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  • 1.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Peng, Aihui
    Faculty of Education, Southwest University, China/School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linnanmäki, Karin
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Svens-Liavåg, Camilla
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sjöberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety Among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils2015In: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, ISSN 2168-3603, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3 in China, Finland, and Sweden, each of which has different testing realities, completed the Children's Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) results indicated that the Chinese sample scored more highly on the autonomic reactions component, whereas the Nordic sample scored higher on the off-task behaviors component. Significant interaction effects between gender and culture were also observed: The Nordic girls exhibited higher levels of autonomic reactions, but the opposite was seen in the Chinese sample, with boys reporting higher levels of the cognitive component. The conceptualization of test anxiety encompassing the off-task behaviors component does not appear to be universal for children. It is also suggested that gender differences vary as a function of culture.

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