisms of these physiological responses in fish are not clear, which need to be further studied.

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