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  • 1. Allan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Le Roux, Gael
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Piotrowska, Natalia
    Sikorski, Jaroslaw
    Fagel, Nathalie
    High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 178, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years.

    (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anna
    Gocht, Tilman
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 6, p. 1592-1598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time.

  • 3.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Dioxins, PCBs, and HCB in soil and peat profiles from a pristine boreal catchment2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 7, p. 2518-2525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how atmospherically derived soil pollution is affected by environmental processes at two typical boreal catchment landscape type settings: wetlands and forested areas. Measurements of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in forest soil and peat from an oligotrophic mire at various depths were performed at a remote boreal catchment in northern Sweden. HOCs in peat were evenly distributed throughout the body of the mire while levels of HOCs in the forest soil increased with increased amount of organic matter. Evaluation of HOC composition by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between surface soils and deeper soil and peat samples. This was attributed to vertical transport, degradation and/or shifting sources over time. The calculated net vertical transport differed between surface layers (0.3%) and deeper soils (8.0%), suggesting that vertical transport conditions and processes differ in the deeper layers compared to the surface layers.

  • 4.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Meijer, Sandra
    Halsall, Crispin
    Ågren, Anneli
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Köhler, Stephan
    Jones, Kevin C
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Modelling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a boreal forest catchment: a cross disciplinary approach to assessing diffuse pollution to surface waters2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 9, p. 2964-2969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soils and waters in a northern boreal catchment was explored through the development of a chemical fate model in a well-characterised catchment system dominated by two land types: forest and mire. Input was based solely on atmospheric deposition, dominated by accumulation in the winter snowpack. Release from soils was governed by the HOC concentration in soil, the soil organic carbon fraction and soil-water DOC content. The modelled export of selected HOCs in surface waters ranged between 11 and 250ng day(-1) during the snow covered period, compared to 200 and 9600ng/d during snow-melt; highlighting the importance of the snow pack as a source of these chemicals. The predicted levels of HOCs in surface water were in reasonable agreement to a limited set of measured values, although the model tended to over predict concentrations of HOCs for the forested sub-catchment, by over an order of magnitude in the case of hexachlorobenzene and PCB 180. This possibly reflects both the heterogeneity of the forest soils and the complicated and changing hydrology experienced between the different seasons.

  • 5.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Sehlin, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Comparison of techniques for estimating PAH bioavailability: uptake in Eisenia fetida, passive samplers and leaching using various solvents and additives.2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 145, no 1, p. 154-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. This was done by comparing the amounts (total and relative) taken up by the earthworm Eisenia fetida with the amounts extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), leaching with various solvent mixtures, leaching using additives, and sequential leaching. Bioconcentration factors of PAHs in the earthworms based on equilibrium partitioning theory resulted in poor correlations to observed values. This was most notable for PAHs with high concentrations in the studied soil. Evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between the evaluated techniques and, generally, there were larger proportions of carcinogenic PAHs (4–6 fused rings) in the earthworms. These results suggest that it may be difficult to develop a chemical method that is capable of mimicking biological uptake, and thus estimating the bioavailability of PAHs.

    The total and relative amounts of PAHs extracted by abiotic techniques for assessing the bioavailability of PAHs was found to differ from the amounts taken up by Eisenia fetida.

    Keywords: Bioavailability; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Earthworms; Leaching; Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; Solid-phase microextraction; Semi-permeable membrane device

  • 6.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ingvarsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Danielsson, H
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., P.O. Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lead exposure and biological effects in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) before and after the closure of a lead mine in northern Sweden.2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 5, p. 1368-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Evaluating blood and excrement as bioindicators for metal accumulation in birds2018In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 233, p. 1198-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Birds are widely used to assess metal contamination in the environment and there are different approaches to determine the exposure level in individuals, some being destructive (collection of soft tissues) and some non-destructive (blood, feathers and excrement). The use of blood to detect internal concentrations of metals is an acknowledged method, but to what extent blood can predict the concentrations in soft tissues has been less well evaluated in wild terrestrial birds. The same is true for excrements. This study compares the non-destructive methods using blood and excrement with liver sampling, with respect to exposure and accumulation of the elements arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Blood, liver and excrement reflected the environmental exposure of non-essential elements and were independent of nestling sex. There were asymptotic relationships between the concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead in liver and blood, excrement and liver, and excrement and blood, but none for copper or zinc. Those relationships were generally stronger between liver and blood than between excrements and internal concentrations. Lead had the strongest associations for all matrixes. The conclusion is that blood is an appropriate tool to assess accumulation of arsenic, cadmium and especially lead, but that blood can underestimate the accumulation at highly contaminated sites. Excrement can also give an indication of metal accumulation, but may overestimate internal concentrations at high exposure, and individual variability makes direct comparisons between these matrices less appropriate.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Koivula, Miia J.
    Eeva, Tapio
    Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 10, p. 2368-2374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu–Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age.

  • 9.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Nygren, Olle
    Lokalförsörjningsenheten, Umeå universitet.
    Svanberg, Staffan
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81–147 d and a temperature range of −2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions Falpha = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and FTC = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify FTC. Higher FTriBA = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower FTriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden.

  • 10. Bidleman, TF
    et al.
    Jantunen, LMM
    Harner, T
    Wiberg, K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wideman, JL
    Brice, K
    Su, K
    Falconer, RL
    Aigner, EJ
    Leone, AD
    Ridal, JJ
    Kerman, B
    Finizio, A
    Alegria, H
    Parkhurst, WJ
    Szeto, SY
    Chiral pesticides as tracers of air-surface exchange1998In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enantiomers of chiral pesticides are selectively broken down in soil and water to yield residues and metabolites, which are non-racemic. The distinctive enantiomer signatures of residues are preserved upon volatilization, providing site-specific tracers for air-soil and air-water exchange. Applications of enantiomeric tracers include distinguishing the atmospheric transport of freshly applied pesticides from those which are 'recycled' from lakes, oceans and soil, and investigating biotic vs abiotic degradation pathways. Examples are given of using pesticide enantiomers to follow volatilization from the Great Lakes and arctic waters and as indicators of pesticide emissions from agricultural soils.

  • 11. Codling, Garry
    et al.
    Halsall, Crispin
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Del Vento, Sabino
    Wiberg, Karin
    Bergknut, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    The fate of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances within a melting snowpack of a boreal forest2014In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 191, p. 190-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroallcyl substances (PFAS) were measured systematically in a snowpack in northern Sweden to determine chemical behaviour during seasonal melt. Average PFAS concentrations were generally low, but displayed a wide range with median (range) concentrations of PFOA and PFOS of 66.5 pg L-1 (ND-122) and 20.5 pg L-1 (2.60-253) respectively. Average concentrations of the shorter chain, C4 and C5 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), were similar to 10-fold higher. Differences in the PFAS concentrations and profile were observed between surface snow and deeper layers, with evidence of PFAS migration to deeper snow layers as melt progressed. Chemical loads (ng m(-2)) for C4-9 PFCAs decreased gradually as melt progressed, but increased for C-4, C6-8 PFSAs and the longer chain C10-12 PFCAs. This enrichment in the diminishing snowpack is an unusual phenomenon that will affect PFAS elution with meltwater and subsequent entry to catchment surface waters. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12. Jiang, Tao
    et al.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Green, Nelson W.
    Tang, Jianhui
    Wang, Dingyong
    Gao, Jie
    Li, Chuxian
    Characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and relationship with dissolved mercury in Xiaoqing River-Laizhou Bay estuary, Bohai Sea, China2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 223, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Because of heterogeneous properties, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is known to control the environmental fate of a variety of organic pollutants and trace metals in aquatic systems. Here we report absorptive and fluorescence properties of DOM, in concurrence with concentrations of dissolved mercury (Hg), along the Xiaoqing River-Laizhou Bay estuary system located in the Bohai Sea of China. A mixing model consisting of the two end-members terrestrial and aquatic DOM demonstrated that terrestrial signatures decreased significantly from the river into the estuary. Quasi-conservative mixing behavior of DOM sources suggests that the variations in the average DOM composition were governed by physical processes (e.g., dilution) rather than by new production and/or degradation processes. In contrast to some previous studies of river-estuary systems, the Xiaoqing River-Laizhou Bay estuary system displayed a non-significant correlation between DOM and Hg quantities. Based on this and the variation of Hg concentration along the salinity gradient, we concluded that Hg showed a non-conservative mixing behavior of suggested end-member sources. Thus, rather than mixing, Hg concentration variations seemed to be controlled by biogeochemical processes.

  • 13. Khaling, Eliezer
    et al.
    Papazian, Stefano
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Poelman, Erik H.
    Holopainen, Jarmo K.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK 1871, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Blande, James D.
    Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 199, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. 

  • 14.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Saaristo, M.
    Brodin, T.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Martin, J. M.
    Wong, B. B. M.
    Fish on steroids: Temperature-dependent effects of 17 beta-trenbolone on predator escape, boldness, and exploratory behaviors2019In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 245, p. 243-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One MPG of particular concern is 17 beta-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17 beta-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17 beta-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusio holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17 beta-trenbolone (average measured concentration 3.0 +/- 0.2 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30 degrees C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioral effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30 degrees C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20 degrees C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17 beta-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioral effects of environmental contaminants.

  • 15.
    Lundgren, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Ishaq, Rasha
    Broman, Dag
    Bavel, Bert van
    Flux estimates and sedimentation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in the northern part of the Baltic sea2003In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 126, no 1, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and fluxes of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured in surface sediments, and settling particulate matter collected in sediment traps, at two coastal and two offshore sampling stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Baltic Sea, Sweden. The PCN concentrations (of tetra- to hepta-chloro congeners) in the surface sediments ranged from 0.27 to 2.8 ng/g dry weight and were of the same order of magnitude as background concentrations reported previously in Europe. The PCN fluxes in the southern basin (0.93 and 0.86 μg/m2/year) of the Gulf of Bothnia were higher than those in the northern basin (0.58 and 0.49 μg/m2/year); they were also higher near the coast than in the open sea. These PCN fluxes are similar to the pre-industrial levels determined from lake sediments in northwest England. The PCN homologue distribution changed from a relatively even distribution in samples collected near the coast, to TeCNs dominating in the samples from the open sea. This indicates that higher chlorinated PCNs are deposited and retained in sediments to a higher degree near the coast. The total annual deposition of PCNs in sediments in the Gulf of Bothnia was estimated to be 91 kg/year.

    Background concentrations in sediments, fluxes and annual sedimentation rates of polychlorinated naphthalenes were measured and estimated at two coastal and two offshore remote sampling stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Baltic Sea.

  • 16. Moreno-Brush, Monica
    et al.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Institut für Geookologie, AG Umweltgeochemie, Technische Universit € at Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Gamboa, Nadia
    Storch, Ilse
    Biester, Harald
    Is mercury from small-scale gold mining prevalent in the southeastern Peruvian Amazon?2016In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 218, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing debate on the fate of mercury (Hg) in areas affected by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Over the last 30 years, ASGM has released 69 tons of Hg into the southeastern Peruvian Amazon. To investigate the role of suspended matter and hydrological factors on the fate of ASGM-Hg, we analysed riverbank sediments and suspended matter along the partially ASGM-affected Malinowski-Tambopata river system and examined Hg accumulation in fish. In addition, local impacts of atmospheric Hg emissions on aquatic systems were assessed by analysing a sediment core from an oxbow lake. Hg concentrations in riverbank sediments are lower (20-53 ng g(-1)) than in suspended matter (similar to 400-4000 ng g(-1)) due to differences in particle size. Elevated Hg concentrations in suspended matter from ASGM-affected river sections (similar to 1400 vs. similar to 30-120 ng L-1 in unaffected sections) are mainly driven by the increased amount of suspended matter rather than increased Hg concentrations in the suspended matter. The oxbow lake sediment record shows low Hg concentrations (64-86 ng g(-1)) without evidence of any ASGM-related increase in atmospheric Hg input. Hg flux variations are mostly an effect of variations in sediment accumulation rates. Moreover, only 5% of the analysed fish (only piscivores) exceed WHO recommendations for human consumption (500 ng g(-1)). Our findings show that ASGM-affected river sections in the Malinowsld-Tambopata system do not exhibit increased Hg accumulation, indicating that the released Hg is either retained at the spill site or transported to areas farther away from the ASGM areas. We suspect that the fate of ASGM-Hg in such tropical rivers is mainly linked to transport associated with the suspended matter, especially during high water situations. We assume that our findings are typical for ASGM-affected areas in tropical regions and could explain why aquatic systems in such ASGM regions often show comparatively modest enrichment in Hg levels. 

  • 17.
    Nyholm Rattfelt, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundberg, Charlott
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Biodegradation kinetics of selected brominated flame retardants in aerobic and anaerobic soil2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 6, p. 2235-2240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodegradation kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic soil of the following brominated flame retardants: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 28), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (246BrPh), and hexabromobenzene (HxBrBz). For comparison, the biodegradation of the chlorinated compounds 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (CDE 28), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246ClPh), hexachlorobenzene (HxClBz), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was also assessed. In aerobic soil, BDE 209 showed no significant degradation during the test period, but concentrations of the other BFRs declined, with half-lives decreasing in the following order: BDE 28 > TBBPA > TBECH > HxBrBz > 246BrPh. Declines in almost the same order were observed in anaerobic soil: BDE 28, BDE 209 > TBBPA > HxBrBz > TBECH >246BrPh. Intra- and extrapolated half-lives in soil of tested brominated flame retardants ranged from 7 days for 2,4,6-tribromorophenol to >400 days for decabromodiphenyl ether.

  • 18. Soerensen, A. L.
    et al.
    Schartup, A. T.
    Skrobonja, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Organic matter drives high interannual variability in methylmercury concentrations in a subarctic coastal sea2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 229, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in phytoplankton are strongly associated with water MeHg concentrations. Because uptake by phytoplankton is the first and largest step of bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs many studies have investigated factors driving seasonal changes in water MeHg concentrations. Organic matter (OM) is widely accepted as an important driver of MeHg production and uptake by phytoplankton but is also known for strong interannual variability in concentration and composition within systems. In this study, we explore the role of OM on spatial and interannual variability of MeHg in a subarctic coastal sea, the northern Baltic Sea. Using MeHg (2014: 80 ± 25 fM; 2015: <LOD; 2016: 21 ± 9 fM) and OM measurements during late summer/early fall, we find that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humic matter content explain 60% of MeHg variability. We find that while labile DOC increases MeHg levels in the water, humic content reduces it. We propose that the positive association between MeHg and labile DOC shows that labile DOC is a proxy for OM remineralization rate in nearshore and offshore waters. This is consistent with other studies finding that in situ MeHg production in the water column occurs during OM remineralization. The negative association between water humic content and MeHg concentration is most likely due to humic matter decreasing inorganic mercury (HgII) bioavailability to methylating microbes. With these relationships, we develop a statistical model and use it to calculate MeHg concentrations in late summer nearshore and offshore waters between 2006 and 2016 using measured values for water DOC and humic matter content. We find that MeHg concentrations can vary by up to an order of magnitude between years, highlighting the importance of considering interannual variability in water column MeHg concentrations when interpreting both short and long term MeHg trends in biota.

  • 19.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wingfors, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Air-sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of α-HCH in the Kattegat Sea region2004In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 128, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations and air–water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while HCHs were net deposited. Variations were large over the year, especially during spring and summer. Air parcel back trajectories suggested that air concentrations over the Kattegat Sea are largely dependent of air mass origin. Seasonal trends were detected for airborne HCHs and for PCBs in water. The air and water enantiomeric compositions of α-HCH indicated that a larger portion of α-HCH in air originated from the underlying water during summer than during winter.

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