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  • 1. Sharma, Rajiv
    et al.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ostergaard, Lars
    Dowell, Anthony
    Tran, Clement
    Thomas, Stephane
    Eymin, Cecile
    Persistence of immunity in healthy adults aged >= 50 years primed with a hepatitis B vaccine 3 years previously2015In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, E-ISSN 2164-554X, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 1709-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis B vaccines do not generate protective immune responses in older adults as effectively as they do in children and young adults. Improved formulations of existing vaccines may have the potential to improve this. This study investigated the persistence of serum antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigens (anti-HBs) 3.1–3.5 years following primary vaccination with 3 doses of HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in healthy adults aged ≥50 years who were further challenged with 1 dose of recombinant hepatitis B antigen. This was an open-label extension study. Individuals (N = 204) with a mean (standard deviation) age at enrollment of 63.7 (7.0) years receiving HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in a randomized, double-blind primary study were challenged with 1 dose of HBvaxPRO® (10 μg). Anti-HBs were measured pre- and 30 days post-challenge. 45.5% (34.8, 56.4 [95% CI]) of individuals who received HBvaxPRO® in the per protocol set (PPS) had anti-HBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL pre-challenge and 85.2% (76.1, 91.9) 1-month post-challenge. In those who received Engerix B™ in the primary vaccination series, the results were 58.8% (48.6, 68.5) and 88.3% (80.5, 93.8), respectively. The challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was generally well tolerated. Subjects aged ≥50 years receiving a challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® demonstrated immune memory against hepatitis B 3 years after a 3-dose primary. The safety profile of this challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was consistent with the well-established safety profile of the vaccine HBvaxPRO®.

  • 2.
    Silfverdal, Sven A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Assudani, Deepak
    Kuriyakose, Sherine
    Van der Meeren, Olivier
    Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age2014In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, E-ISSN 2164-554X, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 2795-2798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis.

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  • 3.
    Tetui, Moses
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Grindrod, Kelly
    School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Waite, Nancy
    School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    VanderDoes, Jeremy
    Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Taddio, Anna
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Integrating the CARD (Comfort Ask Relax Distract) system in a mass vaccination clinic to improve the experience of individuals during COVID-19 vaccination: a pre-post implementation study2022In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, E-ISSN 2164-554X, Vol. 18, no 5, article id 2089500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many people have negative experiences with vaccination due to stress-related reactions including fear and pain. We used a pre-post study design to evaluate the impact of implementing a modified version of the CARD (Comfort-Ask-Relax-Distract) system on stress-related reactions in individuals aged 12 y or older undergoing COVID-19 vaccinations in mass vaccination clinics. Vaccine recipients reported their level of pain, fear and dizziness during vaccination. Clinic staff reported their attitudes about CARD and use of CARD interventions. CARD improved client symptoms across genders and ages with an average reduction in needle pain, fear and dizziness of 75%, 40% and 44%, respectively. CARD was more effective in younger individuals. Clinic staff reported positive attitudes about CARD and uptake of selected CARD interventions. In summary, the modified CARD system reduced stress-related responses in a general population undergoing COVID-19 vaccinations in a mass vaccination clinic, was feasible and acceptable to staff. Future implementation efforts are recommended that include more diverse cultural contexts and incorporate education of individuals about CARD ahead of time.

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  • 4. Velumani, Sumathy
    et al.
    Toh, Ying Xiu
    Balasingam, Shobana
    Archuleta, Sophia
    Leo, Yee Sin
    Gan, Victor C
    Thein, Tun Linn
    Wilder-Smith, Annelies
    Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Fink, Katja
    Low antibody titers 5 years after vaccination with the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine in both pre-immune and naïve vaccinees2016In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, E-ISSN 2164-554X, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1265-1273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most widespread vector-borne viruses. Dengue disease affects populations in endemic areas and, increasingly, tourists who travel to these countries, but there is currently no approved vaccine for dengue. A phase 3 efficacy trial with Sanofi-Pasteur's recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) conducted in South East Asia showed an overall efficacy of 56% against virologically confirmed dengue infections of any severity and any of the 4 serotypes, but the long-term protection of the vaccine has yet to be demonstrated. To address longevity of antibody titers and B cell memory, we recalled study participants from an earlier CYD immunogenicity study (Phase 2) conducted in Singapore that enrolled healthy volunteers in the year 2009. Depending on the age group, 57-84% of the participants initially generated a neutralizing antibody titer ≥ 10 to all 4 DENV serotypes 28 d after the third and final dose. We observed very low antibody titers in blood samples collected from 23 vaccinees 5 y after the first dose, particularly titers of antibodies binding to virus particles compared with those binding to recombinant E protein. The in vivo efficacy of plasma antibodies against DENV-2 challenge was also tested in a mouse model, which found that only 2 out of 23 samples were able to reduce viremia. Although the sample size is too small for general conclusions, dengue immune memory after vaccination with CYD-TDV appears relatively low.

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