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  • 1.
    Assefa, Anteneh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klanova, Jana
    Wiberg, Karin
    Tracing the sources of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea air by using metals as source markers2018Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 544-552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmosphere is the major contributor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea environment. In this study, we investigated the potential of using metals along with PCDD/Fs as markers of important emission sources of PCDD/Fs in air. The air concentrations of PCDD/F congeners (n = 17), other persistent organic pollutants (n = 8) and metals (n = 16) were determined in summer and winter air using high volume samplers at a rural field station (Aspvreten, Sweden) located close to the Baltic Sea coast. During winter, PCDD/F levels were on average 20 times higher than in summer (5.1 +/- 5.8 fg toxicity equivalents (TEQ) m-3 and 0.26 +/- 0.18 fg TEQ m-3, respectively) mostly due to a higher fraction of PCDFs. The increased levels of PCDD/Fs were pronounced mainly in air masses that had travelled from southern (S) and eastern (E) compass sectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) of metal levels in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles sampled to reflect various air emission source types helped to identify potential marker metals for selected known atmospheric emission sources of PCDD/Fs and to rank among the candidate source types. Brown coal burning, domestic burning and heavy oil burning appeared to be the source types that contribute most of the PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea air. The current study demonstrates a successful approach for source tracing of PCDD/Fs in air, where integrated indices from seasonal and spatial patterns of PCDD/Fs as well as metal source markers were used to trace and rank sources.

  • 2.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lau, Danny C. P.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Anders
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bromoanisoles and Methoxylated Bromodiphenyl Ethers in Macroalgae from Nordic Coastal Regions2019Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, s. 881-892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017–2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol–dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p < 0.05). For reasons of simplicity and efficiency, the soaking methods are preferred. Concentrations varied by orders of magnitude among species: ∑2BAs 57 to 57 700 and ∑5MeO-BDEs < 10 to 476 pg g−1 wet weight (ww). Macroalgae standing out with ∑2BAs >1000 pg g−1 ww were Ascophyllum nodosumCeramium tenuicorneCeramium virgatumFucus radicansFucus serratusFucus vesiculosusSaccharina latissimaLaminaria digitata, and Acrosiphonia/Spongomorpha sp. Species A. nodosumC. tenuicorneChara virgataF. radicans and F. vesiculosus (Sweden Atlantic only) had ∑5MeO-BDEs >100 pg g−1ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.

  • 3. Chilkoor, Govinda
    et al.
    Upadhyayula, Venkata Krishna Kumar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana
    Koratkar, Nikhil
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sustainability of renewable fuel infrastructure: a screening LCA case study of anticorrosive graphene oxide epoxy liners in steel tanks for the storage of biodiesel and its blends2017Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 141-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from the risks include: (i) coat the interior surface of the tank with solvent free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) add a biocide in the tank. We present a screening-level, life cycle assessment study to evaluate and compare the environmental performance of graphene-oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system. TRACI is used as an impact assessment tool to model midpoint environmental impacts for the ten categories: global warming potential (GWP, kg CO2 eq.); acidification potential (AP, kg SO2 eq.); potential human health damage impacts due to carcinogens (HH-CP, CTUh) and non-carcinogens (HH-NCP, CTUh); potential respiratory effects (REP, kg PM2.5 eq); eutrophication potential (EP, kg N eq); ozone depletion potential (ODP kg CFC-11 eq); ecotoxicity potential (ETXP, CTUe); smog formation potential (SFP kg O3 eq); and fossil fuel depletion potential (FFDP MJ surplus). The equivalent functional unit of the LCA study is designed to protect the 30 m2 of the interior surface (unalloyed steel sheet) of a 10,000 liters biodiesel tank against abiotic and biotic corrosion during its service life of 20 years. Overall, this LCA study highlights an improved environmental performance for the GOE liner compared to the incumbent system; GOE-liner system showed: 91% lower ODP impacts; 59% smaller for REP; 62% smaller for AP; 67-69% smaller for GWP and HH-CP; 72-76% smaller for EP, SFP, and FFDP; and 81-83% smaller for ETXP and HH-NCP categories. The scenario analysis study reveals that these potential impacts change by less than 15% when the GOE liners are functionalized with silanized-GO nanosheets or GO-reinforced, polyvinyl carbazole to improve the antimicrobial properties. The results from uncertainty analysis indicate that the impacts for the incumbent system are more sensitive to changes in key modeling parameters compared to that for GOE liner system.

  • 4. Okkenhaug, G
    et al.
    Almas, A R
    Morin, Nicolas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway .
    Hale, S E
    Arp, H P H
    The presence and leachability of antimony in different wastes and waste handling facilities in Norway2015Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 17, nr 11, s. 1880-1891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental behaviour of antimony (Sb) is gathering attention due to its increasingly extensive use in various products, particularly in plastics. Because of this it may be expected that plastic waste is an emission source for Sb in the environment. This study presents a comprehensive field investigation of Sb concentrations in diverse types of waste from waste handling facilities in Norway. The wastes included waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), glass, vehicle fluff, combustibles, bottom ash, fly ash and digested sludge. The highest solid Sb concentrations were found in WEEE and vehicle plastic (from 1238 to 1715 mg kg−1) and vehicle fluff (from 34 to 4565 mg kg−1). The type of acid used to digest the diverse solid waste materials was also tested. It was found that HNO3:HCl extraction gave substantially lower, non-quantitative yields compared to HNO3:HF. The highest water-leachable concentration for wastes when mixed with water at a 1:10 ratio were observed for plastic (from 0.6 to 2.0 mg kg−1) and bottom ash (from 0.4 to 0.8 mg kg−1). For all of the considered waste fractions, Sb(V) was the dominant species in the leachates, even though Sb(III) as Sb2O3 is mainly used in plastics and other products, indicating rapid oxidation in water. This study also presents for the first time a comparison of Sb concentrations in leachate at waste handling facilities using both active grab samples and DGT passive samples. Grab samples target the total suspended Sb, whereas DGT targets the sum of free- and other chemically labile species. The grab sample concentrations (from 0.5 to 50 μg L−1) were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 113 μg L−1. The DGT concentrations were substantially lower (from 0.05 to 9.93 μg L−1) than the grab samples, indicating much of the Sb is present in a non-available colloidal form. In addition, air samples were taken from the chimney and areas within combustible waste incinerators, as well as from the vent of WEEE sorting facility. The WEEE vent had the highest Sb concentration (from <100 to 2200 ng m−3), which were orders of magnitude higher than the air surrounding the combustible shredder (from 25 to 217 ng m−3), and the incinerator chimney (from <30 to 100 ng m−3). From these results, it seems evident that Sb from waste is not an environmental concern in Norway, and that Sb is mostly readily recovered from plastic and bottom ash.

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