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  • 1.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Johansson, Alexandra C
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Use of etalon-immune distances to reduce the influence of background signals in frequency-modulation spectroscopy and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy2014Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 2938-2945Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection sensitivity of phase-modulated techniques such as frequency-modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) is often limited by etalon background signals. It has previously been shown that the impact of etalons can be reduced by the use of etalon-immune distances (EIDs), i.e., by separating the surfaces that give rise to etalons by a distance of q. L-m, where L-m is given by c/2n nu(m), where, in turn, n and nu(m) are the index of refraction between the components that make up the etalon (thus most often that of air) and the modulation frequency, respectively, and where q is an integer (i.e., 1, 2, 3,.) or half-integer (i.e., 1/2, 1, 3/2,.) for the dispersion and absorption modes of detection, respectively. An etalon created by surfaces separated by an EID will evade detection and thereby not contribute to any background signal. The concept of EIDs in FMS and NICE-OHMS is in this work demonstrated, scrutinized, and discussed in some detail. It is shown that the influence of EIDs on the absorption and dispersion modes of detection is significantly different; signals detected at the dispersion phase are considerably less sensitive to deviations from exact EID conditions than those detected at the absorption phase. For example, the FM background signal from an etalon whose length deviates from an EID by 2.5% of L-m (e.g., by 1 cm for an L-m of 40 cm), detected in dispersion, is only 9% of that in absorption. This makes the former mode of detection the preferred one whenever a sturdy immunity against etalons is needed or when optical components with parallel surfaces (e.g., lenses, polarizers, or beam splitters) are used. The impact of the concept of EIDs on NICE-OHMS is demonstrated by the use of Allan-Werle plots.

  • 2.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order2014Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 31, nr 9, s. 2051-2060Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (Db-NICE-OHMS) has been scrutinized with respect to modulation and demodulation conditions (encompassing the modulation frequency,nu(m), the modulation index, beta, and the detection phase, theta), the cavity length, L, and the modulation order, k (defined as nu(m)/nu(FSR), where nu(FSR) is the free-spectral range of the cavity), primarily in the Doppler limit but also for two specific situations in the Voigt regime (for equal Doppler and homogeneous width and for purely Lorentzian broadened transitions), both in the absence and presence of optical saturation (the latter for the case in which the homogeneous broadening is smaller than the modulation frequency). It is found that, for a system with a given cavity length, the optimum conditions (i.e., those that produce the largest NICE-OHMS signal) for an unsaturated transition in the Doppler limit comprise nu(m)/Gamma(D) = 1.6 (where Gamma(D) is the half-width at half-maximum of the Doppler width of the transition), beta = 1.3, and theta = 0.78 pi. It is also found that the maximum is rather broad; the signal takes 95% of its maximum value for modulation frequencies in the entire 0.4 less than or similar to nu(m)/Gamma(D) less than or similar to 2.4 range. When optical saturation sets in, theta shifts toward the dispersion phase. The optimum conditions encompass k > 1 whenever L > 0.35L(D) and 2.6L(D) for the dispersion and absorption modes of detection, respectively [where L-D is a characteristic length given by c/(2 Gamma(D))]. Similar conditions are found under pressure broadened conditions. 

  • 3.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Wang, Junyang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 region2012Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1305-1315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (FL-NICE-OHMS) system for white-noise-limited Doppler-broadened detection down to 5.6 x 10(-12) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) is demonstrated. The system is based on a previous FL-NICE-OHMS instrumentation in which the locking of the laser frequency to a cavity mode has been improved by the use of an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and provision of a more stable environment by the employment of a noise-isolating enclosed double-layer table, a temperature regulation of the laboratory, and an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) gas system. White-noise behavior up to 10 s provides the instrument with a minimum detectable on-resonance absorbance per unit length of 1.8 x 10(-12) cm(-1) and a relative single-pass absorption (Delta I/I) of 7.2 x 10(-11). The system was applied to detection of acetylene on a transition at 1531.588 nm, yielding a detection sensitivity of C2H2 in atmospheric pressure gas of 4 ppt (measured over 10 s). (C) 2012 Optical Society of America

  • 4.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Wang, Junyang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Doppler broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the triplet formalism: assessment of optimum modulation index2014Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 1499-1507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) on the modulation index, beta, has been investigated experimentally on C2H2 and CO2, both in the absence and the presence of optical saturation. It is shown that the maximum signals are obtained for beta that produce more than one pair of sidebands: in the Doppler limit and for the prevailing conditions (unsaturated transition and the pertinent modulation frequency and Doppler widths) around 1 and 1.4 for the dispersion and absorption detection phases, respectively. The results verify predictions given in an accompanying work. It is also shown that there is no substantial broadening of the NICE-OHMS signal for beta < 1. The use of beta of unity has yielded a Db-NICE-OHMS detection sensitivity of 4.9 x 10(-12) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), which is the lowest (best) value so far achieved for NICE-OHMS based on a tunable laser. The number of sidebands that needs to be included in fits of the line-shape function to obtain good accuracy has been assessed. It is concluded that it is enough to consider three pairs of sidebands whenever the systematic errors in a concentration assessment should be below 1% when beta < 2 are used and <1 parts per thousand for beta < 1.5.

  • 5.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions2008Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 1156-1165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of optical saturation on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) signals from purely Doppler-broadened transitions is investigated experimentally. It is shown that the shape and the strength of the dispersion signal are virtually unaffected by optical saturation, whereas the strength of the absorption signal decreases as (1+G+-1)-1/2, where G+-1 is the degree of saturation induced by the sideband of the frequency modulated triplet, in agreement with theoretical predictions. This implies, first of all, that Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS is affected less by optical saturation than other cavity enhanced techniques but also that it exhibits nonlinearities in the power and pressure dependence for all detection phases except pure dispersion. A methodology for assessments of the degree of saturation and the saturation power of a transition from Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS signals is given. The implications of optical saturation for practical trace species detection by Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS are discussed.

  • 6.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Schmidt, Florian M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Wavelength modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signal line shapes in the Doppler limit2009Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 1384-1394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough analysis of the shape and strength of Doppler-broadened wavelength modulated noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy signals is presented and their dependence on modulation frequency, modulation amplitude and detection phase is investigated in detail. The conditions that maximize the on-resonance signal are identified. The analysis is based on the standard frequency modulation spectroscopy formalism and the Fourier description of wavelength modulation spectroscopy and verified by fits to experimental signals from C2H2 and CO2 measured at 1531 nm. In addition, the line strengths of two CO2 transitions in the v2→3v1+v2+v3 hot band [Pe(7) and Pe(9)] were found to differ by ~20% from those given in the HITRAN database.

  • 7.
    Foltynowicz-Matyba, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS2011Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 28, nr 11, s. 2797-2805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) based on a fiber-coupled electro-optic modulator (EOM) provides a compact and versatile experimental setup. It has, however, been limited by background signals originating from an imbalance of the phase modulated triplet created by a cross-coupling between the principal axes of the polarization maintaining fibers and the extraordinary axis of the EOM. Two strategies for reducing these background signals are investigated: (i) using an EOM with a titanium diffused waveguide, in which the balance of the triplet is controlled by active feedback, and (ii) using an EOM with a proton exchanged waveguide that does not support light propagation along the ordinary axis. It is shown that both approaches significantly reduce drifts and noise in the system. Using a cavity with a finesse of 5700, an absorption sensitivity of 3: 2 x 10(-12) cm(-1) in 1 min of integration time (i.e., 1: 8 x 10(-11) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2)) is demonstrated for Doppler-broadened detection, the lowest reported so far for Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS. For sub-Doppler detection, a minimum detectable optical phase shift of 1: 3 x 10(-12) cm(-1) in 400s of integration time is obtained. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  • 8.
    Hansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Wallin, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Brodin, Gert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Marklund, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Scalar Wigner theory for polarized light in nonlinear Kerr media2013Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 1765-1769Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A scalar Wigner distribution function for describing polarized light is proposed in analogy with the treatment of spin variables in quantum kinetic theory. The formalism is applied to the propagation of circularly polarized light in nonlinear Kerr media, and an extended phase-space evolution equation is derived along with invariant quantities. The formalism is additionally used to analyze the modulational instability. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America

  • 9.
    Johansson, Alexandra C.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Rutkowski, Lucile
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Signal line shapes of Fourier-transform cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy with optical frequency combs2017Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 358-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a thorough analysis of the signal line shapes of Fourier-transform-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS). We discuss the signal dependence on the ratio of the modulation frequency, f(m), to the molecular linewidth, G. We compare a full model of the signals and a simplified absorption-like analytical model that has high accuracy for low f(m)/G ratios and is much faster to compute. We verify the theory experimentally by measuring and fitting the NICE-OFCS spectra of CO2 at 1575 nm using a system based on an Er: fiber femtosecond laser and a cavity with a finesse of similar to 11000. 

  • 10. Kolliopoulos, G.
    et al.
    Tzallas, P.
    Bergues, B.
    Carpeggiani, P. A.
    Heissler, P.
    Schröder, H.
    Veisz, László
    Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany.
    Charalambidis, D.
    Tsakiris, G. D.
    Single-shot autocorrelator for extreme-ultraviolet radiation2014Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 926-938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel single-shot second-order autocorrelation scheme for extreme-ultraviolet radiation (XUV) is proposed. It is based on an ion-imaging technique, which provides spatial information of ionization products in the focal volume of the XUV beam. Using simple analytical and detailed numerical modeling, an evaluation toward selecting an optimum configuration has been performed. The implementation of the concept to characterize attosecond pulses is discussed, and the proposed setups are assessed.

  • 11.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ma, Weiguang
    Axner, Ove
    Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range2007Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 1392-1405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Silander, Isak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Wang, Junyang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Frequency modulation background signals from fiber-based electro optic modulators are caused by crosstalk2012Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 916-923Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequency modulated spectroscopy (FMS) performed by the use of fiber-coupled electro optic modulators (FC-EOMs) is often plagued by background signals that bring in noise and, by their temperature dependence, cause severe drifts. These signals cannot be zeroed out by the conventional technique of using a carefully adjusted polarizer that can be applied to free space electro optic modulators (EOMs). This can limit the use of FC-EOMs in high performance detection techniques. Here we provide an explanation to these background signals that is based upon crosstalk between various polarization directions of light in the fixed mounted polarization-maintaining fibers and the electro optic crystal. The description provides a basis for the previously demonstrated technique that utilizes an EOM regulated simultaneously by temperature and DC voltage to eliminate background signals from systems encompassing FC-EOMs. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America

  • 13.
    Silander, Isak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Hausmaninger, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range: demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9  ×  10−14 cm−12015Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 2104-2114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressions for the in-coupling of white noise and etalons into fitted signal strengths are derived. These show that the amount of noise picked up is affected by the scanning range. A methodology for finding the optimum scanning range from a single set of measurements has been developed. This was used to estimate the optimum conditions of a noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) setup. The methodology was validated by measurements. This resulted in a spectral noise equivalent absorption per unit length of 2.6 × 10−13 cm−1 Hz−1∕2 and a minimum Allan deviation of 9 × 10−14 cm−1 at 30 s, which are, to our knowledge, the lowest reported for Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS

  • 14.
    Wang, Junyang
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy-theory and experimental verification2011Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 2390-2401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dicke narrowing in both the absorption and dispersion modes of detection have been scrutinized by noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) using an isolated transition in the v(1) + v(3) + v(4)(1) - v(4)(1) band of acetylene [P(e)(33) at 6439.371 cm(-1)] at room temperature. The results represent the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of Dicke narrowing detected in dispersion, as well as by NICE-OHMS, and the paper provides thereby the first comparison of the Dicke narrowing phenomenon for the two modes of detection. It is shown that Dicke narrowing in dispersion can be described by the dispersive counterparts to the conventional Galatry and Rautian absorption line-shape functions, which are explicitly given. Spectroscopic parameters for the targeted transition were extracted in both absorption and dispersion and found to be in agreement with those previously reported for other lines and bands. The shortcomings of the Galatry model to provide physically relevant parameters in this pressure range are discussed.

  • 15.
    Wang, Junyang
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Speed-dependent effects in dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: experimental demonstration and validation of predicted line shape2012Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 29, nr 10, s. 2980-2989Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed-dependent effects (SDEs) in both the absorption and dispersion modes of detection have been detected and scrutinized by the noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) technique. The present paper achieves four objectives: (i) it provides the first demonstration of SDEs detected in dispersion, (ii) it validates the expression for a speed-dependent Voigt (SDV) dispersion line-shape function that is derived in an accompanying paper, (iii) it illustrates the influence of SDEs on the NICE-OHMS technique, and (iv) it gives the first experimental comparison of SDEs for the absorption and dispersion modes of detection. Experiments were performed using an isolated transition in the v(1) + v(3) + v(4)(1) - v(4)(1) band of acetylene [P-e (33) at 6439.371 cm(-1)] in the 100-250 Torr range at room temperature. It is shown that SDEs appear in both the absorption and dispersion modes of detection, that they can be well described by the suggested SDV dispersion line-shape function, and that they need to be taken into account if NICE-OHMS signals detected under optimal pressures are to be properly assessed. (c) 2012 Optical Society of America

  • 16.
    Wang, Junyang
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Ehlers, Patrick
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Silander, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Westberg, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Speed-dependent Voigt dispersion line-shape function: applicable to techniques measuring dispersion signals2012Ingår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 29, nr 10, s. 2971-2979Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical expression for a Voigt dispersion line-shape function that incorporates speed-dependent effects (SDEs) on the collision broadening, applicable to spectroscopic techniques that measure dispersion signals, is presented. It is based upon a speed-dependent Voigt (SDV) model for absorption spectrometry that assumes that the molecular relaxation rate has a quadratic dependence on molecular speed. The expression is validated theoretically in the limit of small SDEs by demonstration that it reverts to the ordinary Voigt dispersion line-shape function and experimentally in a separate work by experiments performed by the noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry technique. A comparison is given between the SDEs in the SDV absorption and dispersion line-shape functions. It is shown that both line shapes are affected significantly but differently by SDEs. The expression derived provides, for the first time to our knowledge, a possibility also for the techniques that measure dispersion signals to handle SDEs. (c) 2012 Optical Society of America

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