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  • 1.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Are the self-employed really that poor? Income poverty and living standard among self-employed in Sweden2015In: Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion, ISSN 2000-8023, E-ISSN 2000-8023, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises are often highlighted by politicians as important engines of economic growth and job creation. However, previous research suggests that self-employment might not be equally beneficial for individuals in terms of their income compared to regular employment. Several studies have in fact found that the self-employed may face a substantially higher poverty risk than do regular employees. The aim of the present study is to investigate to what extent income poverty is a good predictor of actual living standards among the self-employed. Is the relationship between income poverty and living standards different for self-employed compared to the regularly employed? To investigate this question we use a unique Swedish survey dataset including regularly employed (n 2,642) as well as self-employed (over-sampled, n 2,483). Income poverty is defined as living in a household with less than 60% of the median household income. Living standards are measured with a deprivation index based on 29 consumption indicators. The results show that even though income poverty is more prevalent among the self-employed than among the regularly employed, no evidence can be found suggesting that the self-employed have a lower standard of living than the regularly employed. Furthermore, when specifically comparing income poor self-employed with income poor regularly employed, we find that the income poor self-employed score significantly lower on the deprivation index even after the compositional characteristics of both groups are taken into account. The conclusion is that poverty measures based on income data underestimate the actual living standard of the self-employed.

  • 2.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sjöstedt Landén, Angelika
    Gender as headline and subtext  : Problematizing the gender perspective in an occupational health project.2014In: Vulnerable Groups & Inclusion, ISSN 2000-8023, E-ISSN 2000-8023, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is on how a “gender perspective” becomes lifted to the headlines as a solution to an organizational problem. The purpose of this article is to problematize how a gender perspective was employed in the everyday practices of an occupational health project in a Swedish municipality. The project’s stated aim was to construct and implement a new model for occupational health, targeting the municipality’s employees, and gender equality was seen as one means of reducing sick leave among the staff. Our focus was the participants’ perceptions of their participation and their reflections on the content and practices of the program. The information was gathered from focus-group interviews with participants in a management training program (MTP) and a rehabilitation program (RP) and from documents produced within the project. Drawing from feminist writings on gender subtexts defined as a set of concealed power based processes (re)producing gender distinctions in organizations, we have explored how power structures are created based on socially constructed differences. Our results demonstrate how gender knowledge could reproduce inequality and hierarchical distinctions between people in different positions in working life.

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