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  • 1. Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Genuine savings measurement under uncertainty and its implications for depletable resource management2013In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of genuine savings has in recent years become widely accepted as a dynamic welfare indicator, which first appeared in Weitzman (1976) and then "formalized" by Pearce and Atkinson (1993). This paper attempts to generalize this concept in a stochastic setting using the Dasgupta-Heal-Solow growth model under the Merton (1975) type of population growth uncertainty. It is shown that the formula for genuine savings under uncertainty also involves a variance component reflecting the welfare loss from risk aversion (cf. Li and Lofgren, 2012). Moreover, the welfare implications of the risk-adjusted genuine savings on depletable resource management are explored.

  • 2. Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The water and diamond paradox and green NNP as a welfare indicator2014In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A classical structure that is used to analyze the water and diamond paradox provides an intuitive underpinning to the modern theory of welfare measurement in a growth context. John Law’s and Adam Smith’s concepts of value-in-use and value-in-exchange have modern aggregated counterparts. Complemented with Dupuit’s extension in terms of a utility function with a declining marginal utility, they are close to enough to provide the intuition behind important aspects of modern dynamic welfare measurement. We answer four modern questions: (1) Will an increase in the level of NNP indicate a welfare improvement? (3) Will NNP growth indicate a local welfare improvement? (3) If the answers to (1), (2) are no, what are the underlying reasons? (4) How do the correct welfare indicators look like? At least Dupuit, as an inventor of the consumer surplus, may perhaps have agreed with some of the answers to the modern dynamic approach.

  • 3.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Green Public Procurement as an Policy Instrument: Cost effectiveness2013In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates by the European Commission indicate that public authorities within the European Union typically purchase goods and services corresponding to approximately 16 percent of GDP per annum. Hence, it is believed, private firms can be stimulated to invest in less polluting production technologies if the market power of public bodies is exerted through Green Public Procurement (GPP) policies and legislation. It is commonly argued that there are considerable possibilities for cost-effective GPP. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize this argument by specifically answer the question whether GPP can work as a cost-effective environmental policy instrument in terms of leading firms to reducing emissions at least cost to society. Our main finding shows that this is not the case.

  • 4. Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    The pivotal nature of award methods in green public procurement2011In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 64-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally there is a strong trend of implementing Green Public Procurement (GPP), and it is seen as an environmental policy tool. By its purchasing power public authorities are via environmental concerns in procurement believed to have the power of stimulating firms to reduce emissions, be resource efficient, and developing products proper in line with a sustainable society. In allocating public contracts authorities use award methods and scoring rules. This paper discusses the procedure of allocating contracts when GPP is applied. Departing from previous research on this topic the paper explicitly discusses the pivotal role of using suitable award methods and scoring rules for GPP to functioning as an efficient environmental policy tool. It is most important that GPP matches the preferences of the society (e.g., a municipality or a state authority). Assuming that GPP can be used as an environmental policy tool, the authors present general guidelines for choosing an efficient award method and scoring rule in perspective of welfare and sustainability.The necessity of such guidelines cannot be emphasized enough, partly because previous scientific literature on the topic is very scarce and partly, which is most serious, empirical data (Swedish public procurement data) indicate that scoring rules that violates necessary conditions for efficient outcomes are commonly used. It cannot be ruled out that this unfortunate circumstance causes the society substantial costs. In this perspective it is also noteworthy that Sweden is regarded as a frontrunner in successfully implementing GPP (Kahlenborn et al., 2011).

  • 5.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    A dynamic price index theory for deflating green net national product: an illustrative application using data from the United States2015In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the welfare significance of real comprehensive NNP based on an exact dynamic price index. We extend the Konus classical index number theory by taking into account current environmental externalities and investment for future consumption enhancement. It is shown that, when deflated with the proper dynamic price index, the real green NNP becomes an ideal measure for welfare comparisons over time. We demonstrate the application of the theory using time series data from the United States over the period from 1959 to 2008.

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