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  • 1. Aikio, Anita T.
    et al.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Fontaine, Dominic
    Dandouras, Iannis
    Amm, Olaf
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Vaivads, Andris
    Fazakerley, Andrew
    EISCAT and Cluster observations in the vicinity of the dynamical polar cap boundary2008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, p. 87-105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Fontaine, Dominic
    CETP/UVSQ, Velizy, France.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CESR/CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Amm, Olaf
    Finnish meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland; Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Sodankylä, Finland.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fazakerley, Andrew
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College, London, UK.
    EISCAT and Cluster observations in the vicinity of the dynamical polar cap boundary2008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, p. 87-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of the polar cap boundary and auroral oval in the nightside ionosphere are studied during late expansion and recovery of a substorm from the region between Tromsø (66.6 degree cgmLat) and Longyearbyen (75.2 degree cgmLat) on 27 February 2004 by using the coordinated EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, MIRACLE magnetometer and Cluster satellite measurements. During the late substorm expansion/early recovery phase, the polar cap boundary (PCB) made zig-zag-type motion with amplitude of 2.5 degree cgmLat and period of about 30 min near magnetic midnight. We suggest that the poleward motions of the PCB were produced by bursts of enhanced reconnection at the near-Earth neutral line (NENL). The subsequent equatorward motions of the PCB would then represent the recovery of the merging line towards the equilibrium state (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992). The observed bursts of enhanced westward electrojet just equatorward of the polar cap boundary during poleward expansions were produced plausibly by particles accelerated in the vicinity of the neutral line and thus lend evidence to the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm.

    During the substorm recovery phase, the footpoints of the Cluster satellites at a geocentric distance of 4.4RE mapped in the vicinity of EISCAT measurements. Cluster data indicate that outflow of H+ and O+ ions took place within the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) as noted in some earlier studies as well. We show that in this case the PSBL corresponded to a region of enhanced electron temperature in the ionospheric F region. It is suggested that the ion outflow originates from the F region as a result of increased ambipolar diffusion. At higher altitudes, the ions could be further energized by waves, which at Cluster altitudes were observed as BBELF (broad band extra low frequency) fluctuations.

    The four-satellite configuration of Cluster revealed a sudden poleward expansion of the PSBL by 2 degree during ˜ 5 min. The beginning of the poleward motion of the PCB was associated with an intensification of the downward FAC at the boundary. We suggest that the downward FAC sheet at the PCB is the high-altitude counterpart of the Earthward flowing FAC produced in the vicinity of the magnetotail neutral line by the Hall effect (Sonnerup, 1979) during a short-lived reconnection pulse.

  • 3. Aikio, Anita T.
    et al.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Honkonen, Ilja
    Palmroth, Minna
    Amm, Olaf
    IMF effect on the polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, p. 1021-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    et al.
    Oulu, Finland.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Oulu, Finland.
    Honkonen, Ilja
    Helsinki, Finland.
    Palmroth, Minna
    Helsinki, Finland.
    Amm, Olaf
    Helsinki, Finland.
    IMF effect on the polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, p. 1021-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polar cap boundary (PCB) location and motion in the nightside ionosphere has been studied by using measurements from the EISCAT radars and the MIRACLE magnetometers during a period of four substorms on 18 February 2004. The OMNI database has been used for observations of the solar wind and the Geotail satellite for magnetospheric measurements. In addition, the event was modelled by the GUMICS-4 MHD simulation. The simulation of the PCB location was in a rather good agreement with the experimental estimates at the EISCAT longitude. During the first three substorm expansion phases, neither the local observations nor the global simulation showed any poleward motions of the PCB, even though the electrojets intensified. Rapid poleward motions of the PCB took place only in the early recovery phases of the substorms. Hence, in these cases the nightside reconnection rate was locally higher in the recovery phase than in the expansion phase.

    In addition, we suggest that the IMF Bz component correlated with the nightside tail inclination angle and the PCB location with about a 17-min delay from the bow shock. By taking the delay into account, the IMF northward turnings were associated with dipolarizations of the magnetotail and poleward motions of the PCB in the recovery phase. The mechanism behind this effect should be studied further.

  • 5. Aikio, Anita T.
    et al.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Amm, Olaf
    Method to locate the polar cap boundary in the nightside ionosphere and application to a substorm event2006In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 24, p. 1905-1917Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arvelius, S.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Space Science.
    Yamauchi, M.
    Nilsson, H.
    Lundin, R.
    Hobara, Y.
    Rème, H.
    Bavassano- Cattaneo, M. B.
    Paschmann, G.
    Korth, A.
    Kistler, L. M.
    Parks, G. K.
    Statistical study of relationships between dayside high-altitude and high-latitude O+ ion outflows, solar winds, and geomagnetic activity2005In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 23, p. 1909-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The persistent outflows of O+ ions observed by the Cluster CIS/CODIF instrument were studied statistically in the high-altitude (from 3 up to 11 RE) and high-latitude (from 70 to ~90 deg invariant latitude, ILAT) polar region. The principal results are: (1) Outflowing O+ ions with more than 1keV are observed above 10 RE geocentric distance and above 85deg ILAT location; (2) at 6-8 RE geocentric distance, the latitudinal distribution of O+ ion outflow is consistent with velocity filter dispersion from a source equatorward and below the spacecraft (e.g. the cusp/cleft); (3) however, at 8-12 RE geocentric distance the distribution of O+ outflows cannot be explained by velocity filter only. The results suggest that additional energization or acceleration processes for outflowing O+ ions occur at high altitudes and high latitudes in the dayside polar region.

  • 7.
    Barabash, Victoria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Kirkwood, S.
    Feofilov, A.
    Kutepov, A.
    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes during the July 2000 Solar Proton Event2004In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 22, p. 759-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the solar proton event (SPE) 14–16 July 2000 on Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) is examined. PMSE were observed by the Esrange VHF MST Radar (ESRAD) at 67°53'N, 21°06'E. The 30MHz Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies IRIS in Kilpisjärvi (69°30'N, 20°47'E) registered cosmic radio noise absorption caused by ionisation changes in response to the energetic particle precipitation. An energy deposition/ion-chemical model was used to estimate the density of free electrons and ions in the upper atmosphere. Particle collision frequencies were calculated from the MSISE-90 model. Electric fields were calculated using conductivities from the model and measured magnetic disturbances. The electric field reached a maximum of 91mV/m during the most intensive period of the geomagnetic storm accompanying the SPE. The temperature increase due to Joule and particle heating was calculated, taking into account radiative cooling. The temperature increase at PMSE heights was found to be very small.

    The observed PMSE were rather intensive and extended over the 80–90km height interval. PMSE almost disappeared above 86km at the time of greatest Joule heating on 15 July 2000. Neither ionisation changes, nor Joule/particle heating can explain the PMSE reduction. Transport effects due to the strong electric field are a more likely explanation.

  • 8.
    Belova, Alla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Kirkwood, Sheila
    Murtagh, Donal
    Planetary waves in ozone and temperature in the Northern hemisphere winter of 2002-2003 by Odin satellite data2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, p. 1189-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature and ozone data from the sub-millimetre radiometer (SMR) installed aboard the Odin satellite have been examined to study the relationship between temperature and ozone concentration in the lower and upper stratosphere in winter time. The retrieved ozone and temperature profiles have been considered between the range of 24–46 km during the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter of December 2002 to March 2003 and January to March 2005. A comparison between the ozone mixing ratio and temperature fields has been made for the zonal means, wavenumber one variations and 5-day planetary waves. The amplitude values in temperature variations are ~5 K in the wavenumber one and 0.5–1 K in the 5-day wave. In ozone mixing ratio, the amplitudes reach ~0.5 ppmv in the wavenumber one and 0.05–0.1 ppmv in the 5-day wave.

    Several stratospheric warming events were observed during the NH winters of 2002/2003 and early 2005. Along with these warming events, amplification of the amplitude has been detected in wavenumber one (up to 30 K in temperature and 1.25 ppmv in ozone) and partly in the 5-day perturbation (up to 2 K in temperature and 0.2 ppmv in ozone). 

    In general, the results show the expected in-phase behavior between the temperature and ozone fields in the lower stratosphere due to dynamic effects, and an out-of-phase pattern in the upper stratosphere, which is expected as a result of photochemical effects. However, these relationships are not valid for zonal means and wavenumber one components when the wave amplitudes are changing dramatically during the strongest stratospheric warming event (at the end of December 2002/beginning of January 2003). Also, for several shorter intervals, the 5-day perturbations in ozone and temperature are not well-correlated at lower heights, particularly when conditions change rapidly. 

    Odin's basic observation schedule provides stratosphere mode data every third day and to validate the reliability of the 5-day waves extracted from the Odin measurements, additional independent data have been analysed in this study: temperature assimilation data by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for the NH winter of 2002/2003, and satellite measurements of temperature and ozone by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite for the NH winter in early 2005. 

    Good agreement between the temperature fields from Odin and ECMWF data is found at middle latitude where, in general, the 5-day perturbations from the two data sets coincide in both phase and amplitude throughout the examined interval. Analysis of the wavenumber one and the 5-day wave perturbations in temperature and ozone fields from Odin and from Aura demonstrates that, for the largest part of the examined period, quite similar characteristics are found in the spatial and temporal domain, with slightly larger amplitude values seen by Aura. Hence, the comparison between the Odin data, sampled each third day, and daily data from Aura and the ECMWF shows that the Odin data are sufficiently reliable to estimate the properties of the 5-day oscillations, at least for the locations and time intervals with strong wave activity.

  • 9.
    Belova, Alla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Kirkwood, Sheila
    Murtagh, Donal
    Singer, Werner
    Hocking, Wayne
    Mitchell, Nick
    Five-day planetary waves in the middle atmosphere from Odin satellite data and ground-based instruments in Northern Hemisphere summer 2003, 2004, 2005 and 20072008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, p. 3557-3570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have shown that 5-day planetary waves modulate noctilucent clouds and the closely related Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) at the summer mesopause. Summer stratospheric winds should inhibit wave propagation through the stratosphere and, although some numerical models (Geisler and Dickinson, 1976) do show a possibility for upward wave propagation, it has also been suggested that the upward propagation may in practice be confined to the winter hemisphere with horizontal propagation of the wave from the winter to the summer hemisphere at mesosphere heights causing the effects observed at the summer mesopause. It has further been proposed (Garcia et al., 2005) that 5-day planetary waves observed in the summer mesosphere could be excited in-situ by baroclinic instability in the upper mesosphere. In this study, we first extract and analyze 5-day planetary wave characteristics on a global scale in the middle atmosphere (up to 54 km in temperature, and up to 68 km in ozone concentration) using measurements by the Odin satellite for selected days during northern hemisphere summer from 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007. Second, we show that 5-day temperature fluctuations consistent with westward-traveling 5-day waves are present at the summer mesopause, using local ground-based meteor-radar observations. Finally we examine whether any of three possible sources of the detected temperature fluctuations at the summer mesopause can be excluded: upward propagation from the stratosphere in the summer-hemisphere, horizontal propagation from the winter-hemisphere or in-situ excitation as a result of the baroclinic instability. We find that in one case, far from solstice, the baroclinic instability is unlikely to be involved. In one further case, close to solstice, upward propagation in the same hemisphere seems to be ruled out. In all other cases, all or any of the three proposed mechanisms are consistent with the observations.

  • 10.
    Belova, E.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, 98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kirkwood, S.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, 98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Ekeberg, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Osepian, A.
    Polar Geophysical Institute, Halturina 15, Murmansk, Russia.
    Häggström, I.
    EISCAT Scientific Association, Box 164, 98123 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, H.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, 98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Rietveld, M.
    EISCAT Scientific Association, Ramfjordmoen, N-9027 Ramfjordbotn, Norway.
    The dynamical background of polar mesosphere winter echoes from simultaneous EISCAT and ESRAD observations2005In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 1239-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 30 October 2004 during a strong solar proton event, layers of enhanced backscatter from altitudes between 55 and 75km have been observed by both ESRAD (52MHz) and the EISCAT VHF (224MHz) radars. These echoes have earlier been termed Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes, PMWE. After considering the morphology of the layers and their relation to observed atmospheric waves, we conclude that the radars have likely seen the same phenomenon even though the radars' scattering volumes are located about 220km apart and that the most long-lasting layer is likely associated with wind-shear in an inertio-gravity wave. An ion-chemistry model is used to determine parameters necessary to relate wind-shear induced turbulent energy dissipation rates to radar backscatter. The model is verified by comparison with electron density profiles measured by the EISCAT VHF radar. Observed radar signal strengths are found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude stronger than the maximum which can be expected from neutral turbulence alone, assuming that previously published results relating radar signal scatter to turbulence parameters, and turbulence parameters to wind shear, are correct. The possibility remains that some additional or alternative mechanism may be involved in producing PMWE, such as layers of charged dust/smoke particles or large cluster ions.

  • 11.
    Brodin, Gert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Stenflo, L.
    Nonlinear wave interactions of kinetic sound waves2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1007-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reconsider the nonlinear resonant interaction between three electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma. The general coupling coefficients derived from kinetic theory are reduced here to the low-frequency limit. The main contribution to the coupling coefficient we find in this way agrees with the coefficient recently presented in Annales Geophysicae. But we also deduce another contribution which sometimes can be important, and which qualitatively agrees with that of an even more recent paper. We have thus demonstrated how results derived from fluid theory can be improved and generalized by means of kinetic theory. Possible extensions of our results are outlined.

  • 12.
    Ekeberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wannberg, Gudmund
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Lars
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Stasiewicz, Kristof
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ion-acoustic solitary waves and spectrally uniform scattering cross section enhancements2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1299-1306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectra measured by incoherent scatter radars are formed predominantly by scattering of the incident signal off ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves in the ionosphere. Occasionally, the upshifted and/or downshifted lines produced by the ion-acoustic waves are enhanced well above thermal levels and referred to as naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines. In this paper, we study another kind of enhancement, which is spectrally uniform over the whole ion-line, i.e. the upand downshifted shoulder and the spectral valley in between. Based on observations made with the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) facility, we investigate the transient and spectrally uniform power enhancements, which can be explained by ionacoustic solitary waves. We use a theory of nonlinear waves in a magnetized plasma to determine the properties of such waves and evaluate their effects on scattered signals easured by ESR.We suggest a new mechanism that can explain backscattered power enhancements by one order of magnitude above the thermal level and show that it is consistent with observations.

  • 13.
    Giang, Tony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Lundin, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ebihara, Yusuke
    Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Japan.
    Rème, Henri
    Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France.
    Vallat, C.
    VEGA contracted to Solar System Science Operations Division, ESA/ESAC, Madrid, Spain.
    Bavassano-Cattaneo, M. B.
    L'Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma, Italy.
    Klecker, B.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany.
    Korth, A.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany.
    Kistler, L. M.
    University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA.
    McCarthy, M.
    University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Outflowing protons and heavy ions as a source for the sub-keV ringcurrent2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 839-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from the Cluster CIS instrument have been used for studying proton and heavy ion (O+ and He+ ) char- acteristics of the sub-keV ring current. Thirteen events with dispersed heavy ions (O+ and He+ ) were identified out of two years (2001 and 2002) of Cluster data. Allevents took place during rather geomagnetically quiet periods. Three of those events have been investigated in detail: 21 August 2001, 26 November 2001 and 20 February 2002. These events were chosen from varying magnetic local times (MLT), and they showed different characteristics. In this article, we discuss the potential source for sub-keV ring current ions. We show that: (1) outflows of terrestrialsub-keV ions are supplied to the ring current also during quiet geomagnetic conditions; (2) the composition of the out-flow implies an origin that covers an altitude interval from the low-altitude ionosphere to the plasmasphere, and (3) terrestrial ions are moving upward along magnetic field lines, at times forming narrow collimated beams, but  frequently also as broad beams. Over time, the ion beams are expected to gradually become isotropised as a result of wave-particleinteraction, eventually taking the form of isotropic drifting sub-keV ion signatures. We argue that the sub-keV energy-time dispersed signatures originate from field-aligned terrestrial ion energising and outflow, which may occur at all local times and persist also during quiet times.

  • 14. Gunell, H
    et al.
    Andersson, L
    De Keyser, J
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Self-consistent electrostatic simulations of reforming double layers in the downward current region of the aurora2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1331-1342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma on a magnetic field line in the downward current region of the aurora is simulated using a Vlasov model. It is found that an electric field parallel to the magnetic fields is supported by a double layer moving toward higher altitude. The double layer accelerates electrons upward, and these electrons give rise to plasma waves and electron phase-space holes through beam-plasma interaction. The double layer is disrupted when reaching altitudes of 12 Earth radii where the Langmuir condition no longer can be satisfied due to the diminishing density of electrons coming up from the ionosphere. During the disruption the potential drop is in part carried by the electron holes. The disruption creates favourable conditions for double layer formation near the ionosphere and double layers form anew in that region. The process repeats itself with a period of approximately 1 min. This period is determined by how far the double layer can reach before being disrupted: a higher disruption altitude corresponds to a longer repetition period. The disruption altitude is, in turn, found to increase with ionospheric density and to decrease with total voltage. The current displays oscillations around a mean value. The period of the oscillations is the same as the recurrence period of the double layer formations. The oscillation amplitude increases with increasing voltage, whereas the mean value of the current is independent of voltage in the 100 to 800 V range covered by our simulations. Instead, the mean value of the current is determined by the electron density at the ionospheric boundary.

  • 15. Gunell, H.
    et al.
    De Keyser, J.
    Gamby, E.
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Vlasov simulations of parallel potential drops2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1227-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An auroral flux tube is modelled from the magnetospheric equator to the ionosphere using Vlasov simulations. Starting from an initial state, the evolution of the plasma on the flux tube is followed in time. It is found that when applying a voltage between the ends of the flux tube, about two thirds of the potential drop is concentrated in a thin double layer at approximately one Earth radius altitude. The remaining part is situated in an extended region 1-2 Earth radii above the double layer. Waves on the ion timescale develop above the double layer, and they move toward higher altitude at approximately the ion acoustic speed. These waves are seen both in the electric field and as perturbations of the ion and electron distributions, indicative of an instability. Electrons of magnetospheric origin become trapped between the magnetic mirror and the double layer during its formation. At low altitude, waves on electron timescales appear and are seen to be non-uniformly distributed in space. The temporal evolution of the potential profile and the total voltage affect the double layer altitude, which decreases with an increasing field aligned potential drop. A current-voltage relationship is found by running several simulations with different voltages over the system, and it agrees with the Knight relation reasonably well.

  • 16. Gunell, H.
    et al.
    Wieser, G. Stenberg
    Mella, M.
    Maggiolo, R.
    Nilsson, H.
    Darrouzet, F.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, T.
    Brenning, N.
    De Keyser, J.
    Andre, M.
    Dandouras, I.
    Waves in high-speed plasmoids in the magnetosheath and at the magnetopause2014In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 991-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmoids, defined here as plasma entities with a higher anti-sunward velocity component than the surrounding plasma, have been observed in the magnetosheath in recent years. During the month of March 2007 the Cluster spacecraft crossed the magnetopause near the subsolar point 13 times. Plasmoids with larger velocities than the surrounding magnetosheath were found on seven of these 13 occasions. The plasmoids approach the magnetopause and interact with it. Both whistler mode waves and waves in the lower hybrid frequency range appear in these plasmoids, and the energy density of the waves inside the plasmoids is higher than the average wave energy density in the magnetosheath. When the spacecraft are in the magnetosphere, Alfvenic waves are observed. Cold ions of ionospheric origin are seen in connection with these waves, when the wave electric and magnetic fields combine with the Earth's dc magnetic field to yield an E x B/B-2 drift speed that is large enough to give the ions energies above the detection threshold.

  • 17. Gunell, Herbert
    et al.
    Andersson, Laila
    De Keyser, Johan
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Vlasov simulations of trapping and loss of auroral electrons2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, p. 279-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma on an auroral field line is simulated using a Vlasov model. In the initial state, the acceleration region extends from one to three Earth radii in altitude with about half of the acceleration voltage concentrated in a stationary double layer at the bottom of this region. A population of electrons is trapped between the double layer and their magnetic mirror points at lower altitudes. A simulation study is carried out to examine the effects of fluctuations in the total accelerating voltage, which may be due to changes in the generator or the load of the auroral current circuit. The electron distribution function on the high potential side of the double layer changes significantly depending on whether the perturbation is toward higher or lower voltages, and therefore measurements of electron distribution functions provide information about the recent history of the voltage. Electron phase space holes are seen as a result of the induced fluctuations. Most of the voltage perturbation is assumed by the double layer. Hysteresis effects in the position of the double layer are observed when the voltage first is lowered and then brought back to its initial value.

  • 18.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Octav
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Klecker, Berndt
    André, Mats
    Buchert, S
    Kistler, L
    McFadden, J
    Rème, H
    Vaivads, Andris
    Observations of concentrated generator regions in the nightside magnetosphere by Cluster/FAST conjunctions2006In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 24, p. 637-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Andre, Mats
    Eriksson, AI
    A statistical study of ion energization at 1700 km in the auroral region2002In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 1943-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive overview of several potentially relevant causes for the oxygen energization in the auroral region. Data from the Freja satellite near 1700 km altitude are used for an unconditional statistical investigation. The data are obtained in the Northern Hemisphere during 21 months in the declining phase of the solar cycle. The importance of various wave types for the ion energization is statistically studied. We also investigate the correlation of ion heating with precipitating protons, accelerated auroral electrons, suprathermal electron bursts, the electron density variations, K-P index and solar illumination of the nearest conjugate ionosphere. We find that sufficiently strong broadband ELF waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and waves around the lower hybrid frequency are foremost associated with the ion heating. However, magnetosonic waves, with a sharp, lower frequency cutoff just below the proton gyrofrequency, are not found to contribute to the ion heating. In the absence of the first three wave emissions, transversely energized ions are rare. These wave types are approximately equally efficient in heating the ions, but we find that the main source for the heating is broadband ELF waves, since they are most common in the auroral region. We have also observed that the conditions for ion heating are more favourable for smaller ratios of the spectral densities S-E/S-B of the broadband ELF waves at the oxygen gyrofrequency.

  • 20.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Ocatv
    Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania.
    Buchert, Stephan
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klecker, Berndt
    Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 4131-4146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail) direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  • 21.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Octav
    Buchert, Stephan
    Klecker, Berndt
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Dandouras, Iannis
    Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, p. 1813-1825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004) of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs) from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  • 22.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marghitu, Octav
    Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Romania.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klecker, Berndt
    Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CESR-CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 4147-4155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009) [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs) in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data) at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs) and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs). By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005). The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  • 23.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Fellgård, D
    The importance of solar illumination for discrete and diffuse aurora2005In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 23, p. 3481-3486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Hamrin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Börlin, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Vaivads, Andris
    GALS: gradient analysis by least squares2008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 3491-3499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Hubert, Benoit
    et al.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    Amm, Olaf
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Kauristie, Kirsti
    Milan, Steve M.
    Cowley, Stan W. H.
    Gérard, Jean-Claude
    Comparison of the open-closed field line boundary location inferred using IMAGE-FUV SI12 images and EISCAT radar observations2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, p. 883-892Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Hubert, Benoit
    et al.
    Liège, Belgium.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    Oulu, Finland.
    Amm, Olaf
    Helsinki, Finland.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Oulu, Finland.
    Kauristie, Kirsti
    Helsinki, Finland.
    Milan, Steve M.
    Leicester, UK.
    Cowley, Stan W. H.
    Leicester, UK.
    Gérard, Jean-Claude
    Liège, Belgium.
    Comparison of the open-closed field line boundary location inferred using IMAGE-FUV SI12 images and EISCAT radar observations2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, p. 883-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare the location of the polar cap boundary (PCB) determined using two different techniques, and use them as proxies for the open-closed field line boundary (OCB). Electron temperatures from observations of the EISCAT radar facility are used to estimate the latitude of the PCB along the meridian of the EISCAT VHF beam. The second method utilizes global images of proton aurora obtained by the IMAGE satellite FUV SI12 instrument. These methods are applied to three different intervals. In two events, the agreement between the methods is good and the mean of the difference is within the resolution of the observations. In a third event, the PCB estimated from EISCAT data is located several degrees poleward of that obtained from the IMAGE FUV SI12 instrument. Comparison of the reconnection electric field estimated from the two methods shows that highresolution measurements both in time and space are needed to capture the variations in reconnection electric field during substorm expansion. In addition to the two techniques introduced above to determine the PCB location, we also use a search for the location of the reversal of the east-west component of the equivalent current known as the magnetic convection reversal boundary (MCRB). The MCRB from the MIRACLE magnetometer chain mainly follows the motion of the polar cap boundary during different substorm phases, but differences arise near the Harang discontinuity.

  • 27.
    Kero, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Szasz, Csilla
    National Institute of Polar Research.
    Nakamura, Takuji
    National Institute of Polar Research.
    Terasawa, T.
    Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, University of Tokyo.
    Nishimura, K.
    National Institute of Polar Research.
    A meteor head echo analysis algorithm for the lower VHF band2012In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 639-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed an automated analysis scheme for meteor head echo observations by the 46.5 MHz Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU) radar near Shigaraki, Japan (34.85A degrees N, 136.10A degrees E). The analysis procedure computes meteoroid range, velocity and deceleration as functions of time with unprecedented accuracy and precision. This is crucial for estimations of meteoroid mass and orbital parameters as well as investigations of the meteoroid-atmosphere interaction processes. In this paper we present this analysis procedure in detail. The algorithms use a combination of single-pulse-Doppler, time-of-flight and pulse-to-pulse phase correlation measurements to determine the radial velocity to within a few tens of metres per second with 3.12 ms time resolution. Equivalently, the precision improvement is at least a factor of 20 compared to previous single-pulse measurements. Such a precision reveals that the deceleration increases significantly during the intense part of a meteoroid's ablation process in the atmosphere. From each received pulse, the target range is determined to within a few tens of meters, or the order of a few hundredths of the 900 m long range gates. This is achieved by transmitting a 13-bit Barker code oversampled by a factor of two at reception and using a novel range interpolation technique. The meteoroid velocity vector is determined from the estimated radial velocity by carefully taking the location of the meteor target and the angle from its trajectory to the radar beam into account. The latter is determined from target range and bore axis offset. We have identified and solved the signal processing issue giving rise to the peculiar signature in signal to noise ratio plots reported by Galindo et al. (2011), and show how to use the range interpolation technique to differentiate the effect of signal processing from physical processes.

  • 28.
    Kero, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics. Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Szasz, Csilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics. Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics. Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Wannberg, Gudmund
    Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Westman, Assar
    EISCAT Scientific Association.
    Determination of meteoroid physical properties from tristatic radar observations2008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, p. 2217-2228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we give a review of the meteor head echo observations carried out with the tristatic 930MHz EISCAT UHF radar system during four 24 h runs between 2002 and 2005 and compare these with earlier observations. A total number of 410 tristatic meteors were observed. We describe a method to determine the position of a compact radar target in the common volume monitored by the three receivers and demonstrate its applicability for meteor studies. The inferred positions of the meteor targets have been utilized to estimate their velocities, decelerations and directions of arrival as well as their radar cross sections with unprecedented accuracy. The velocity distribution of the meteoroids is bimodal with peaks at 35–40 km/s and 55–60 km/s, and ranges from 19–70 km/s. The estimated masses are between 10−9–10−5.5 kg. There are very few detections below 30 km/s. The observations are clearly biased to high-velocity meteoroids, but not so biased against slow meteoroids as has been presumed from previous tristatic measurements. Finally, we discuss how the radial deceleration observed with a monostatic radar depends on the meteoroid velocity and the angle between the trajectory and the beam. The finite beamwidth leads to underestimated meteoroid masses if radial velocity and deceleration of meteoroids approaching the radar are used as estimates of the true quantities in a momentum equation of motion.

  • 29.
    Mann, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. EISCAT Scientific Association.
    Dust dynamic pressure and magnetopause displacement: reasons for non-detection2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, Treumann and Baumjohann (2011) propose that the contribution of dust particles to the solar wind dynamic pressure can cause large compressions of the Earth's magnetopause and suggest that this occurs when Earth encounters meteoroid streams. In this paper we estimate the contribution from charged dust particles to the solar wind dynamical pressure, and we exclude that the dust associated to meteoroid streams can influence the extension of the magnetopause according to the proposed model. A sufficient coupling to the solar wind is only expected for so-called nanodust. However, the dynamic pressure of the nanodust is orders of magnitudes below that of the solar wind, making it unlikely that its variation can be observed in displacements of the magnetopause. We also discuss the equation that the authors use for estimating the extension of the Earth's magnetopause, and conclude that this is not applicable due to the large gyroradius of the nanodust. We finally note that an influence of dust on the extension of a magnetosphere might be quite possible in other astrophysical systems and based on other processes.

  • 30.
    Mann, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rymdfysik.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Dust dynamic pressure and magnetopause displacement: reasons for non-detection2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, Treumann and Baumjohann (2011) propose that the contribution of dust particles to the solar wind dynamic pressure can cause large compressions of the Earth's magnetopause and suggest that this occurs when Earth encounters meteoroid streams. In this paper we estimate the contribution from charged dust particles to the solar wind dynamical pressure, and we exclude that the dust associated to meteoroid streams can influence the extension of the magnetopause according to the proposed model. A sufficient coupling to the solar wind is only expected for so-called nanodust. However, the dynamic pressure of the nanodust is orders of magnitudes below that of the solar wind, making it unlikely that its variation can be observed in displacements of the magnetopause. We also discuss the equation that the authors use for estimating the extension of the Earth's magnetopause, and conclude that this is not applicable due to the large gyroradius of the nanodust. We finally note that an influence of dust on the extension of a magnetosphere might be quite possible in other astrophysical systems and based on other processes.

  • 31. Marghitu, Octav
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Klecker, Berndt
    Vaivads, Andris
    McFadden, Jim
    Buchert, Stephan
    Kistler, Lynn M
    Dandouras, Iannis
    André, Mats
    Rème, Henri
    Experimental investigation of auroral generator regions with conjugate Cluster and FAST data2006In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 24, p. 619-635Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Nilsson, H.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Waara, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Arvelius, S.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Marghitu, O.
    Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Bouhram, M.
    Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Hobara, Y.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Yamanuchi, M.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Lundin, R.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Rème, H.
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France.
    Sauvaud, J.-A.
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France.
    Dandouras, I.
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, France.
    Balogh, A.
    Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK.
    Kistler, L. M.
    University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.
    Klecker, B.
    Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching, Germany.
    Carlson, C .W.
    Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    M. B. Bavassano-Cattaneo, M. B.
    Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma, Italy.
    Korth, A.
    Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany.
    Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study2006In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1099-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    Amm, Olaf
    Kauristie, Kirsti
    Nilsson, Hans
    Kaila, Kari U.
    EISCAT-Cluster observations of quiet-time near-Earth magnetotail fast flows and their signatures in the ionosphere2011In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 29, p. 299-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Amm, Olaf
    Corrigendum to “Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm” published in Ann. Geophys., 27, 2157-2171, 20092009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, p. 3007-3007Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Amm, Olaf
    Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, p. 2157-2171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Aikio, Anita T.
    Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Sodankylä, Finla.
    Amm, Olaf
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm2009In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 27, p. 2157-2171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of the polar cap and the auroral oval are examined in the evening sector during a substorm period on 25 November 2000 by using measurements of the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, the north-south chain of the MIRACLE magnetometer network, and the Polar UV Imager.

    The location of the polar cap boundary (PCB) is estimated from electron temperature measurements by the mainland low-elevation EISCAT VHF radar and the 42m antenna of the EISCAT Svalbard radar. A comparison to the poleward auroral emission (PAE) boundary by the Polar UV Imager shows that in this event the PAE boundary is typically located 0.7 of magnetic latitude poleward of the PCB by EISCAT. The convection reversal boundary (CRB) is determined from the 2-D plasma drift velocity extracted from the dual-beam VHF data. The CRB is located 0.5–1 equatorward of the PCB indicating the existence of viscous-driven antisunward convection on closed field lines.

    East-west equivalent electrojets are calculated from the MIRACLE magnetometer data by the 1-D upward continuation method. In the substorm growth phase, electrojets together with the polar cap boundary move gradually equatorwards. During the substorm expansion phase, the Harang discontinuity (HD) region expands to the MLT sector of EISCAT. In the recovery phase the PCB follows the poleward edge of the westward electrojet.

    The local ionospheric reconnection electric field is calculated by using the measured plasma velocities in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. During the substorm growth phase, values between 0 and 10 mV/m are found. During the late expansion and recovery phase, the reconnection electric field has temporal variations with periods of 7–27 min and values from 0 to 40 mV/m. It is shown quantitatively, for the first time to our knowledge, that intensifications in the local reconnection electric field correlate with appearance of auroral poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs) in the same MLT sector. The results suggest that PBIs (typically 1.5 h MLT wide) are a consequence of temporarily enhanced longitudinally localized magnetic flux closure in the magnetotail.

  • 37.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Norqvist, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Hans
    IRF-K, Kiruna.
    Kullen, Anita
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Imber, Suzanne M.
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Milan, Steve M.
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Azimuthal velocity shear within an Earthward fast flow: further evidence for magnetotail untwisting?2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that nonzero interplanetary magnetic field By conditions lead to a twisted magnetotail configuration. The plasma sheet is rotated around its axis and tail magnetic field lines are twisted, which causes an azimuthal displacementof their ionospheric footprints. According to the untwisting hypothesis, the untwisting of twisted field lines is suggested to influence the azimuthal direction of convective fast flows in the nightside geospace. However, there is a lack of in situ magnetospheric observations, which show actual signatures of the possible untwisting process. In this paper, we report detailed Cluster observations of an azimuthal flow shear across the neutral sheet associated with an Earthward fast flow on 5 September 2001. The observations show a flow shear velocity pattern with a Vperpy sign change, near the neutral sheet (Bx  0) within a fast flow during the neutral sheet flapping motion over the spacecraft. Firstly, this implies that convective fast flows may not generally be unidirectional across the neutral sheet, but may have a more complex structure. Secondly, in this event tail By and the flow shear are as expected by the untwisting hypothesis. The analysis of the flow shear reveals a linear dependence between Bx and Vperpy close to the neutral sheet and suggests that Cluster crossed the neutral sheet in the dawnward part of the fast flow channel. The magnetospheric observations are supported by the semi-empirical T96 and TF04 models. Furthermore, the ionospheric SuperDARN convection maps support the satellite observations proposing that the azimuthal component of the magnetospheric flows is enforced by a magnetic field untwisting. In summary,the observations give strong supportive evidence to the tail untwisting hypothesis. However, the T96 ionospheric mapping demonstrates the limitations of the model in mapping from a twisted tail.

  • 38. Roux, A.
    et al.
    Robert, P.
    Le Contel, O.
    Angelopoulos, V.
    Auster, U.
    Bonnell, J.
    Cully, C. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ergun, R. E.
    McFadden, J. P.
    A mechanism for heating electrons in the magnetopause current layer and adjacent regions2011In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 2305-2316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking advantage of the string-of-pearls configuration of the five THEMIS spacecraft during the early phase of their mission, we analyze observations taken simultaneously in the magnetosheath, the magnetopause current layer and the magnetosphere. We find that electron heating coincides with ultra low frequency waves. It seems unlikely that electrons are heated by these waves because the electron thermal velocity is much larger than the Alfven velocity (V-a). In the short transverse scale (k (perpendicular to) rho(i) >> 1) regime, however, short scale Alfven waves (SSAWs) have parallel phase velocities much larger than V-a and are shown to interact, via Landau damping, with electrons thereby heating them. The origin of these waves is also addressed. THEMIS data give evidence for sharp spatial gradients in the magnetopause current layer where the highest amplitude waves have a large component delta B perpendicular to the magnetopause and k azimuthal. We suggest that SSAWs are drift waves generated by temperature gradients in a high beta, large T-i/T-e magnetopause current layer. Therefore these waves are called SSDAWs, where D stands for drift. SSDAWs have large k(perpendicular to) and therefore a large Doppler shift that can exceed their frequencies in the plasma frame. Because they have a small but finite parallel electric field and a magnetic component perpendicular to the magnetopause, they could play a key role at reconnecting magnetic field lines. The growth rate depends strongly on the scale of the gradients; it becomes very large when the scale of the electron temperature gradient gets below 400 km. Therefore SSDAW's are expected to limit the sharpness of the gradients, which might explain why Berchem and Russell (1982) found that the average magnetopause current sheet thickness to be similar to 400-1000 km (similar to 500 km in the near equatorial region).

  • 39.
    Slapak, R.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, H.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Waara, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    André, M.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenberg, G.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Barghouthi, I. A.
    Space Research Lab, Department of Physics, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine.
    O+ heating associated with strong activity in the high altitude cusp and mantle2011In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the Cluster spacecraft to study three events with intense waves and energetic oxygen ions (O+) in the high altitude cusp and mantle. The ion energies considered are of the order 1000 eV and higher, observed above an altitude of 8 earth radii together with high wave power at the O+ gyrofrequency. We show that heating by waves can explain the observed high perpendicular energy of O+ ions, using a simple gyroresonance model and 25–45% of the observed wave spectral density at the gyrofrequency. This is in contrast to a recently published study where the wave intensity was too low to explain the observed high altitude ion energies. Long lasting cases (>10 min) of high perpendicular-to-parallel temperature ratios are sometimes associated with low wave activity, suggesting that high perpendicular-to-parallel temperature ratio is not a good indicator of local heating. Using multiple spacecraft, we show that the regions of enhanced wave activity are at least one order of magnitude larger than the gyroradius of the heated ions.

  • 40. Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Pitkänen, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Nilsson, Hans
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Schillings, Audrey
    Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet2017In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 869-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies strongly suggest that a majority of the observed O+ cusp outflows will eventually escape into the solar wind, rather than be transported to the plasma sheet. Therefore, an investigation of plasma sheet flows will add to these studies and give a more complete picture of magnetospheric ion dynamics. Specifically, it will provide a greater understanding of atmospheric loss. We have used Cluster spacecraft 4 to quantify the H+ and O+ total transports in the near-Earth plasma sheet, using data covering 2001-2005. The results show that both H+ and O+ have earthward net fluxes of the orders of 1026 and 1024 s(-1), respectively. The O+ plasma sheet return flux is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the O+ outflows observed in the cusps, strengthening the view that most ionospheric O+ outflows do escape. The H+ return flux is approximately the same as the ionospheric outflow, suggesting a stable budget of H+ in the magnetosphere. However, low-energy H+, not detectable by the ion spectrometer, is not considered in our study, leaving the complete magnetospheric H+ circulation an open question. Studying tailward flows separately reveals a total tailward O+ flux of about 0 : 5 x w10(25)s(-1), which can be considered as a lower limit of the nightside auroral region O+ outflow. Lower velocity flows (< 100 km s(-1)) contribute most to the total transports, whereas the high-velocity flows contribute very little, suggesting that bursty bulk flows are not dominant in plasma sheet mass transport.

  • 41.
    Stenberg, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Oscarsson, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    André, Mats
    Vaivads, Andris
    Morooka, M
    Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N
    Fazakerley, A
    Lavraud, B
    Décréau, PME
    Electron-scale sheets of whistlers close to the magnetopause2005In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 3715-3725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whistler emissions close to the magnetopause on the magnetospheric side are investigated using the four Cluster spacecraft. The waves are found to be generated in thin (electron-scale) sheets moving with the plasma drift velocity. A feature in the electron data coincides with the waves; hot magnetospheric electrons disappear for a few satellite spins. This produces or enhances a temperature anisotropy, which is found to be responsible for the generation of the whistler mode waves. The high energy electrons are thought to be lost through the magnetopause and we suggest that the field lines, on which the waves are generated, are directly connected to a reconnection diffusion region at the magnetopause.

  • 42.
    Vedin, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Rönnmark, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    A linear auroral current-voltage relation in fluid theory2004In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 1719-1728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progress in our understanding of auroral currents and auroral electron acceleration has for decades been hampered by an apparent incompatibility between kinetic and fluid models of the physics involved. A well established kinetic model predicts that steady upward field-aligned currents should be linearly related to the potential drop along the field line, but collisionless fluid models that reproduce this linear current-voltage relation have not been found. Using temperatures calculated from the kinetic model in the presence of an upward auroral current, we construct here approximants for the parallel and perpendicular temperatures. Although our model is rather simplified, we find that the fluid equations predict a realistic large-scale parallel electric field and a linear current-voltage relation when these approximants are employed as nonlocal equations of state. This suggests that the concepts we introduce can be applied to the development of accurate equations of state for fluid simulations of auroral flux tubes.

  • 43.
    Waara, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nilsson, H.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Stenberg, G.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    André, M.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunell, H.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA.
    Rème, H.
    CESR, Toulouse, France.
    Oxygen ion energization observed at high altitudes2010In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 28, p. 907-916Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Waara, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Slapak, R
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, H
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Stenberg, G
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    André, M
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barghouthi, IA
    Al Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine.
    Statistical evidence for O+ energization and outflow caused by wave-particle interaction in the high altitude cusp and mantle2011In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 29, p. 945-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a statistical study of the low (<1 Hz) frequency electric and magnetic field spectral densities observed by Cluster spacecraft in the high altitude cusp and mantle region. At the O+ gyrofrequency (0.02–0.5 Hz) for this region the electric field spectral density is on average 0.2–2.2 (mV m−1)2 Hz−1, implying that resonant heating at the gyrofrequency can be intense enough to explain the observed O+ energies of 20–1400 eV. The relation between the electric and magnetic field spectral densities results in a large span of phase velocities, from a few hundred km s−1 up to a few thousand km s−1. In spite of the large span of phase velocity, the ratio between the calculated local Alfvén velocity and the estimated phase velocity is close to unity. We provide average values of a coefficient describing diffusion in ion velocity space at different altitudes, which can be used in studies of ion energization and outflow. The observed average waves can explain the average O+ energies measured in the high altitude (8–15 RE) cusp/mantle region of the terrestrial magnetosphere according to our test particle calculations.

  • 45.
    Wannberg, Gudmund
    et al.
    Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Westman, Assar
    EISCAT Scientific Association.
    Kero, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics. Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Szasz, Csilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics. Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics. Institutet för rymdfysik.
    The EISCAT meteor code2008In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 26, p. 2303-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The EISCAT UHF system has the unique capability to determine meteor vector velocities from the head echo Doppler shifts measured at the three sites. Since even meteors spending a very short time in the common volume produce analysable events, the technique lends itself ideally to mapping the orbits of meteors arriving from arbitrary directions over most of the upper hemisphere.

    A radar mode optimised for this application was developed in 2001/2002. A specially selected low-sidelobe 32-bit pseudo-random binary sequence is used to binary phase shift key (BPSK) the transmitted carrier. The baud-length is 2.4μs and the receiver bandwidth is 1.6MHz to accommodate both the resulting modulation bandwidth and the target Doppler shift. Sampling is at 0.6μs, corresponding to 90-m range resolution. Target range and Doppler velocity are extracted from the raw data in a multi-step matched-filter procedure. For strong (SNR>5) events the Doppler velocity standard deviation is 100–150 m/s. The effective range resolution is about 30 m, allowing very accurate time-of-flight velocity estimates. On average, Doppler and time-of-flight (TOF) velocities agree to within about one part in 103. Two or more targets simultaneously present in the beam can be resolved down to a range separation <300m as long as their Doppler shifts differ by more than a few km/s.

  • 46.
    Wannberg, Gudmund
    et al.
    Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Westman, Assar
    EISCAT Scientific Association.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Meteor head echo polarization at 930MHz studied with the EISCATUHF HPLA radar2011In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 29, p. 1197-1208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polarization characteristics of 930-MHz meteor head echoes have been studied for the first time, using data obtained in a series of radar measurements carried out with the tristatic EISCAT UHF high power, large aperture (HPLA) radar system in October 2009. An analysis of 44 tri-static head echo events shows that the polarization of the echo signal recorded by the Kiruna receiver often fluctuates strongly on time scales of tens of microseconds, illustrating that the scattering process is essentially stochastic. On longer timescales (> milliseconds), more than 90% of the recorded events show an average polarization signature that is independentof meteor direction of arrival and echo strength and equal to that of an incoherent-scatter return from underdense plasma filling the tristatic observation volume. This shows that the head echo plasma targets scatter isotropically, which in turn implies that they are much smaller than the 33-cm wavelength and close to spherically symmetric, in very good agreement with results from a previous EISCAT UHF study of the head echo RCS/meteor angle-of-incidence relationship.

    Significant polarization is present in only three events withunique target trajectories. These all show a larger effective target cross section transverse to the trajectory than parallelto it. We propose that the observed polarization may be a signature of a transverse charge separation plasma resonance in the region immediately behind the meteor head, similar to the resonance effects previously discussed in connection with meteor trail echoes by Herlofson, Billam and Browne, Jones and Jones and others.

1 - 46 of 46
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