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  • 1. Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Particulate hydroxy-PAH emissions from a residential wood log stove using different fuels and burning conditions2016Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 140, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but have not been studied as extensively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several studies have however shown that hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have toxic and carcinogenic properties. They have been detected in air samples in semi urban areas and combustion is assumed to be the primary source of those compounds. To better understand the formation and occurrence of particulate hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential wood log stove combustion, 9 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 hydroxy biphenyls were quantified in particles generated from four different types of wood logs (birch, spruce, pine, aspen) and two different combustion conditions (nominal and high burn rate). A previously developed method utilizing liquid chromatography photo ionization tandem mass spectrometry and pressurized liquid extraction was used. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed along with hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions varied significantly across different wood types and burning conditions; the highest emissions for nominal burn rate were from spruce and for high burn rate from pine burning. Emissions from nominal burn rate corresponded on average to 15% of the emissions from high burn rate, with average emissions of 218 mu g/MJ(fuel) and 32.5 mu g/MJ(fuel) for high burn rate and nominal burn rate, respectively. Emissions of the measured hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded on average to 28% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. This study shows that wood combustion is a large emission source of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that not only combustion conditions, but also wood type influences the emissions of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There are few studies that have determined hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from wood combustion, and it is therefore necessary to further investigate the formation, occurrence and distribution of these compounds as they are present in significant amounts in wood smoke particles.

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  • 2. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Hoek, Gerard
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Pedeli, Xanthi
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Künzli, Nino
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Eriksen, Kirsten
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Stephanou, Euripides
    Evridiki, Patelarou
    Lanki, Timo
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Declercq, Christophe
    Falq, Grégoire
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Birk, Matthias
    Cyrys, Josef
    von Klot, Stephanie
    Nádor, Gizella
    Varró, Mihály János
    Dėdelė, Audrius
    Gražulevičienė, Regina
    Mölter, Anna
    Lindley, Sarah
    Madsen, Christian
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Nonnemacher, Michael
    Krämer, Ursula
    Kuhlbusch, Thomas
    Cirach, Marta
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Bellander, Tom
    Korek, Michal
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Dons, Evi
    Jerrett, Michael
    Fischer, Paul
    Brunekreef, Bert
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe: the ESCAPE project2013Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 72, s. 10-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating within-city variability in air pollution concentrations is important. Land use regression (LUR) models are able to explain such small-scale within-city variations. Transparency in LUR model development methods is important to facilitate comparison of methods between different studies. We therefore developed LUR models in a standardized way in 36 study areas in Europe for the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) project.

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured with Ogawa passive samplers at 40 or 80 sites in each of the 36 study areas. The spatial variation in each area was explained by LUR modeling. Centrally and locally available Geographic Information System (GIS) variables were used as potential predictors. A leave-one out cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the model performance.

    There was substantial contrast in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations within the study areas. The model explained variances (R2) of the LUR models ranged from 55% to 92% (median 82%) for NO2 and from 49% to 91% (median 78%) for NOx. For most areas the cross-validation R2 was less than 10% lower than the model R2. Small-scale traffic and population/household density were the most common predictors. The magnitude of the explained variance depended on the contrast in measured concentrations as well as availability of GIS predictors, especially traffic intensity data were important. In an additional evaluation, models in which local traffic intensity was not offered had 10% lower R2 compared to models in the same areas in which these variables were offered.

    Within the ESCAPE project it was possible to develop LUR models that explained a large fraction of the spatial variance in measured annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations. These LUR models are being used to estimate outdoor concentrations at the home addresses of participants in over 30 cohort studies.

  • 3. Cyrys, Josef
    et al.
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Ampe, Christophe
    Armengaud, Alexandre
    Beelen, Rob
    Bellander, Tom
    Beregszaszi, Timea
    Birk, Matthias
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Cirach, Marta
    de Hoogh, Kees
    De Nazelle, Audrey
    de Vocht, Frank
    Declercq, Christophe
    Dėdelė, Audrius
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Eriksen, Kirsten
    Galassi, Claudia
    Gra˛ulevičienėo, Regina
    Grivas, Georgios
    Gruzieva, Olena
    Hagenbjörk Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Iakovides, Minas
    Ineichen, Alex
    Krämer, Ursula
    Lanki, Timo
    Lozano, Patricia
    Madsena, Christian
    Meliefste, Kees
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mölter, Anna
    Mosler, Gioia
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nonnemachera, Michael
    Oldenwening, Marieke
    Peters, Annette
    Ponteta, Sabrina
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Quassa, Ulrich
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Ranzia, Andrea
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Stephanou, Euripides G.
    Taimisto, Pekka
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Vaskövi, Éva
    Villania, Simona
    Wang, Meng
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study2012Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 62, s. 374-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe.

    In all study areas NO2 and NOx were measured using standardized methods between October 2008 and April 2011. On average, 41 sites were selected per study area, including regional and urban background as well as street sites. The measurements were conducted in three different seasons, using Ogawa badges. Average concentrations for each site were calculated after adjustment for temporal variation using data obtained from a routine monitor background site.

    Substantial spatial variability was found in NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within study areas; 40% of the overall NO2 variance was attributable to the variability between study areas and 60% to variability within study areas. The corresponding values for NOx were 30% and 70%. The within-area spatial variability was mostly determined by differences between street and urban background concentrations. The street/urban background concentration ratio for NO2 varied between 1.09 and 3.16 across areas. The highest median concentrations were observed in Southern Europe, the lowest in Northern Europe.

    In conclusion, we found significant contrasts in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations between and especially within 36 study areas across Europe. Epidemiological long-term studies should therefore consider different approaches for better characterization of the intra-urban contrasts, either by increasing of the number of monitors or by modelling.

  • 4.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    A study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes: the impact of radicals formed during the reaction2002Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, nr 20, s. 3299-3308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene, Δ3-carene and limonene was investigated at ppb levels and the impact of the ozone, relative air humidity (RH), and time was studied using experimental design. The amounts of terpene reacted varied in the different settings and were as high as 8.1% for α-pinene, 10.9% forΔ3-carene and 23.4% for limonene. The designs were able to describe almost all the variation in the experimental data and were also successful in predicting omitted values. The results described the effects of time and ozone and also showed that RH did not have a statistically significant effect on the ozonolysis. The results also showed that all three terpenes were affected by an additional oxidation of OH radicals and/or other reactive species. The results from the designs states that this additional oxidation was responsible for 40% of the total amount of α-pinene reacted, 33% of the total amount of Δ3-carene reacted and 41% of the total amount of limonene reacted at the settings 20 ppb terpene, 75 ppb ozone, 20% RH and a reaction time of 213 s. Additional experiments with 2-butanol as OH radical scavenger showed that the reaction with OH radicals was responsible for 37% of the total α-pinene reacted and 39% of the total Δ3-carene reacted at the same settings. The scavenger experiments also showed that there were no significant amounts of OH radicals formed during the ozonolysis of limonene. The results from the designs were also compared to a mathematical model in order to evaluate further the data.

  • 5. Fridell, Erik
    et al.
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    Moldanova, Jana
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    A modelling study of the impact on air quality and health due to theemissions from E85 and petrol fuelled cars in Sweden2014Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 82, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative fuels are becoming more and more important for road traffic and one fuel that has been usedfor several years is ethanol (E85). The main discussion points regarding the environmental performancefor ethanol as a fuel are related to the production. However, there are also some notable differences inthe emissions between E85 and petrol fuelled vehicles. This relates to some extent to the emissions ofnitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) but mainly to the composition of the emitted organiccompounds. In the present study two fuel scenarios for passenger cars are investigated for the VästraGötaland Region in Sweden; one where the cars with Otto engines run on petrol and one where they runon E85. Two emission scenarios for 2020 are constructed for the whole Europe and coupled dispersionchemistrymodelling is applied to obtain the population exposure to key pollutants. The differencesobtained from the modelling show decreased levels of NOx, ozone and benzene with E85 and increasedlevels of acetaldehyde in the Västra Götaland Region. For the latter the increase may be up to 80%, whileNOx and ozone show decreases of up to a few per cent and a few tenths of per cent, respectively.Exposure to the different air pollutants is calculated as population-weighted concentrations. The healthrisk assessment, using the calculated exposure and published exposureeresponse functions for therelevant pollutants, shows decreased health risks in the E85 scenario relative the all-petrol scenario, dueto the decreased NOx exposure, correlated with both preterm deaths and asthma. However, NOx (andNO2) may partly be indicators of unmeasured causal exhaust components in the epidemiological studiesand thus the exposureeresponse functions for these may not be applicable in the present case wherethere is a difference in NOx exposure but not a proportional difference in exposure to other exhaustcomponents normally associated with NOx. Smaller effects are expected from the changes in ozone,acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and benzene exposure. The overall difference is about 1.6 preterm deaths per yearfor the Västra Götaland Region, with lower values for the E85 scenario, when the uncertain differencesdue to the differences in NOx exposure are not considered.

  • 6. Götschi, Thomas
    et al.
    Hazenkamp-Von Arxb, Marianne E
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Bono, Roberto
    Burney, Peter
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Maldonado, Jose
    Norbäck, Dan
    Stern, Willem B
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Torén, Kjell
    Verlato, Giuseppe
    Villani, Simona
    Künzli, Nino
    Elemental composition and reflectance of ambient fine particles at 21 European locations2005Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 32, s. 5947-5958Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We sampled fine particles (PM2.5) over a 1-year period at 21 central urban monitoring sites in 20 cities of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Particle filters were then analysed for elemental composition using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and reflectance (light absorption). Elemental analyses yielded valid results for 15 elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, Zn). Annual and seasonal means Of PM2.5, reflectance, and elements show a wide range across Europe with the lowest levels found in Iceland and up to 80 times higher concentrations in Northern Italy. This pattern holds for most of the air pollution indicators. The mass concentration of S did constitute the largest fraction of the analysed elements Of PM2.5 in all locations. The crustal component varies from less than 10% up to 25% across these cities. Temporal correlations of daily values vary considerably from city to city, depending on the indicators compared. Nevertheless, correlations between estimates of long-term exposure, such as annual means, are generally high among indicators Of PM2.5 from anthropogenic sources, such as S, metals, and reflectance. This highlights the difficulty to disentangle effects of specific sources or PM constituents in future health effect analyses using annual averages.

  • 7. Hazenkamp-Von Arx, M.E.
    et al.
    Gotschi, T.
    Ackermann-Liebrich, U.
    Bono, R.
    Burney, P.
    Cyrys, J.
    Jarvis, D.
    Lillienberg, L.
    Luczynska, C.
    Maldonado, J.A.
    Jaen, A.
    De Marco, R.
    Mi, Y.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bayer-Oglesby, L.
    Payo, F
    Soon, A.
    Sunyer, J.
    Villani, S.
    Weyler, J.
    Kunzli, N.
    PM2.5 and NO2 assessment in 21 European study centres of ECRHS II: annual means and seasonal differences2004Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, nr 13, s. 1943-1953Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The follow-up of cohorts of adults from more than 20 European centres of the former ECRHS I (1989-1992) investigates long-term effects of exposure to ambient air pollution on respiratory health, in particular asthma and change of pulmonary function. Since PM2.5 is not routinely monitored in Europe, we measured PM2.5 concentrations in 21 participating centres to estimate 'background' exposure in these cities. Winter (November-February), summer (May-August) and annual mean (all months) values of PM2.5 were determined from measuring periods between June 2000 and November 2001. Sampling was conducted for 7 days per month for a year. Annual and winter mean concentrations of PM2.5 vary substantially being lowest in Iceland and highest in centres in Northern Italy. Annual mean concentrations ranged from 3.7 to 44.9 mug m(-3), winter mean concentrations from 4.8 to 69.2 mug m(-3), and summer mean concentrations from 3.3 to 23.1 mugm(-3). Seasonal variability occurred but did not follow the same pattern across all centres. Therefore, ranking of centres varied from summer to winter. Simultaneously, NO2 concentrations were measured using passive sampling tubes. Annual mean NO2 concentrations range from 4.9 to 72.1 mug m(-3) with similar seasonal variations across centres and constant ranking of centres between seasons. The correlation between annual NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations is fair (Spearman correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.75), but when considered as monthly means the correlation is far less consistent and varies substantially between centres. The range of PM2.5 mass concentrations obtained in ECRHS II is larger than in other current cohort studies on long-term effects of air pollution. This substantial variation in PM2.5 exposure will improve statistical power in future multilevel health analyses and to some degree may compensate for the lack of information on within-city variability. Seasonal means may be used to indicate potential differences in the toxicity across the year. Across ECRHS cities annual NO2 might serve as a surrogate for PM2.5, especially for past exposure assessment, when PM2.5 is not available.

  • 8. Janssen, Nicole
    et al.
    Meliefste, Kees
    Fuchs, Oliver
    Weiland, Stephan K
    Cassee, Flemming
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    High and low volume sampling of paticulate matter at sites with different traffic profiles in the Netherlands and Germany: Results from the HEPMEAP study2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 1110-1120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9. Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Burman, Lars
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health2009Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 31, s. 4843-4854Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The “Stockholm Trial” involved a road pricing system to improve the air quality and reduce traffic congestion. The test period of the trial was January 3–July 31, 2006. Vehicles travelling into and out of the charge cordon were charged for every passage during weekdays. The amount due varied during the day and was highest during rush hours (20 SEK = 2.2 EUR, maximum 60 SEK per day). Based on measured and modelled changes in road traffic it was estimated that this system resulted in a 15% reduction in total road use within the charged cordon. Total traffic emissions in this area of NOx and PM10 fell by 8.5% and 13%, respectively. Air quality dispersion modelling was applied to assess the effect of the emission reductions on ambient concentrations and population exposure. For the situations with and without the trial, meteorological conditions and other emissions than from road traffic were kept the same. The calculations show that, with a permanent congestion tax system like the Stockholm Trial, the annual average NOx concentrations would be lower by up to 12% along the most densely trafficked streets. PM10 concentrations would be up to 7% lower. The limit values for both PM10 and NO2 would still be exceeded along the most densely trafficked streets. The total population exposure of NOx in Greater Stockholm (35 × 35 km with 1.44 million people) is estimated to decrease with a rather modest 0.23 μg m−3. However, based on a long-term epidemiological study, that found an increased mortality risk of 8% per 10 μg m−3 NOx, it is estimated that 27 premature deaths would be avoided every year. According to life-table analysis this would correspond to 206 years of life gained over 10 years per 100 000 people following the trial if the effects on exposures would persist. The effect on mortality is attributed to road traffic emissions (likely vehicle exhaust particles); NOx is merely regarded as an indicator of traffic exposure. This is only the tip of the ice-berg since reductions are expected in both respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity. This study demonstrates the importance of not only assessing the effects on air quality limit values, but also to make quantitative estimates of health impacts, in order to justify actions to reduce air pollution.

  • 10.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gullett, Brian
    Carroll, William F., Jr.
    Touati, Abderrahmane
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    The effect of developing nations' municipal waste composition on PCDD/PCDF emissions from open burning2013Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 79, s. 433-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open burning tests of municipal waste from two countries, Mexico and China, showed composition-related differences in emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Twenty-six burn tests were conducted, comparing results from two laboratory combustion facilities. Waste was shredded to isolate composition-specific effects from those due to random waste orientation. Emissions ranged from 5 to 780 ng toxic equivalent/kg carbon burned (ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1)) with an average of 140 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1) (stdev = 170). The waste from Mexico (17 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1)) had a statistically lower average emission factor than waste from China (240 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1). This difference was attributed primarily to waste composition differences, although one time-integrated combustion quality measure, Delta CO/Delta CO2, showed statistical significance between laboratories. However, waste composition differences were far more determinant than which laboratory conducted the tests, illustrated using both statistical techniques and comparison of cross-over samples (wastes tested at both facilities). Comparison of emissions from previous waste combustion tests in Sweden and the U.S.A, showed emission factors within the range of those determined for Mexico and China waste. For laboratory-scale combustion, existing emission factors and test methodologies are generally applicable to both developed and developing countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 11.
    Malmqvist, E.
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mattisson, K.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Stroh, E.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Rylander, L.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hoek, G.
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Tinnerberg, H.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Assessing ozone exposure for epidemiological studies in Malmö and Umeå, Sweden2014Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 94, s. 241-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground level ozone [ozone] is considered a harmful air pollutant but there is a knowledge gap regarding its long term health effects. The main aim of this study is to develop local Land Use Regression [LUR] models that can be used to study long term health effects of ozone. The specific aim is to develop spatial LUR models for two Swedish cities, Umea and Malmo, as well as a temporal model for Malmo in order to assess ozone exposure for long term epidemiological studies. For the spatial model we measured ozone, using Ogawa passive samplers, as weekly averages at 40 sites in each study area, during three seasons. This data was then inserted in the LUR-model with data on traffic, land use, population density and altitude to develop explanatory models of ozone variation. To develop the temporal model for Malmo, hourly ozone data was aggregated into daily means for two measurement stations in Malmo and one in a rural area outside Malmo. Using regression analyses we inserted meteorological variables into different temporal models and the one that performed best for all three stations was chosen. For Malmo the LUR-model had an adjusted model R-2 of 0.40 and cross validation R-2 of 0.17. For Umea the model had an adjusted model R-2 of 0.67 and cross validation adjusted R-2 of 0.48. When restricting the model to only including measuring sites from urban areas, the Malmo model had adjusted model R-2 of 0.51 (cross validation adjusted R-2 0.33) and the Umea model had adjusted model R-2 of 0.81 (validation adjusted R-2 of 0.73). The temporal model had adjusted model R-2 0.54 and 0.61 for the two Malmo sites, the cross validation adjusted R-2 was 0.42. In conclusion, we can with moderate accuracy, at least for Umea, predict the spatial variability, and in Malmo the temporal variability in ozone variation. 

  • 12. Nawrot, Tim S
    et al.
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Shi, Tingming
    Moreno, Teresa
    Viana, Mar
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kelly, Frank J
    Sughis, Muhammad
    Nemery, Benoit
    Borm, Paul
    Oxidative properties of ambient PM2.5 and elemental composition: heterogeneous associations in 19 European cities2009Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 30, s. 4595-4602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the extent to which constituents of PM2.5 (transition metals, sodium, chloride) contribute to the ability to generate hydroxyl radicals (OH) in vitro in PM2.5 sampled at 20 locations in 19 European centres participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. PM2.5 samples (n = 716) were collected on filters over one year and the oxidative activity of particle suspensions obtained from these filters was then assessed by measuring their ability to generate OH in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Associations between OH formation and the studied PM constituents were heterogeneous. The total explained variance ranged from 85% in Norwich to only 6% in Albacete. Among the 20 centres, 15 showed positive correlations between one or more of the measured transition metals (copper, iron, manganese, lead, vanadium and titanium) and OH formation. In 9 of 20 centres OH formation was negatively associated with chloride, and in 3 centres with sodium. Across 19 European cities, elements which explained the largest variations in OH formation were chloride, iron and sodium.

  • 13. Nielsen, Ingeborg E.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Axel C.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Nordin, Erik Z.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Nojgaard, Jacob K.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion: Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers2017Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 165, s. 179-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of refractory black carbon, such as absorption enhancement by lensing. 

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  • 14. Nordin, Erik Z.
    et al.
    Uski, Oskari
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Jalava, Pasi
    Eriksson, Axel C.
    Genberg, Johan
    Roldin, Pontus
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Westerholm, Roger
    Jokiniemi, Jorma
    Pagels, Joakim H.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta
    Influence of ozone initiated processing on the toxicity of aerosol particles from small scale wood combustion2015Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 102, s. 282-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Black carbon containing emissions from biomass combustion are being transformed in the atmosphere upon processing induced by tropospheric ozone and UV. The knowledge today is very limited on how atmospheric processing affects the toxicological properties of the emissions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ozone initiated (dark) atmospheric processing on the physicochemical and toxicological properties of particulate emissions from wood combustion. Emissions from a conventional wood stove operated at two combustion conditions (nominal and hot air starved) were diluted and transferred to a chamber. Particulate matter (PM) was collected before and after ozone addition to the chamber using an impactor. Detailed chemical and physical characterization was performed on chamber air and collected PM. The collected PM was investigated toxicologically in vitro with a mouse macrophage model, endpoints included: cell cycle analysis, viability, inflammation and genotoxicity. The results suggest that changes in the organic fraction, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main driver for differences in obtained toxicological effects. Fresh hot air starved emissions containing a higher organic and PAH mass-fraction affected cell viability stronger than fresh emissions from nominal combustion. The PAH mass fractions decreased upon aging due to chemical degradation. Dark aging increased genotoxicity, reduced viability and reduced release of inflammatory markers. These differences were statistically significant for single doses and typically less pronounced. We hypothesize that the alterations in toxicity upon simulated dark aging in the atmosphere may be caused by reaction products that form when PAHs and other organic compounds react with ozone and nitrate radicals.

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  • 15.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Development of a NO2 scrubber for accurate sampling of ambient levels of terpenes2002Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, nr 9, s. 1443-1452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The result of pumping air containing 56 ppb NO2 through a terpene-spiked adsorbent (90–130 ng, 90–100 ml min−1), Tenax TA, for 20 min (1.8–2.0 l) was that 8% of α-pinene, 7% of β-pinene, 21% of Δ3-carene and 5% of limonene were oxidised. In similar experiments with air containing 56 ppb O3, 3% of α-pinene, 4% of β-pinene, 10% of Δ3-carene and 38% of limonene were oxidised. Sampling a mixture of a terpene and NO2 using Tenax TA can give unwanted overestimation of the amount of reaction products from the terpene–NO2 reaction or underestimation of the original terpene levels. A scrubber was needed to reduce the problems caused by interfering reactions on the adsorbent of NO2 and to reduce discrimination of reactive compounds due to their relatively fast decay on the adsorbent. Several chemicals have been tested for their ability of removing NO2 and our objective was to develop a well functioning, reusable, easy to handle, easy manufactured NO2 scrubber. The result of the experiments was a scrubber consisting of two glass fibre filters coated with Na2SO3 assembled in a dust collector. The recovery of the terpenes through the scrubber varied between 75% and 97% at 15–75% relative humidity, and the scrubber is a one-use scrubber due to memory effects. The Na2SO3 scrubber could be stored in room air for at least one month without loosing the capacity of removing NO2.

  • 16. Salam, Abdus
    et al.
    Al Mamoon, Hassan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ullah, Md Basir
    Ullah, Shah M.
    Measurement of the atmospheric aerosol particle size distribution in a highly polluted mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)2012Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 59, s. 338-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol particle size distribution was measured with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer continuously from January 21 to April 24, 2006 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Particles number, surface and mass distributions data were stored automatically with Aerosol Instrument Manager (AIM) software on average every half an hour in a computer attached to the APS. The grand total average of number, surface and mass concentrations were 8.2 x 10(3) +/- 7.8 x 10(3) particles cm(-3), 13.3 x 10(3) +/- 11.8 x 10(3) mu m(2) cm(-3) and 3.04 +/- 2.10 mg m(-3), respectively. Fine particles with diameter smaller than 1.0 mu m aerodynamic diameter (AD) dominated the number concentration, accounted for 91.7% of the total particles indicating vehicular emissions were dominating in Dhaka air either from fossil fuel burning or compressed natural gas (CNGs). The surface and mass concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 mu m AD were about 56.0% and 26.4% of the total particles, respectively. Remarkable seasonal differences were observed between winter and pre-monsoon seasons with the highest monthly average in January and the lowest in April. Aerosol particles in winter were 3.79 times higher for number, 3.15 times for surface and 2.18 times for mass distributions than during the pre-monsoon season. Weekends had lower concentrations than weekdays due to less vehicular traffic in the streets. Aerosol particles concentrations were about 15.0% (ranging from 9.4% to 17.3%) higher during traffic peak hours (6:00am-8:00pm) than off hours (8:00pm-6:00am). These are the first aerosol size distribution measurements with respect to number, surface and mass concentrations in real time at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  • 17.
    Strandberg, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Sundgren, Margit
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Sällsten, Gerd
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Barregard, Lars
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Field evaluation of two diffusive samplers and two adsorbent media to determine 1,3-butadiene and benzene levels in air2006Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 40, nr 40, s. 7686-7695Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of diffusive samplers, both of which are compatible with thermal desorption, but differ in their geometry-SKC-Ultra (badge-type) and Radiello (radial symmetry-type)-were evaluated indoors and outdoors under varying temperature, humidity and wind speed conditions, using the graphitized adsorbents Carbopack X or Carbograph 5 to measure 1,3-butadiene and benzene in ambient air. The results obtained by diffusive sampling were compared with results obtained using a conventional active sampling method over both long (1 week) and shorter periods (6-24 h). Analysis and detection were performed using an automatic thermal desorber (ATD) connected to a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Results from each sampler and adsorbent combination were examined using ordinary or multiple linear regression analysis. The overall uncertainty (OU) was also determined. In general, the results obtained with both samplers showed good agreement with those obtained by active sampling. Carbopack X appeared to be a more efficient adsorbent than Carbograph 5 for 1,3-butadiene, but the two adsorbents were equivalent for benzene. No effects of either humidity or air velocity were observed. Minor temperature effects were observed for both samplers for 1,3-butadiene. In summary, the results confirmed the accuracy of sampling rates previously determined for the two samplers and adsorbents. We consider the two samplers to be suitable for stationary and personal monitoring for the general population of 1,3-butadiene and benzene in various environments, indoors and outdoors. They are almost independent of meteorological conditions and may be suitable for monitoring industrial atmospheres.

  • 18.
    Söderström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hajslova, J
    Siegmund, B
    Kocan, A
    Obiedzinski, M W
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    PAHs and nitrated PAHs in air of five European countries determined using SPMDs as passive samplers2005Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 9, s. 1627-1640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in the atmosphere of five European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden) were measured simultaneously during two 21-day passive sampling campaigns using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). SPMD samplers, consisting of a pair of SPMDs covered by a metal umbrella, were deployed at 40 locations ranging from remote and rural to urban and industrial, at a similar time during each of the two sampling campaigns (autumn 1999, except in Poland, winter 1999, and summer 2000). The total amounts of PAHs and nitro-PAHs found in the SPMDs ranged between 5.0–1.2×103 and 1.1×10−3–4.0 ng SPMD−1 day−1, respectively. The measured environmental sampling conditions were similar between sites and, thus, the variations in the SPMD data reflected the spatial differences in gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs within and between countries. The gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs found in East Europe (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland 1999) were 10 times higher than those measured in Sweden, Austria and Poland in 2000. In each country, the levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs differed by one–three orders of magnitudes amongst sampling sites. The highest within-country spatial differences were found in Poland where levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs were about one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively, higher in winter 1999 than in summer 2000, probably due to increasing emissions of coal combustion for residential heating. Differences in PAH-patterns between sites were visualized by the multivariate projection method, principal component analysis (PCA). However, no specific source patterns were found, probably since imissions rather than emissions were measured, so the PAHs detected at many sites originated from multiple sources.

  • 19. Viana, M
    et al.
    Querol, X
    Götschi, T
    Alastuey, A
    Sunyer, J
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Heinrich, J
    Norbäck, D
    Payo, F
    Maldonado, JA
    Künzli, N
    Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 at five Spanish centres of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II)2007Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 1395-1406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was sampled at 5 Spanish locations during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II). In an attempt to identify and quantify PM2.5 sources, source contribution analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on five datasets containing elemental composition of PM2.5 analysed by ED-XRF. A total of 4-5 factors were identified at each site, three of them being common to all sites (interpreted as traffic. mineral and secondary aerosols) whereas industrial sources were site-specific. Sea-salt was identified as independent source at all coastal locations except for Barcelona (where it was clustered with secondary aerosols). Despite their typically dominant coarse grain-size distribution, mineral and marine aerosols were clearly observed in PM2.5. Multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to the data, showing that traffic was the main source of PM2.5 at the five sites (39-53% of PM2.5, 5.1-12.0 mu g m(-3)), while regional-scale secondary aerosols accounted for 14-34% of PM2.5 (2.6-4.5 mu g m(-3)), mineral matter for 13-31% (2.4-4.6 mu g m(-3)) and sea-salt made up 3-7% of the PM2.5 mass (0.4-1.3 mu g m(-3)). Consequently, despite regional and climatic variability throughout Spain, the same four main PM2.5 emission sources were identified at all the study sites and the differences between the relative contributions of each of these sources varied at most 20%. This would corroborate PM2.5 as a useful parameter for health studies and environmental policy-making, owing to the fact that it is not as subject to the influence of micro-sitting as other parameters such as PM10. African dust inputs were observed in the mineral source, adding on average 4-11 mu g m(-3) to the PM2.5 daily mean during dust outbreaks. On average, levels of Al, Si, Ti and Fe during African episodes were higher by a factor of 2-8 with respect to non-African days, whereas levels of local pollutants (absorption coefficient, S, Pb, Cl) showed smaller variations (factor of 0.5-2).

  • 20.
    Wingfors, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Sjödin, Åke
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Characterisation and determination of profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden2001Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 35, nr 36, s. 6361-6369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hydrocarbons (HCs), particulate matter (PM 1, 2.5 and 10 μm) and total suspended particles (TSPs) were measured in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden. Emission factors (EFs) were also calculated. These variables are assumed to provide good estimates of average vehicle emissions, since all types of vehicle, using all types of fuel, pass through this tunnel. It was shown that the majority of particle-associated PAHs were found on particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <1 μm. The concentrations of PAHs were one order higher in magnitude in air samples from the tunnel than in air samples at two urban locations. However, the PAH profiles of air samples from the tunnel and the urban sites were similar. This was demonstrated using principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, and notably, there was no significant change in the total emissions when the proportion of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) increased from 8% to 24%. Previously, diesel vehicles had been found to release larger quantities of PAHs and related substances. Advances in fuel quality, and HDV motor and exhaust system design during the last decade may have contributed to this promising result. However, it was shown, using partial least squares regression to latent structures (PLS), that some of the parameters measured displayed correlations with the proportions of HDVs and light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Concentrations of total HCs, TSPs, dibenzothiopene, phenantrene, anthracene and monomethyl-derivatives of phenantrene and anthracene were all correlated to the proportion of HDVs. The concentrations of naphthalene, some mono- and dimethylnaphthalenes and most large PAHs (with 5–7 fused rings) were correlated to the proportion of LDVs.

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