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  • 1. Burte, Emilie
    et al.
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    De Hoogh, Kees
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gormand, Frédéric
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Just, Jocelyne
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Künzli, Nino
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Villani, Simona
    Siroux, Valérie
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Nadif, Rachel
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Association between air pollution and rhinitis incidence in two European cohorts2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 115, s. 257-266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between air pollution and rhinitis is not well established.

    Aim: The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to study the association between modeled air pollution at the subjects' home addresses and self-reported incidence of rhinitis.

    Methods: We used data from 1533 adults from two multicentre cohorts' studies (EGEA and ECRHS). Rhinitis incidence was defined as reporting rhinitis at the second follow-up (2011 to 2013) but not at the first follow-up (2000 to 2007). Annual exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 at the participants' home addresses was estimated using land-use regression models developed by the ESCAPE project for the 2009-2010 period. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression. Pooled analysis, analyses by city and meta-regression testing for heterogeneity were carried out.

    Results: No association between long-term air pollution exposure and incidence of rhinitis was found (adjusted IRR (aIRR) for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.00 [0.91-1.09], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.88 [0.73-1.04]). Similar results were found in the two-pollutant model (aIRR for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.01 [0.87-1.17], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.87 [0.68-1.08]). Results differed depending on the city, but no regional pattern emerged for any of the pollutants.

    Conclusions: This study did not find any consistent evidence of an association between long-term air pollution and incident rhinitis.

  • 2. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Künzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixidó, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 382-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods.

    OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.

    METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area.

    RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5.

    CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 3. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Koponen, Jani
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Associations between repeated measure of plasma perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic risk factors2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 124, s. 58-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.

    Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.

    Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

    Results: Six PFAS exceeded the limit of quantitation. Repeated measures of PFAS in plasma, cardiometabolic risk factors and confounders, showed an average decrease of triglycerides from −0.16 mmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, 0.02 for PFOA) to −0.26 mmol/l (95% CI: −0.50, −0.08 for PFOS), when comparing the highest tertile of PFAS plasma levels with the lowest. Associations based on average PFAS measurements and follow-up triglycerides revealed similar inverse associations, although attenuated. The estimates for cholesterol and hypertension were inconsistent and with few exception non-significant.

    Conclusions: This study found inverse associations between PFAS and triglycerides, but did not support any clear link with either cholesterol or hypertension.

  • 4. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Koponen, Jani
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Akesson, Agneta
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type II diabetes: A prospective nested case-control study2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 123, s. 390-398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have drawn much attention due to bioaccumulation potential and their current omnipresence in human blood. We assessed whether plasma PFAS, suspected to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, were prospectively associated with clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.

    Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Several PFAS were measured in plasma from a subset of 124 case-control pairs at baseline (during 1990–2003) and at 10-year follow-up. T2D cases were matched (1:1) according to gender, age and sample date with participants without T2D (controls).

    Conditional logistic regressions were used to prospectively assess risk of T2D by baseline PFAS plasma concentrations. Associations between long-term PFAS plasma levels (mean of baseline and follow-up) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B%) at follow-up were prospectively explored among 178 and 181 controls, respectively, by multivariable linear regressions.

    Results: After adjusting for gender, age, sample year, diet and body mass index, the odds ratio of T2D for the sum of PFAS (Σ z-score PFAS) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.20, 1.36), comparing third with first tertile; and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.00) per one standard deviation increment of sum of log-transformed PFAS. Among the controls, the adjusted β of HOMA2-IR and HOMA-B% for the sum of PFAS were −0.26 (95% CI: −0.52, −0.01) and −9.61 (95% CI: −22.60, 3.39) respectively comparing third with first tertile.

    Conclusions: This prospective nested case-control study yielded overall inverse associations between individual PFAS and risk of T2D, although mostly non-significant. Among participants without T2D, long-term PFAS exposure was prospectively associated with lower insulin resistance.

  • 5. Fuertes, Elaine
    et al.
    Markevych, Iana
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Vienneau, Danielle
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Antó, Josep Maria
    Bowatte, Gayan
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo G
    Emtner, Margareta
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Gullón, José Antonio
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Henderson, John
    Holm, Mathias
    Johannessen, Ane
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Marchetti, Pierpaolo
    Moratalla, Jesús Martínez
    Pascual, Silvia
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Siroux, Valerie
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Weyler, Joost
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, s. 364-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).

    RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.

  • 6. Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Gavriil, Marios
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Ladoukakis, Efthymios
    Botsivali, Maria
    Kelly, Rachel S
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Vermeulen, Roel C H
    Späth, Florentin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Hebbels, Dennie G A J
    Kleinjans, Jos C S
    de Kok, Theo M C M
    Palli, Domenico
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A
    DNA methylation profiling implicates exposure to PCBs in the pathogenesis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 126, s. 24-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of PCB exposure on DNA methylation in peripheral blood leucocytes and to evaluate the corresponding changes in relation to possible health effects, with a focus on B-cell lymphoma.

    METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 611 adults free of diagnosed disease, living in Italy and Sweden, in whom we also measured plasma concentrations of 6 PCB congeners, DDE and hexachlorobenzene.

    RESULTS: We identified 650 CpG sites whose methylation correlates strongly (FDR < 0.01) with plasma concentrations of at least one PCB congener. Stronger effects were observed in males and in Sweden. This epigenetic exposure profile shows extensive and highly statistically significant overlaps with published profiles associated with the risk of future B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as well as with clinical CLL (38 and 28 CpG sites, respectively). For all these sites, the methylation changes were in the same direction for increasing exposure and for higher disease risk or clinical disease status, suggesting an etiological link between exposure and CLL. Mediation analysis reinforced the suggestion of a causal link between exposure, changes in DNA methylation and disease. Disease connectivity analysis identified multiple additional diseases associated with differentially methylated genes, including melanoma for which an etiological link with PCB exposure is established, as well as developmental and neurological diseases for which there is corresponding epidemiological evidence. Differentially methylated genes include many homeobox genes, suggesting that PCBs target stem cells. Furthermore, numerous polycomb protein target genes were hypermethylated with increasing exposure, an effect known to constitute an early marker of carcinogenesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides mechanistic evidence in support of a link between exposure to PCBs and the etiology of CLL and underlines the utility of omic profiling in the evaluation of the potential toxicity of environmental chemicals.

  • 7. Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Aune, Marie
    Halldin Ankarberg, Emma
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Barregård, Lars
    Bensryd, Inger
    Regional differences in levels of chlorinated and brominated pollutants in mother's milk from primiparous women in Sweden2011Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 71-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Early life exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the DDT metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may affect human health. We determined if there are regional differences in mother's milk levels of these compounds in Sweden. In year 2000-2004, milk was sampled from 204 randomly recruited primiparas from four regions of Sweden. Levels of the compounds were measured by gas chromatography with dual electron-capture detectors. Women were recruited at delivery in three hospitals located in urban areas in southern and central Sweden (Lund, Gothenburg and Uppsala), and in one hospital located in a more rural area in northern Sweden (Lycksele). Information about dietary habits and medical/life-style factors were collected by questionnaires. Among PCB congeners, CB 153, CB 138 and CB 180 showed the highest median concentrations (18-48 ng/g mother's milk lipid), whereas more than 50% of the women had CB 52, CB 101, CB 114, and CB 157 levels below the LOQ (0.3-1.5 ng/g lipid). Median p,p'-DDE levels were in the range of 46-78 ng/g lipid. BDE 47 showed the highest median concentrations (1-2 ng/g lipid) among the brominated compounds, whereas more than 50% of the women had levels of BDE 28, BDE 66, BDE 138, BDE 154, and HBCD below the LOQ (0.05-0.10 ng/g lipid). Regional differences in median organohalogen compound concentrations were small, less than 2-fold. Lycksele women generally had the lowest levels of Σmono-and Σdi-ortho PCBs, mainly due to a lower average age. In contrast, these women had higher tetra- to penta-brominated PBDE levels, but no diet or life-style factor could explain this finding. Wide ranges of PBDEs and HBCD levels (up to 200-fold) were found, especially in the Lycksele area. The highest levels of PBDE were in the range of average levels found in mother's milk from North America, suggesting that food may not be the only source of exposure to PBDEs among some individuals.

  • 8. Hruba, Frantiska
    et al.
    Stromberg, Ulf
    Cerna, Milena
    Chen, Chunying
    Harari, Florencia
    Harari, Raul
    Horvat, Milena
    Koppova, Kvetoslava
    Kos, Andreja
    Krskova, Andrea
    Krsnik, Mladen
    Laamech, Jawhar
    Li, Yu-Feng
    Lofmark, Lina
    Lundh, Thomas
    Lundström, Nils-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lyoussi, Badiaa
    Mazej, Darja
    Osredkar, Josko
    Pawlas, Krystyna
    Pawlas, Natalia
    Prokopowicz, Adam
    Rentschler, Gerda
    Spevackova, Vera
    Spiric, Zdravko
    Tratnik, Janja
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco2012Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 41, s. 29-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Kraupner, Nadine
    et al.
    Ebmeyer, Stefan
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Selective concentration for ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli grown in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 116, s. 255-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that antibiotics in the environment can select for and enrich bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, thus increasing the potential of those genes to emerge in a clinical context. A critical question for understanding and managing such risks is what levels of antibiotics are needed to select for resistance in complex bacterial communities. Here, we address this question by examining the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of aquatic communities exposed to ciprofloxacin, also evaluating the within-species selection of resistant E. coli in complex communities. The taxonomic composition was significantly altered at ciprofloxacin exposure concentrations down to 1 mu g/L. Shotgun metagenomic analysis indicated that mobile quinolone resistance determinants (qnrD, qnrS and qnrB) were enriched as a direct consequence of ciprofloxacin exposure from 1 mu g/L or higher. Only at 5-10 mu g/L resistant E. coli increased relative to their sensitive counterparts. These resistant E. coli predominantly harbored non-transferrable, chromosomal triple mutations (gyrA S83 L, D87N and parC S80I), which confer high-level resistance. In a controlled experimental setup such as this, we interpret effects on taxonomic composition and enrichment of mobile quinolone resistance genes as relevant indicators of risk. Hence, the lowest observed effect concentration for resistance selection in complex communities by ciprofloxacin was 1 mu g/L and the corresponding no observed effect concentration 0.1 mu g/L. These findings can be used to define and implement discharge or surface water limits to reduce risks for selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  • 10. Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    et al.
    Andremont, Antoine
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Brandt, Kristian Koefoed
    Husman, Ana Maria de Roda
    Fagerstedt, Patriq
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Gaze, William H.
    Kuroda, Makoto
    Kvint, Kristian
    Laxminarayan, Ramanan
    Manaia, Celia M.
    Nielsen, Kaare Magne
    Plant, Laura
    Ploy, Marie-Cécile
    Segovia, Carlos
    Simonet, Pascal
    Smalla, Kornelia
    Snape, Jason
    Topp, Edward
    van Hengel, Arjon J.
    Verner-Jeffreys, David W.
    Virta, Marko P. J.
    Wellington, Elizabeth M.
    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie
    Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 117, s. 132-138Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljung Björklund, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Brita
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bo A G
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children2014Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 323-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5 μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8 μg/L; MBzP 19.9 μg/L; MnBP 76.9 μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4 μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8 μg/L; MBzP 12.8 μg/L; MnBP 63.0 μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 μg/L; ProP 13.9 μg/L) and MEP (43.4 μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 μg/L; ProP 2.1 μg/L) and MEP (28.8 μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products.

  • 12. Lee, Jae Young
    et al.
    Kim, Ho
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Armstrong, Ben
    Bell, Michelle L
    Sera, Francesco
    Lavigne, Eric
    Abrutzky, Rosana
    Tong, Shilu
    Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    Correa, Patricia Matus
    Ortega, Nicolas Valdes
    Kan, Haidong
    Garcia, Samuel Osorio
    Kyselý, Jan
    Urban, Aleš
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Indermitte, Ene
    Jaakkola, Jouni J K
    Ryti, Niilo R I
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Goodman, Patrick G
    Zeka, Ariana
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Honda, Yasushi
    Hurtado, Magali
    Cruz, Julio
    Seposo, Xerxes
    Nunes, Baltazar
    Teixeira, João Paulo
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria
    Ragettli, Martina S
    Guo, Yue-Liang Leon
    Chen, Bing-Yu
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Schwartz, Joel
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Do Van, Dung
    Mayvaneh, Fetemeh
    Overcenco, Ala
    Li, Shanshan
    Guo, Yuming
    Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, artikel-id 105027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the global health burden of temperature was projected for 459 locations in 28 countries worldwide under four representative concentration pathway scenarios until 2099. We determined that the amount of temperature increase for each 100 ppm increase in global CO2 concentrations is nearly constant, regardless of climate scenarios. The overall average temperature increase during 2010-2099 is largest in Canada (1.16 °C/100 ppm) and Finland (1.14 °C/100 ppm), while it is smallest in Ireland (0.62 °C/100 ppm) and Argentina (0.63 °C/100 ppm). In addition, for each 1 °C temperature increase, the amount of excess mortality is increased largely in tropical countries such as Vietnam (10.34%p/°C) and the Philippines (8.18%p/°C), while it is decreased in Ireland (-0.92%p/°C) and Australia (-0.32%p/°C). To understand the regional variability in temperature increase and mortality, we performed a regression-based modeling. We observed that the projected temperature increase is highly correlated with daily temperature range at the location and vulnerability to temperature increase is affected by health expenditure, and proportions of obese and elderly population.

  • 13. Lee, Whanhee
    et al.
    Bell, Michelle L.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Armstrong, Ben G.
    Sera, Francesco
    Hwang, Sunghee
    Lavigne, Eric
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    Osorio, Samuel
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Zeka, Ariana
    Goodman, Patrick G.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Honda, Yasushi
    Guo, Yue-Liang Leon
    Seposo, Xerxes
    Van Dung, Do
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Tong, Shilu
    Guo, Yuming
    Kim, Ho
    Mortality burden of diurnal temperature range and its temporal changes: a multi-country study2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 110, s. 123-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a key index of climate change, few studies have reported the health burden of DTR and its temporal changes at a multi-country scale. Therefore, we assessed the attributable risk fraction of DTR on mortality and its temporal variations in a multi-country data set. We collected time-series data covering mortality and weather variables from 308 cities in 10 countries from 1972 to 2013. The temporal change in DTR-related mortality was estimated for each city with a time-varying distributed lag model. Estimates for each city were pooled using a multivariate meta-analysis. The results showed that the attributable fraction of total mortality to DTR was 2.5% (95% eCI: 2.3-2.7%) over the entire study period. In all countries, the attributable fraction increased from 2.4% (2.1-2.7%) to 2.7% (2.4-2.9%) between the first and last study years. This study found that DTR has significantly contributed to mortality in all the countries studied, and this attributable fraction has significantly increased over time in the USA, the UK, Spain, and South Korea. Therefore, because the health burden of DTR is not likely to reduce in the near future, countermeasures are needed to alleviate its impact on human health.

  • 14.
    Malmqvist, Ebba
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Lisberg Jensen, Ebba
    Dept. of urban studies, Malmö University, Sweden..
    Westerberg, Karin
    Dept. of urban studies, Malmö University, Sweden..
    Stroh, Emilie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Rittner, Ralf
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Susanna
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden..
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Henric
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden..
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Estimated health benefits of exhaust free transport in the city of Malmö, Southern Sweden2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 118, s. 78-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is responsible for one in eight premature deaths worldwide, and thereby a major threat to human health. Health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution concentrations can be used as a mean of assessing the health impacts of policy, plans and projects, and support decision-makers in choices to prevent disease.

    The aim of this study was to estimate health impacts attributable to a hypothetical decrease in air pollution concentrations in the city of Malmö in Southern Sweden corresponding to a policy on-road transportations without tail-pipe emissions in the municipality. We used air pollution data modelled for each of the 326,092 inhabitants in Malmö by a Gaussian dispersion model combined with an emission database with >40,000 sources. The dispersion model calculates Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) (later transformed into Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μg/m3 (PM2.5) with high spatial and temporal resolution (85 m and 1 h, respectively).

    The average individual reduction was 5.1 (ranging from 0.6 to 11.8) μg/m3 in NO2, which would prevent 55 (2% of all deaths) to 93 (4%) deaths annually, depending on dose-response function used. Furthermore, we estimate that the NO2 reduction would result in 21 (6%) fewer cases of incident asthma in children, 95 (10%) fewer children with bronchitis every year, 30 (1%) fewer hospital admissions for respiratory disease, 87(4%) fewer dementia cases, and 11(11%) fewer cases of preeclampsia every year. The average reduction in PM2.5 of 0.6 (ranging from 0.1 till 1.7) μg/m3 would mean that 2729 (0.3%) work days would not be lost due to sick-days and that there would be 16,472 fewer restricted activity days (0.3%) that year had all on-road transportations been without tail-pipe emissions.

    Even though the estimates are sensitive to the dose-response functions used and to exposure misclassification errors, even the most conservative estimate of the number of prevented deaths is 7 times larger than the annual traffic fatalities in Malmö, indicating a substantial possibility to reduce the health burden attributed to tail-pipe emissions in the study area.

  • 15. Mostafavi, Nahid
    et al.
    Vlaanderen, Jelle
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Beelen, Rob
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Palli, Domenico
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution2015Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 81, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NO was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 mu g/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 mu g/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  • 16.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Frondelius, Kasper
    Haglund, Nils
    Källén, Karin
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Peik
    Malmqvist, Ebba
    Prenatal exposure to air pollution as a potential risk factor for autism and ADHD2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, artikel-id 105149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to the development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). One suggested environmental risk factor for ASD and ADHD is air pollution, but knowledge of its effects, especially in low-exposure areas, are limited. Here, we investigate risks for ASD and ADHD associated with prenatal exposure to air pollution in an area with air pollution levels generally well below World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines. We used an epidemiological database (MAPSS) consisting of virtually all (99%) children born between 1999 and 2009 (48,571 births) in the study area, in southern Sweden. MAPSS consists of data on modelled nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels derived from a Gaussian dispersion model; maternal residency during pregnancy; perinatal factors collected from a regional birth registry; and socio-economic factors extracted from Statistics Sweden. All ASD and ADHD diagnoses in our data were undertaken at the Malmö and Lund Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, using standardized diagnostic instruments. We used logistic regression analyses to obtain estimates of the risk of developing ASD and ADHD associated with different air pollution levels, with adjustments for potential perinatal and socio-economic confounders. In this longitudinal cohort study, we found associations between air pollution exposure during the prenatal period and and the risk of developing ASD. For example, an adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.40 and its 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (95% CI: 1.02-1.93) were found when comparing the fourth with the first quartile of NOx exposure. We did not find similar associations on the risk of developing ADHD. This study contributes to the growing evidence of a link between prenatal exposure to air pollution and autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that prenatal exposure even below current WHO air quality guidelines may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

  • 17. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Zhang, Yu
    Gu, Xiang
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lin, Chunye
    Wang, Baodong
    Xin, Ming
    Occurrence, transportation, and distribution difference of typical herbicides from estuary to bay2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 130, artikel-id UNSP 104858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In several watersheds, agricultural activities are the cause of pollution, mainly due to the discharge of herbicides. Often, these herbicide plumes are transported to the surrounding bays. Samples of water, suspended particulate sediments (SPSs), and sediments from 37 sites in the Jiaozhou Bay in the western Pacific Ocean were collected in April 2018. The total concentrations of atrazine and acetochlor in these samples were analyzed, that showed different patterns in each sampled area. Atrazine had 2-3 times higher concentrations in coastal areas and bays compared to the estuary, indicating that it had a higher residence time in the marine environment. In contrast, acetochlor concentration decreased with an increase in the depth of seawater. Both the spatial distributions and the vertical concentrations in water, SPS, and sediment proved that these two herbicides had different responses during transportation from the estuary to the bay. Despite the significant difference in concentration of the two herbicides in the water and sediment, their spatially averaged value in SPS was very close, indicating that the particles had saturated sorption capability. The organic carbon normalized partition coefficient (LogK(oc)) was used to explain the partitioning of the herbicides between water and sediment. The LogK(oc) difference between herbicides demonstrated that acetochlor was strongly phase partitioned in the coastal and the bay areas, thereby causing similar distributions of acetochlor in the three matrices. Atrazine had a higher LogK(oc) value in the estuary, which explained its higher concentration in the estuary SPS. The correlation and redundancy analyses both demonstrated that the concentrations of the herbicides in water were sensitive to dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen. The current tides and bathymetry were the critical factors in determining the spatial distribution of herbicides in the water and sediment, resulting in a low herbicide load in the river mouth area.

  • 18. Temam, Sofia
    et al.
    Burte, Emilie
    Adam, Martin
    Antó, Josep M
    Basagaña, Xavier
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Galobardes, Bruna
    Keidel, Dirk
    Künzli, Nino
    Le Moual, Nicole
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nadif, Rachel
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Siroux, Valérie
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe: a multi-city analysis2017Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 101, s. 117-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison.

    OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure as a marker of traffic exhaust, in 16 cities from eight Western European countries.

    METHODS: Three SEP indicators, two defined at individual-level (education and occupation) and one at neighborhood-level (unemployment rate) were assessed in three European multicenter cohorts. NO2 annual concentration exposure was estimated at participants' addresses with land use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE; http://www.escapeproject.eu/). Pooled and city-specific linear regressions were used to analyze associations between each SEP indicator and NO2. Heterogeneity across cities was assessed using the Higgins' I-squared test (I(2)).

    RESULTS: The study population included 5692 participants. Pooled analysis showed that participants with lower individual-SEP were less exposed to NO2. Conversely, participants living in neighborhoods with higher unemployment rate were more exposed. City-specific results exhibited strong heterogeneity (I(2)>76% for the three SEP indicators) resulting in variation of the individual- and neighborhood-SEP patterns of NO2 exposure across cities. The coefficients from a model that included both individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators were similar to the unadjusted coefficients, suggesting independent associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed for the first time using homogenized measures of outcome and exposure across 16 cities the important heterogeneity regarding the association between SEP and NO2 in Western Europe. Importantly, our results showed that individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators capture different aspects of the association between SEP and exposure to air pollution, stressing the importance of considering both in air pollution health effects studies.

  • 19. Triebner, Kai
    et al.
    Markevych, Iana
    Hustad, Steinar
    Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Franklin, Karl A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Gullón Blanco, José Antonio
    Holm, Mathias
    Jaquemin, Bénédicte
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Jõgi, Rain
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Lindberg, Eva
    Martínez-Moratalla, Jesús
    Muniozguren Agirre, Nerea
    Pin, Isabelle
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Gómez Real, Francisco
    Dadvand, Payam
    Residential surrounding greenspace and age at menopause: A 20-year European study (ECRHS)2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 132, artikel-id 105088Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with a number of adverse health effects and its timing has been reported to be influenced by several lifestyle factors. Whether greenspace exposure is associated with age at menopause has not yet been investigated.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether residential surrounding greenspace is associated with age at menopause and thus reproductive aging.

    METHODS: This longitudinal study was based on the 20-year follow-up of 1955 aging women from a large, population-based European cohort (ECRHS). Residential surrounding greenspace was abstracted as the average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) across a circular buffer of 300 m around the residential addresses of each participant during the course of the study. We applied mixed effects Cox models with centre as random effect, menopause as the survival object, age as time indicator and residential surrounding greenspace as time-varying predictor. All models were adjusted for smoking habit, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, ever-use of contraception and age at completed full-time education as socio-economic proxy.

    RESULTS: An increase of one interquartile range of residential surrounding greenspace was associated with a 13% lower risk of being menopausal (Hazard Ratio: 0.87, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.79-0.95). Correspondingly the predicted median age at menopause was 1.4 years older in the highest compared to the lowest NDVI quartile. Results remained stable after additional adjustment for air pollution and traffic related noise amongst others.

    CONCLUSIONS: Living in greener neighbourhoods is associated with older age at menopause and might slow reproductive aging. These are novel findings with broad implications. Further studies are needed to see whether our findings can be replicated in different populations and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association.

  • 20. Wei, Wenjuan
    et al.
    Bonvallot, Nathalie
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, SE-151 36 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Raffy, Gaëlle
    Glorennec, Philippe
    Krais, Annette
    Ramalho, Olivier
    Le Bot, Barbara
    Mandin, Corinne
    Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of environmental semi-volatile organic compounds via inhalation: A review of methods and models2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, s. 202-213Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in indoor environments are known to cause adverse health effects through multiple routes of exposure. To assess the aggregate exposure, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs need to be determined. In this review, we discussed measurements of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs after inhalation. Published literature related to this issue is available for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a] pyrene and phenanthrene. Then, we reviewed common modeling approaches for the characterization of the gas-and particle-phase partitioning of SVOCs during inhalation. The models are based on mass transfer mechanisms as well as the structure of the respiratory system, using common computational techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. However, the existing models are restricted to special conditions and cannot predict SVOC bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the whole respiratory system. The present review notes two main challenges for the estimation of SVOC bioaccessibility and bioavailability via inhalation in humans. First, in vitro and in vivo methods need to be developed and validated for a wide range of SVOCs. The in vitro methods should be validated with in vivo tests to evaluate human exposures to SVOCs in airborne particles. Second, modeling approaches for SVOCs need to consider the whole respiratory system. Alterations of the respiratory cycle period and human biological variability may be considered in future studies.

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