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  • 1.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    van der Burght, Aafje S.A.M.
    van den Berg, Martin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Multivariate modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl-induced CYP1A activity in hepatocytes from three different species: ranking scales and species differences2000In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1454-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytochrome P4501A–induced activity of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated by measuring ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activities induced in the hepatocytes of cynomolgus monkeys, male castrated pigs, and chicken embryos. Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been established, including 52 physi-cochemical parameters and different measures of the dose-response curves. Relative effect potencies are predicted for the 154 tetra-to hepta-PCBs and reported for the most potent congeners according to both EC50 and maximal response values. Important physicochemical parameters of the PCBs as related to the modeled activity are parts of their ultraviolet absorption spectra, the Henry's law constant, the ionization potential, and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Interspecies differences were found in terms of varied sensitivity to different structural subgroups of the compounds. The chicken hepatocyte assay showed the most specific structure-activity relationship, with high activity for the non-ortho PCBs, whereas the pig hepatocytes responded even for some di- to tetra-ortho PCBs. An interspecies response, the principal induction potency, is presented for the 41 most potent PCBs. These responses showed strong correlation with the toxic equivalency factors and are likely to be useful in risk assessment of the compounds.

  • 2.
    Arnoldsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Norman Haldén, Anna
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Norrgren, Leif
    Institutionen för biomedicin och veterinär folkhälsovetenskap, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Retention and maternal transfer of environmentally relevant polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after dietary exposure2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 804-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), mono- and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are found in fish from coastal areas in the Baltic Sea, which may cause ecotoxicological effects. To increase our understanding of the persistency of the emerging pollutants polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), fish feed was spiked with 21 PBDD/Fs, 17 PCDD/Fs, and 30 PCBs and fed to zebrafish. Concentrations in fish and eggs were examined during a six- or twelve-week uptake period, and a six-week elimination period. Steady-state was reached for 2, 3, 7, and/or 8-substituted tri- and tetra-BDD/Fs, with 2,3,7,8-tetra-BDD (2,3,7,8-TeBDD) being the most strongly retained. Steady-state was not reached for tetra- to hexa-CDDs. Non-2,3,7,8-congeners showed little of or no retention. Most PCBs had high retention and did not reach steady-state. Half-lives decreased in the order: PCBs > PCDD/Fs > PBDD/Fs. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-penta- to octa-CDD/Fs decreased with their degree of chlorination suggesting that the rate-limiting factor for uptake is low bioavailability. Maternal transfer was observed for all retained compounds, with most transfer factors < 1, indicating that transfer rates are affected by the poor water solubility of the compounds. The limited retention of the major PBDD congeners found in Baltic Sea fish suggests that they are exposed to high or very high concentrations via either food or water.

  • 3.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Kitti, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Assessment of the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasworks soil using different extraction solvents and techniques2004In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1861-1866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to assess the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present at a gasworks site to different soil remediation techniques. The study examined the effect on PAH availability of using different organic solvents, the degree of pretreatment, and the extraction time. In total, 25 PAHs (with two to six fused rings) and five carbonyl derivatives were measured. The results indicated that the PAHs and their derivatives were bound loosely to the surface of the studied soil and that there were no significant kinetic boundaries associated with the extraction of the PAHs. Furthermore, it was concluded that the studied soil was not suitable for bioremediation, as the concentration of PAHs with low molecular weight were limited. However, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with methanol as the solvent extracted 97% of all PAHs and PAH-derivatives, indicating that extraction may be effective as part of a soil remediation technique for old gasworks soils.

  • 4.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Kucera, Adam
    Frech, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Erika
    Engwall, Magnus
    Rannung, Ulf
    Koci, Vladimir
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Identification of potentially toxic compounds in complex extracts of environmental samples using GC-MS and multivariate data analysis2007In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 208-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined 31 samples of varying chemical composition, including samples of soils from gasworks, coke production sites, and sites where wood preservatives were heavily used; ash and soot from municipal solid waste incinerators; antiskid sand; and dust from areas with heavy road traffic. The samples were comprehensively chemically characterized, especially their polycyclic aromatic compound contents, using gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas their biological effects were assessed using dehydrogenase activity, root growth (Hordeum vulgare), reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida), algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus), germinability (Sinapis alba), Vibrio fischeri, DR-CALUX, and Ames Salmonella assays. The number of compounds detected in the samples ranged from 123 to 527. Using the multivariate regression technique of partial-least-squares projections to latent structures, it was possible to find individual compounds that exhibited strong correlations with the different biological responses. Some of the results, however, indicate that a broader chemical characterization may be needed to identify all the compounds that may cause the measured biological responses.

  • 5. Berglund, Asa M. M.
    et al.
    Rainio, Miia J.
    Eeva, Tapio
    Decreased metal accumulation in passerines as a result of reduced emissions2012In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1317-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Berglund, Bjorn
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Urban wastewater effluent increases antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in a receiving northern european river2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 192-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stangan River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stangan River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:192-196. (c) 2014 SETAC

  • 7.
    Cuklev, Filip
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Asker, Noomi
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden och Faculty of Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Förlin, Lars
    Faculty of Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Diclofenac in fish: blood plasma levels similar to human therapeutic levels affect global hepatic gene expression2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 2126-2134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug frequently found in the aquatic environment. Previous studies have reported histological changes in the liver, kidney and gills of fish at concentrations similar to those measured in treated sewage effluents (approximately 1 µg/L). Analyses or predictions of blood plasma levels in fish allow a direct comparison with human therapeutic plasma levels, and may therefore be used to indicate a risk for pharmacological effects in fish. To relate internal exposure to a pharmacological interaction we investigated global hepatic gene expression together with bioconcentration in blood plasma and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to waterborne diclofenac. At the highest exposure concentration (81.5 µg/L) the fish plasma concentration reached approximately 88% of the human therapeutic levels (C(max) ) after two weeks. Using an oligonucleotide microarray followed by quantitative PCR we found extensive effects on hepatic gene expression at this concentration, and some genes were found to be regulated down to the lowest concentration tested (1.6 µg/L) corresponding to approximately 1.5% of the human C(max) . Thus, at concentrations detected in European surface waters, diclofenac can affect the expression of multiple genes in exposed fish. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed effects on biological processes such as inflammation and immune response, in agreement with the mode of action of diclofenac in mammals. In contrast to some previously reported results, the bioconcentration factor was found to be stable (4.02 ± 0.75 for blood plasma and 2.54 ± 0.36 for liver) regardless of the water concentration. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2011 SETAC.

  • 8.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Phan, Chau
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2522-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these micro-contaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. We investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk-drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of twelve pharmaceuticals with LC-MS/MS. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine and citalopram were detected at >1microg l-1 in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 14 mg L-1) and other pharmaceuticals (up to 2 mg L-1) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant and in the two lakes (up to 6.5 mg L-1). Thus, insufficient wastewater treatment in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory agencies to improve the situation.

  • 9.
    Gerpe, M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Kling, P.
    Berg, A. H.
    Olsson, P.-E.
    Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) metallothionein: cDNA sequence, expression, and tissue-specific inhibition of cadmium-mediated metallothionein induction by 17ß-estradiol, 4-OH-PCB 30, and PCB 1042000In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Grabic, Roman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Institute of Public Health Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Jurcikova, Jana
    Tomsejova, Sarka
    Ocelka, Tomas
    Halirova, Jarmila
    Hypr, Dusan
    Kodes, Vit
    Passive sampling methods for monitoring endocrine disruptors in the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the Czech Republic2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 550-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are manmade or natural chemicals that have the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of animals. They have not been monitored systematically in the Czech Republic. The goal of the present study was the characterization of aquatic environmental pollution from the Brno (Czech Republic) city agglomeration focusing on EDC. Passive sampling devices, as well as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were used for the pilot assessment of EDC. They were deployed for 21- to 28-d periods at nine locations in the Svratka and Svitava Rivers, Brno, Czech Republic, including at the inlet and outlet of Brno's wastewater treatment plant. The SPMDs were used to monitor nonpolar compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). The POCIS were used to monitor polar compounds such as pesticides and their metabolites, perfluoro-organic compounds (PFOC), and pharmaceuticals. The passive samplers allowed very low detection limits for soluble (bioavailable) fractions of pollutants. The contribution of PAH, PCB, and HCB in sewage water to pollution of the Svratka River was low. The Brno wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main source of pharmaceuticals, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and some polar pesticides.

  • 11.
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rutgersson, Carolin
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sturve, Joachim
    Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Förlin, Lars
    Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Pharmaceutical industry effluent diluted 1:500 affects global gene expression, cytochrome P4501A activity and plasma phosphate in fish2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2639-2647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patancheru, near Hyderabad, India, is a major production site for the global bulk drug market. Approximately 90 manufacturers send their wastewater to a common treatment plant in Patancheru. Extraordinary high levels of a wide range of pharmaceuticals have recently been demonstrated in the treated effluent. As little as 0.2% of this effluent can strongly reduce the growth rate of tadpoles, but the underlying mechanisms of toxicity are not known. To begin addressing how the effluent affects aquatic vertebrates, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0.2% effluent for five days. Several physiological endpoints, together with effects on global hepatic gene expression patterns, were analyzed. The exposed fish showed both an induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) gene expression, as well as enzyme activity. Clinical blood chemistry analyses revealed an increase in plasma phosphate levels, which in humans indicates impaired kidney function. Several oxidative stress-related genes were induced in the livers; however, no significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activities or in the hepatic glutathione levels were found. Furthermore, estrogen-regulated genes were slightly up-regulated following exposure, and moderate levels of estriol were detected in the effluent. The present study identifies changes in gene expression triggered by exposure to a high dilution of the effluent, supporting the hypothesis that these fish are responding to chemical exposure. The pattern of regulated genes may contribute to the identification of mechanisms of sub-lethal toxicity, as well as illuminate possible causative agents.

  • 12.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 930-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. (C) 2016 SETAC

  • 13.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lau, Danny Chun Pong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Industrial and natural compounds in filter-feeding black fly larvae and water in 3 tundra streams2018In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 3011-3017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, novel flame retardants, and naturally occurring bromoanisoles in water and filter-feeding black fly (Simuliidae) larvae in 3 tundra streams in northern Sweden. The results demonstrate that black fly larvae accumulate a wide range of organic contaminants and can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in Arctic streams.

  • 14. Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur
    et al.
    Teixeira, Camilla
    Small, Jeff
    Muir, Derek
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES IN INLAND LAKE WATERS, PRECIPITATION, AND AIR FROM ONTARIO, CANADA2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1539-1548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in water, zooplankton, precipitation, and air samples as well as stereoisomer fractions (SF; herbicidally active/total stereoisomers) of metolachlor were determined in water samples collected from 10 remote inland lakes in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. The most frequently detected chemicals in lake water, precipitation, and air were alpha-endosulfan, atrazine, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and trifluralin, and alpha-endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were the chemicals detected frequently in zooplankton. Air concentrations of these CUPs were within the range of previously reported values for background sites in the Great Lakes basin. High detection frequency of CUPs in lake water and precipitation was attributed to high usage amounts, but some CUPs such as ametryn and disulfoton that were not used in Ontario were also detected. Mean bioaccumulation factors (wet wt) in zooplankton for endosulfan ranged from 160 to 590 and from 20 to 60 for chlorpyrifos. The overall median SF of metolachlor in precipitation samples (0.846) was similar to that of the commercial S-metolaehlor (0.882). However, the median SF of metolachlor in water from all sampled inland lakes (0.806) was significantly lower compared with Ontario rivers (0.873) but higher compared with previous measurements in the Great Lakes (0.710). Lakes with smaller watershed areas showed higher SFs, supporting the hypothesis of stereoselective processing of deposited metolachlor within the watersheds, followed by transport to the lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:1539-1548. (C) 2011 SETAC

  • 15.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil2003In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1413-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of this study were to investigate the relative degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in contaminated soil, and to assess whether persistent oxidation products are formed during their degradation. Samples were taken on five occasions during a pilot-scale bioslurry treatment of soil from a former gasworks site. More than 100 PACs were identified in the soil, including unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs), heterocyclic PACs, and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs), such as ketones, quinones, and coumarins. During the treatment, the low molecular weight PAHs and heterocyclics were degraded faster than the high molecular weight compounds. The unsubstituted PAHs also appear to have degraded more quickly than the corresponding alkyl-PAHs and nitrogen-containing heterocyclics. No new oxidation products that were not present in the untreated soil were identified after the soil treatment. However, oxy-PAHs that were present in the untreated soil were generally degraded more slowly than the parent compounds, suggesting that they were formed during the treatment or that they are more persistent. Two oxidation products, 1-acenaphthenone and 4-oxapyrene5-one, were found at significantly higher concentrations at the end of the study. Because oxy-PAHs can be acutely toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic, we suggest that this group of compounds should also be monitored during the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil.

  • 16.
    Matscheko, Nadja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Linda
    Department of Medical Countermeasures, Division of NBC Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå.
    Harju, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Accumulation and elimination of 16 polycyclic aromatic compounds in the earthworm (Eisenia fetida)2002In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1724-1729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acumulation and elimination of different polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were studied in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soil from an old gasworks site. In total, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two N- and S-heterocyclic PACs, and two PAC-quinones were included in the study. Peak-shaped accumulation curves were found for many of the compounds. After 19 d of exposure, the ratio between concentrations in worm lipids and soil organic matter was 0.02 on average. The half-lives of the PACs were relatively long, between 2 and 11d. The elimination rate constants, k2, correlated both with literature-derived octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for PAHs (r2 = 0.93) and the computed polarizability (r2 = 0.88) of all the compounds. The elimination rate constants of PAHs are comparable to those of PCBs found in earlier studies, and the linear regression coefficient, r2, of k2 against Kow for PAHs and PCBs together was 0.93.

  • 17. Mustajarvi, Lukas
    et al.
    Nybom, Inna
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Eek, Espen
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Sobek, Anna
    How important is bioturbation for sediment-to-water flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Baltic Sea?In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study a recently developed benthic flow-through chamber was used to assess the sediment-to-water flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 4 sites on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The flow-through chamber allows for assessment of the potential effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water flux of hydrophobic organic contaminants. The sediments at the 4 investigated sites have both varying contamination degree and densities of bioturbating organisms. The flux of individual PAHs measured with the flow-through chamber ranged between 21 and 510, 11 and 370, 3 and 9700, and 62 and 2300 ng m(-2) d(-1) for the 4 sites. To assess the potential effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water flux, 3 flow-through and closed chambers were deployed in parallel at each site. The activity of benthic organisms is attenuated or halted because of depletion of oxygen in closed benthic chambers. Therefore, the discrepancy in flux measured with the 2 different chamber designs was used as an indication of a possible effect of bioturbation. A potential effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water flux by a factor of 3 to 55 was observed at sites with a high density of bioturbating organisms (e.g., Marenzelleria spp., Monoporeia affinis, and Macoma balthica of approximately 860-1200 individuals m(-2)) but not at the site with much lower organism density (<200 individuals m(-2)). One site had a high organism density and a low potential effect of bioturbation, which we hypothesize to be caused by the dominance of oligochaetes/polychaetes at this site because worms (Marenzelleria spp.) reach deeper into the sediment than native crustaceans and mollusks. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019:1-8. (c) 2019 SETAC

  • 18.
    Rattfelt Nyholm, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Norman, Anna
    Norrgren, Leif
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Uptake and biotransformation of structurally-diverse brominated flame retardants in zebrafish (Danio Rerio) after dietary exposure2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1035-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed a diet containing a mixture of 11 structurally diverse brominated flame retardants (BFRs) at nominal concentrations of either 1 or 100 nmol/g for up to 42 d, followed by an elimination period of 14 d. Uptake rates and elimination constants for five of the BFRs were calculated from measurements of their concentrations in the male fish during the exposure and elimination phases. Observed uptake efficiencies were highest for 2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28) and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) and were lowest for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). Estimated half-lives for TBECH and 2,4,6-tribromophenol were short (<2 d). Four BFR metabolites were identified in the fish: 2,2′,3,4′,5′,6-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 149), 2,2′,4,4′,5,6′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 154), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, and 1,2,4,5-hexabromobenzene. These metabolites were still present in the zebrafish after the 14-d elimination period. No relationship between the BFR concentrations in the zebrafish and their log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) values was found. Generally, low tendencies to bioaccumulate were observed for perbrominated and hydroxylated compounds. The observed accumulation of BFR metabolites in fish, however, shows that low concentration of a BFR does not provide, in isolation, a sound indication that the BFR poses low risks.

  • 19.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Automated method for determination of dissolved organic carbon–water distribution constants of structurally diverse pollutants using pre-equilibrium solid-phase microextraction2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 266-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a key role in determining the environmental fate of semivolatile organic environmental contaminants. The goal of the present study was to develop a method using commercially available hardware to rapidly characterize the sorption properties of DOC in water samples. The resulting method uses negligible-depletion direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Its performance was evaluated using Nordic reference fulvic acid and 40 priority environmental contaminants that cover a wide range of physicochemical properties. Two SPME fibers had to be used to cope with the span of properties, 1 coated with polydimethylsiloxane and 1 coated with polystyrene divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane, for nonpolar and semipolar contaminants, respectively. The measured DOC–water distribution constants showed reasonably good reproducibility (standard deviation ≤ 0.32) and good correlation (R2 = 0.80) with log octanol–water partition coefficients for nonpolar persistent organic pollutants. The sample pretreatment is limited to filtration, and the method is easy to adjust to different DOC concentrations. These experiments also utilized the latest SPME automation that largely decreases total cycle time (to 20 min or shorter) and increases sample throughput, which is advantageous in cases when many samples of DOC must be characterized or when the determinations must be performed quickly, for example, to avoid precipitation, aggregation, and other changes of DOC structure and properties. The data generated by this method are valuable as a basis for transport and fate modeling studies.

  • 20. Rutgersson, Carolin
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Oral exposure to industrial effluent with exceptionally high levels of drugs does not indicate acute toxic effects in rats2013In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 577-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Patancheru area near Hyderabad in India is recognized as a key link in the global supply chain for many bulk drugs. A central treatment plant receives wastewater from approximately 90 different manufacturers, and the resulting complex effluent has contaminated surface, ground, and drinking water in the region. Ecotoxicological testing of the effluent has shown adverse effects for several organisms, including aquatic vertebrates, at high dilutions. In addition, a recent study of microbial communities in river sediment indicated that the contamination of antibiotic substances might contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. In an attempt to start investigating how exposure to effluent-contaminated water may directly affect humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, rats were tube-fed effluent. Several pharmaceuticals present in the effluent could be detected in rat blood serum at low concentrations. However, results from exploratory microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays indicated no marked effects on hepatic gene transcription after 5 d of exposure. Neither did clinical analysis of blood serum constituents, used as biomarkers for human disease, reveal any significant changes, nor was there any weight gain. Taken together, the authors could not find evidence for any acute toxicity in the rat; however, the authors cannot rule out that higher doses of effluent or a longer exposure time may still be associated with risks for terrestrial vertebrates. 

  • 21. Van den Brink, Paul J.
    et al.
    Boxall, Alistair B. A.
    Maltby, Lorraine
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Rudd, Murray A.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Spurgeon, David
    Verougstraete, Violaine
    Ajao, Charmaine
    Ankley, Gerald T.
    Apitz, Sabine E.
    Arnold, Kathryn
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel
    Chapman, Jennifer
    Corrales, Jone
    Coutellec, Marie-Agnès
    Fernandes, Teresa F.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ford, Alex T.
    Giménez Papiol, Gemma
    Groh, Ksenia J.
    Hutchinson, Thomas H.
    Kruger, Hank
    Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.
    Loutseti, Stefania
    Marshall, Stuart
    Muir, Derek
    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E.
    Paul, Kai B.
    Rico, Andreu
    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael
    Römbke, Jörg
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Segner, Helmut
    Smit, Mathijs
    van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.
    Vighi, Marco
    Werner, Inge
    Zimmer, Elke I.
    van Wensem, Joke
    Toward sustainable environmental quality: Priority research questions for Europe2018In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 2281-2295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals have been established to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals will require a healthy and productive environment. An understanding of the impacts of chemicals which can negatively impact environmental health is therefore essential to the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, current research on and regulation of chemicals in the environment tend to take a simplistic view and do not account for the complexity of the real world, which inhibits the way we manage chemicals. There is therefore an urgent need for a step change in the way we study and communicate the impacts and control of chemicals in the natural environment. To do this requires the major research questions to be identified so that resources are focused on questions that really matter. We present the findings of a horizon-scanning exercise to identify research priorities of the European environmental science community around chemicals in the environment. Using the key questions approach, we identified 22 questions of priority. These questions covered overarching questions about which chemicals we should be most concerned about and where, impacts of global megatrends, protection goals, and sustainability of chemicals; the development and parameterization of assessment and management frameworks; and mechanisms to maximize the impact of the research. The research questions identified provide a first-step in the path forward for the research, regulatory, and business communities to better assess and manage chemicals in the natural environment. 

  • 22.
    Wiberg, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bergman, Anders
    Olsson, Mats
    Roos, Anna
    Blomkvist, Gun
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Concentrations and enantiomer fractions of organochlorine compounds in Baltic species hit by reproductive impairment2002In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 2542-2551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in tissues of gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) and salmon (Salmo salar) originating from the Baltic Sea. The selected seal specimens ranged from starved to unstarved animals, and some of them suffered from a disease complex, while the salmon samples originated from individuals, which were known to produce offspring with and without the M74 syndrome. Significant differences in residue levels and EFs were found between seal groups but not between M74 salmon and non-M74 salmon. The relations between chemical and biological variables of seal samples were investigated with multivariate statistics. Poor health status correlated strongly with age, while bad nutrition condition was associated mainly with high pollution loads and distinctively nonracemic chiral OC compositions. High biotransformation rate (as indicated by fraction of chlordane metabolites in relation to total level of chlordanes) was also associated with large deviations from racemic values and high contaminant levels.

1 - 22 of 22
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