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  • 1.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls1997Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 75-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AM1) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs).

  • 2. Benelli, Giovanni
    et al.
    Maggi, Filippo
    Pavela, Roman
    Murugan, Kadarkarai
    Govindarajan, Marimuthu
    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam
    Petrelli, Riccardo
    Cappellacci, Loredana
    Kumar, Suresh
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza
    Alarfaj, Abdullah A.
    Hwang, Jiang-Shiou
    Higuchi, Akon
    Mosquito control with green nanopesticides: towards the One Health approach? A review of non-target effects2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 11, s. 10184-10206Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied. Most importantly, a cooperative interface between the two disciplines is still lacking. To face this challenge, we have reviewed a wide number of promising results in the field of green-fabricated pesticides tested against mosquito vectors, outlining several examples of synergy with classic biological control tools. The non-target effects of green-fabricated nanopesticides, including acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and impact on behavioral traits of mosquito predators, have been critically discussed. In the final section, we have identified several key challenges at the interface between "green" nanotechnology and classic biological control, which deserve further research attention.

  • 3. Bravo, Andrea G.
    et al.
    Loizeau, Jean-Luc
    Dranguet, Perrine
    Makri, Stamatina
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ungureanu, Viorel Gh.
    Slaveykova, Vera I.
    Cosio, Claudia
    Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania)2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 10529-10541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl- concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  • 4.
    Brenerová, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute.
    Hamers, Timo
    Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam.
    Kamstra, Jorke H.
    Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam.
    Vondracek, Jan
    Department of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
    Strapacova, Simona
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Machala, Miroslav
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute.
    Pure non-dioxin-like PCB congeners suppress induction of AhR-dependent endpoints in rat liver cells2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 2099-2107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative potencies of non-ortho-substituted coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and to cause the AhR-dependent toxic events are essential for their risk assessment. Since some studies suggested that abundant non-dioxin-like PCB congeners (NDL-PCBs) may alter the AhR activation by PCB mixtures and possibly cause non-additive effects, we evaluated potential suppressive effects of NDL-PCBs on AhR activation, using a series of 24 highly purified NDL-PCBs. We investigated their impact on the model AhR agonist-induced luciferase reporter gene expression in rat hepatoma cells and on induction of CYP1A1/1B1 mRNAs and deregulation of AhR-dependent cell proliferation in rat liver epithelial cells. PCBs 128, 138, and 170 significantly suppressed AhR activation (with IC50 values from 1.4 to 5.6 mu M), followed by PCBs 28, 47, 52, and 180; additionally, PCBs 122, 153, and 168 showed low but still significant potency to reduce luciferase activity. Detection of CYP1A1 mRNA levels in liver epithelial cells largely confirmed these results for the most abundant NDL-PCBs, whereas the other AhR-dependent events (CYP1B1 mRNA expression, induction of cell proliferation in confluent cells) were less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, thus indicating a more complex regulation of these endpoints. The present data suggest that some NDL-PCBs could modulate overall dioxin-like effects in complex mixtures.

  • 5. Holt, Eva
    et al.
    Kocan, Anton
    Klanova, Jana
    Assefa, Anteneh
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 19, s. 19602-19612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (a(18)PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  • 6.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Grabic, Roman
    Multivariate relationships between molecular descriptors and isomer distribution patterns of PCBs formed during household waste incineration2014Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 3082-3090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The congener-specific concentrations of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC1-10B) in post-combustion zone flue gases from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor were evaluated and correlated with a set of physicochemical properties and chlorine substitution descriptors. The objective was to identify parameters that affect post-combustion zone polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formation and interpreting observed correlations by using principal component analysis (PCA), and bidirectional orthogonal projections to latent structures (O2PLS). Both physicochemical variables and chlorine substitution descriptors were shown to have significant effects on the PCB congener distribution; however, the physicochemical descriptors were more influential in all-homologue models, whereas the chlorine substitution descriptors had a greater impact in single-homologue models, which suggests that PCB formation in general may be under thermodynamic control, whereas the distribution of isomers within homologues is more sensitive to chlorine substitution parameters. The EHOMO and ELUMO variables notably influenced both the PCA and the O2PLS models, which indicate that reactivity and polarization in the molecular structures of the PCBs is of importance.

  • 7. Kaisarevic, Sonja
    et al.
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Weber, Roland
    Sundqvist, Kristina L
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Voncina, Ernest
    Bobic, Stanka
    Andric, Nebojsa
    Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina
    Vojinovic-Miloradov, Mirjana
    Giesy, John Paul
    Kovacevic, Radmila
    Characterization of dioxin-like contamination in soil and sediments from the "hot spot" area of petrochemical plant in Pancevo (Serbia)2011Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 677-686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:  Combinatorial bio/chemical approach was applied to investigate dioxin-like contamination of soil and sediment at the petrochemical and organochlorine plant in Pancevo, Serbia, after the destruction of manufacturing facilities that occurred in the spring of 1999 and subsequent remediation actions. Materials and methods: Soil samples were analyzed for indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Prioritized soil sample and sediment samples from the waste water channel were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Microethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (Micro-EROD) and H4IIE–luciferase bioassays were used for monitoring of dioxin-like compounds (DLC) and for better characterization of dioxin-like activity of soil samples. Results:  Bioanalytical results indicated high dioxin-like activity in one localized soil sample, while the chemical analysis confirmed the presence of large quantities of DLC: 3.0 × 105 ng/g d.w. of seven-key PCBs, 8.2 ng/g d.w. of PCDD/Fs, and 3.0 × 105 ng/g d.w. of planar and mono-ortho PCBs. In the sediment, contaminant concentrations were in the range 2–8 ng/g d.w. of PCDD/Fs and 9–20 ng/g d.w. of PCBs. Conclusions:  This study demonstrates the utility of combined application of bioassays and instrumental analysis, especially for developing and transition country which do not have capacity of the expensive instrumental analysis. The results indicate the high contamination of soil in the area of petrochemical plant, and PCDD/Fs contamination of the sediment from the waste water channel originating from the ethylene dichloride production.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fraccalvieri, Domenico
    Andersson, C. David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bonati, Laura
    Linusson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Identification of potential aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands by virtual screening of industrial chemicals2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 2436-2449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a virtual screening procedure to identify potential ligands to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) among a set of industrial chemicals. AhR is a key target for dioxin-like compounds, which is related to these compounds’ potential to induce cancer and a wide range of endocrine and immune system related effects. The virtual screening procedure included an initial filtration aiming at identifying chemicals with structural similarities to 66 known AhR binders, followed by three enrichment methods run in parallel. These include two ligand-based methods (structural fingerprints and nearest neighbor analysis) and one structure-based method using an AhR homology model. A set of 6,445 commonly used industrial chemicals was processed, and each step identified unique potential ligands. Seven compounds were identified by all three enrichment methods, and these compounds included known activators and suppressors of AhR. Only approximately 0.7% (41 compounds) of the studied industrial compounds was identified as potential AhR ligands and among these, 28 compounds have to our knowledge not been tested for AhR-mediated effects or have been screened with low purity. We suggest assessment of AhR-related activities of these compounds and in particular 2-chlorotrityl chloride, 3-p-hydroxyanilino-carbazole, and 3-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one.

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  • 9. Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline2010Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 1460-1468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples were liquid-liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE. CONCLUSIONS: Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.

  • 10.
    McCallum, Erin S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Stability and uptake of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and water louse (Asellus aquaticus)2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 9371-9378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in the environment has garnered significant research attention because these compounds may exert therapeutic effects on exposed wildlife. Yet, for many compounds, there is still little research documenting their stability in the water column and uptake in organism tissues. Here, we measured the uptake and stability of methylphenidate (Ritalin (R), a frequently prescribed central nervous system stimulant) and its primary metabolite, ritalinic acid, in (1) water only or (2) with nine-spine stickleback and water louse. Methylphenidate degraded to ritalinic acid in both studies faster at a higher temperature (20 degrees C versus 10 degrees C), with concentrations of ritalinic acid surpassing methylphenidate after 48-100 h, depending on temperature. The concentration of methylphenidate in stickleback was highest at the first sampling point (60 min), while the concentration in water louse tissues reached comparatively higher levels and peaked after similar to 6 days. Neither stickleback nor water louse took up ritalinic acid in tissues despite being present in the water column. Our findings provide valuable data for use in future risk assessment of methylphenidate and will aid in the design of studies aimed at measuring any ecotoxicological effects on, for example, the behaviour or physiology of aquatic organisms.

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  • 11.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Latham, Kenneth G.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    MTC-Miljötekniskt Center AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The impact of hydrothermal carbonization on the surface functionalities of wet waste materials for water treatment applications2020Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an energy-efficient thermochemical process for converting wet waste products into value added materials for water treatment. Understanding how HTC influences the physicochemical properties of the resultant materials is critical in optimizing the process for water treatment, where surface functionality and surface area play a major role. In this study, we have examined the HTC of four wet waste streams, sewage sludge, biosludge, fiber sludge, and horse manure at three different temperatures (180 degrees C, 220 degrees C, and 260 degrees C). The physicochemical properties of these materials were examined via FTIR, SEM and BET with their adsorption capacity were assessed using methylene blue. The yield of solid material after hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochar) decreased with increasing temperature for all samples, with the largest impact on horse manure and fiber sludge. These materials also lost the highest degree of oxygen, while HTC had minimal impact on biosludge and sewage sludge. The differences here were due to the varying compositions of each waste material, FTIR identified resonances related to cellulose in horse manure and fiber sludge, which were not detected in biosludge and sewage sludge. Adsorption capacities varied between 9.0 and 68 mg g(-1) with biosludge HTC at 220 degrees C adsorbing the highest amount. Adsorption also dropped drastically at the highest temperature (260 degrees C), indicating a correlation between adsorption capacity and HTC conditions. This was attributed to the loss of oxygen functional groups, which can contribute to adsorption. These results suggest that adsorption properties can be tailored both by selection of HTC temperature and feedstock.

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  • 12.
    Persson, Ylva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Öberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Dioxins, chlorophenols and other chlorinated organic pollutants in colloidal and water fractions of groundwater from a contaminated sawmill site2008Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 463-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: The distribution of chlorinated organic contaminants in groundwater and the importance of colloids were studied in groundwater from a sawmill site contaminated by chlorophenol preservatives.

    Materials and methods: The groundwater was fractionated into three different size ranges: (1) >0.7 μm, (2) 0.4–0.7 μm and (3) 0.2–0.4 μm and the filtered water phase. The concentrations of chlorophenols (CP), chlorinated phenoxy phenols (PCPP), chlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE), chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) were determined in each fraction. The colloids were characterised regarding the chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

    Results: Chlorophenols were mostly found in the water fraction and PCDD/Fs were found almost exclusively in the particulate fractions. For example, the filtered water phase contained 2,100 μg l−1 and 0.72 ng l−1 for CPs and PCDD/Fs, respectively, and the particulate fractions contained 27 μg l−1 and 32 ng l−1 for CPs and PCDD/Fs, respectively. XPS evaluation of the particulate phases showed no correlation between the surface chemistry of the particle properties and the distribution of chlorinated compounds.

    Discussion: The results suggest that groundwater transport of CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs may occur from contaminated sawmill sites and that the colloid-facilitated transport, especially of PCDD/Fs, is substantial. The results correlated well with previous studies of compounds sorbed to dissolved organic carbon, which indicate that dissolved and colloidal organic carbon facilitated the transport of PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs particularly.

    Conclusions: Several classes of chlorinated compounds were readily detected in the groundwater samples. Due to the differences in their physicochemical properties, CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs and PCDD/Fs vary in their partitioning between colloidal fractions and the filtered groundwater. The proportion of the bound fraction increased with an increasing hydrophobicity of the chlorinated compounds. The groundwater transport of colloid-associated pollutants from the site may be significant.

    Recommendations and perspectives: The results imply that colloidal particles <0.7 μm are freely mobile in groundwater from this site. The groundwater transport of colloid-associated pollutants may be significant. However, the extent of the problem is not yet known and, thus, further research is needed to evaluate the impact of colloidal transport of hydrophobic organic contaminants. In Sweden alone, 400 to 500 sawmill sites are estimated to be contaminated with PCDD/Fs as a result of the former use of CP-based wood preservatives. The widespread use of CP mixtures for a variety of applications, including wood preservation, indicates that potential colloidal transport will be an issue of concern in many countries.

  • 13. Sindiku, O
    et al.
    Babayemi, J. O
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Osibanjo, O.
    Weber, R
    Watson, A
    Schlummer, M
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs)in e-waste plastic in Nigeria2015Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 19, s. 14515-14529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings weresampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominateddibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content.PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected inBFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentrationof 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels werehighest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels ofPBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levelsreported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequentlyexceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levelsare likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEsduring production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processesresponsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRTcasings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE)were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin(TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPEcontent. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containingtetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrationsaround 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated withTBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities—probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics.It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiledin Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The totalPBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historicPBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQvalues of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention’sprovisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Dueto the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs,more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fsin stockpiles are needed.

  • 14.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Division of Geophysic and Marine Geology, Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Levels and homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediments along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea2009Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 396-409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope  The primary aim of this study was to explore the variations in PCDD/F levels and homologue profiles of Baltic surface sediments by comprehensively analyzing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in samples from a large number of sites, encompassing not only previously known hotspot areas, but also sites near other potential PCDD/F sources, in pristine reference areas (in which there was no industrial activity) and offshore sites. Materials and methods  Surface sediment samples (146 in total) were collected at various points along the Swedish coast and offshore areas. In addition, bulk deposition was sampled, monthly, at a single site in northern Sweden during 1 year. The concentrations of tetra- through octa-substituted CDD/Fs were determined in both matrices. Results  Highly elevated concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found at many sites in coastal areas and concentrations were also slightly elevated in some offshore areas. Homologue profiles varied substantially amongst samples from coastal sites, while those from offshore and other pristine sediments were relatively similar. The offshore sediments showed different profiles from those observed in the deposition samples. Sediment levels of PCDD/Fs were not generally significantly correlated to organic carbon levels, except in some pristine areas. Comparison of data obtained in this and previous studies suggest that both their levels and profiles are similar today to those observed 20 years ago in coastal and offshore areas. The only detected trend is that their levels appear to have decreased slightly in the offshore area of the Bothnian Sea. Discussion  The localization of hotspot areas along the coast, the lack of consensus between PCDD/F profiles of sediments and general background, and their weak correlations with organic carbon suggest that PCDD/Fs in the study area largely originate from local/regional emissions. However, due to complicating factors such as sediment dynamics and land upheaval, it is not possible to conclude whether these pollutants derive from recent emissions or from a combination of recent emissions and re-distribution of previous inputs. Conclusions  The results show that: elevated levels of PCDD/Fs are present in both coastal and offshore areas of the Baltic Sea, the major hotspots are close to the shore, and there are large variations in profiles, indicating that local emissions are (or have been) the major causes of pollution. Recommendations and perspectives  In order to identify other hotspot areas and trace sources, comprehensive analysis of PCDD/Fs in surface sediments is needed in all areas of the Baltic Sea that have not been previously investigated. The high levels of PCDD/Fs observed in surface sediments also indicate a need to elucidate whether they are due mainly to current emissions or a combination of recent pollution and re-distribution of historically deposited pollutants. To do so, better understanding of sediment dynamics and present-day inputs, such as riverine inputs, industrial effluents, and leakage from contaminated soil is required. There are indications that contaminated sediments have a regional impact on fish contamination levels. However, as yet there is no statistically robust evidence linking contaminated sediments with elevated levels in Baltic biota. It should also be noted that the Baltic Sea is being massively invaded by the deep-burrowing polychaete Marenzielleria ssp., whose presence in sediments has been shown to increase water concentrations of hydrophobic pollutants. In awareness of this, it is clear that high levels in sediments cannot be ignored in risk assessments. In order to investigate the emission trends more thoroughly, analysis of PCDD/Fs in offshore sediment cores throughout the Baltic Sea is also recommended. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-009-0110-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • 15. Weber, Roland
    et al.
    Gaus, Caroline
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Johnston, Paul
    Forter, Martin
    Hollert, Henner
    Heinisch, Emanuel
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Lloyd-Smith, Mariann
    Masunaga, Shigeki
    Moccarelli, Paolo
    Santillo, David
    Seike, Nobuyasu
    Symons, Robert
    Torres Joao Paulo, Machado
    Verta, Matti
    Varbelow, Gerd
    Vijgen, John,
    Watson, Alan
    Costner, Pat
    Woelz, Jan
    Wycisk, Peter
    Zennegg, Markus
    Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites—contemporary and future relevance and challenges: Overview on background, aims and scope of the series2008Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 363-393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim and scope: Once they have been generated, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can persist in soils and sediments and in waste repositories for periods extending from decades to centuries. In 1994, the US EPA concluded that contaminated sites and other reservoirs are likely to become the major source of contemporary pollution problems with these substances. With this in mind, this article is the first in a new series in ESPR under the title ‘Case Studies on Dioxin and POP Contaminated Sites—Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges’, which will address this important issue. The series will document various experiences from sites contaminated with PCDD/F and other POPs. This article provides an overview of the content of the articles comprising the series. In addition, it provides a review of the subject in its own right and identifies the key issues arising from dioxin/POP-contaminated sites. Additionally, it highlights the important conclusions that can be drawn from these examples. The key aim of this article and of the series as a whole is to provide a comprehensive overview of the types of PCDD/F contaminated sites that exist as a result of historical activities. It details the various processes whereby these sites became contaminated and attempts to evaluate their contemporary relevance as sources of PCDD/Fs and other POPs. It also details the various strategies used to assess these historical legacies of contamination and the concepts developed, or which are under development, to effect their remediation.

    Main features: Special sessions on ‘Contaminated sites—Cases, remediation, risk and policy’ were held at the DIOXIN conferences in 2006 and 2007, and this theme will be continued at DIOXIN 2008 to be held in Birmingham. Selected cases from the approximately 70 contributions made to these sessions, together with some additional invited case studies are outlined together with the key issues they raise. By evaluating these cases and adding details of experiences published in the current literature, an overview will be given of the different features and challenges of dioxin and POP-contaminated sites.

    Results: This article provides a systematic categorisation of types of PCDD/F and POP-contaminated sites. These are categorised according to the chemical or manufacturing process, which generated the PCDD/Fs or POPs and also includes the use and disposal aspects of the product life cycle in question. The highest historical PCDD/F and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination burdens have arisen as a result of the production of chlorine and of chlorinated organic chemicals. In particular, the production of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and the related contaminated waste streams are identified being responsible for historical releases of toxic equivalents (TEQs) at a scale of many tonnes. Along with such releases, major PCDD/F contaminated sites have been created through the application or improper disposal of contaminated pesticides, PCBs and other organochlorine chemicals, as well through the recycling of wastes and their attempted destruction. In some extreme examples, PCDD/F contaminated sites have also resulted from thermal processes such as waste incinerators, secondary metal industries or from the recycling or deposition of specific waste (e.g. electronic waste or car shredder wastes), which often contain chlorinated or brominated organic chemicals. The examples of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB contamination of fish in European rivers or the impact of contaminated sites upon fishing grounds and upon other food resources demonstrate the relevance of these historical problems to current and future human generations. Many of the recent food contamination problems that have emerged in Europe and elsewhere demonstrate how PCDD/F and dioxin like PCBs from historical sources can directly contaminate human and animal feedstuffs and indeed highlight their considerable contemporary relevance in this respect. Accordingly, some key experiences and lessons learnt regarding the production, use, disposal and remediation of POPs from the contaminated sites are summarised.

    Discussion: An important criterion for evaluating the significance and risks of PCDD/Fs and other POPs at contaminated sites is their present or future potential for mobility. This, in turn, determines to a large degree their propensity for off-site transport and environmental accessibility. The detailed evaluation of contaminated site cases reveals different site-specific factors, which influence the varied pathways through which poor water-soluble POPs can be mobilised. Co-contaminants with greater water solubility are also typically present at such sites. Hence, pumping of groundwater (pump and treat) is often required in addition to attempting to physically secure a site. At an increasing number of contaminated sites, securing measures are failing after relatively short time spans compared to the time horizon, which applies to persistent organic pollutant contamination. Due to the immense costs and challenges associated with remediation of contaminated sites ‘monitored natural attenuation’ is increasingly gaining purchase as a conceptual remediation approach. However, these concepts may well prove limited in their practical application to contaminated sites containing persistent organic pollutants and other key pollutants like heavy metals.

    Conclusions: It is inevitable, therefore, that dioxin/POP-contaminated sites will remain of contemporary and future relevance. They will continue to represent an environmental issue for future generations to address. The securing and/or remediation of dioxin/POP-contaminated sites is very costly, generally in the order of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. Secured landfills and secured production sites need to be considered as constructions not made for ‘eternity’ but built for a finite time scale. Accordingly, they will need to be controlled, supervised and potentially repaired/renewed. Furthermore, the leachates and groundwater impacted by these sites will require ongoing monitoring and potential further remediation. These activities result in high maintenance costs, which are accrued for decades or centuries and should, therefore, be compared to the fully sustainable option of complete remediation. The contaminated site case studies highlight that, while extensive policies and established funds for remediation exist in most of the industrialised western countries, even these relatively well-regulated and wealthy countries face significant challenges in the implementation of a remediation strategy. This highlights the fact that ultimately only the prevention of contaminated sites represents a sustainable solution for the future and that the Polluter Pays Principle needs to be applied in a comprehensive way to current problems and those which may emerge in the future.

    Recommendations and perspectives: With the continuing shift of industrial activities in developing and transition economies, which often have poor regulation (and weak self-regulation of industries), additional global challenges regarding POPs and other contaminated sites may be expected. In this respect, a comprehensive application of the “polluter pays principle” in these countries will also be a key to facilitate the clean-up of contaminated areas and the prevention of future contaminated sites. The threats and challenges of contaminated sites and the high costs of securing/remediating the problems highlight the need for a comprehensive approach based upon integrated pollution prevention and control. If applied to all polluting (and potentially polluting) industrial sectors around the globe, such an approach will prove to be both the cheapest and most sustainable way to underpin the development of industries in developing and transition economies.

  • 16. Weber, Roland
    et al.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gaus, Caroline
    Case Studies on Dioxin and POP Contaminated Sites: Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges2008Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 95-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Editorial on pp. 96-100 'Dioxin - Contemporary and Future Challenges of Historical Legacies' describes background, aims and scope of this new series in ESPR which is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Otto Hutzinger on the occasion of his 75th anniversary 4.

  • 17. Weber, Roland
    et al.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gaus, Caroline
    Dioxin - Contemporary and Future Challenges of Historical Legacies2008Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 96-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This Editorial describes background, aims and scope of a new series in ESPR entitled 'Case Studies on Dioxin and POP Contaminated Sites - Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges'. The Editors are Roland Weber, Mats Tysklind and Caroline Gaus. Table 2 presents a summary of the cases discussed in this series and a comprehensive review on these and other studies will open the series with a following issue of ESPR.

  • 18.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 8141-8159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  • 19.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Buss, Wolfram
    Edo, Mar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Masek, Ondrej
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Influence of pyrolysis temperature and production unit on formation of selected PAHs, oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, PCDDs, and PCDFs in biochar-a screening study2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 3933-3940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of reactor type and operating conditions of the pyrolysis unit on the final concentration of toxic contaminants in biochar remains unclear. Therefore, we determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs), nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in biochars produced from three different feedstocks (softwood, wheat straw, and anaerobic digestate). Different scaled pyrolysis units (one batch and two continuous units) at two different temperatures (550 and 700 degrees C) were considered. The results revealed that the type of biomass had a significant influence on the PAH, oxy-PAH, and N-PAC content of the biochars. The configuration and type of the pyrolysis unit influenced only the wheat straw pyrolyzed at 550 degrees C. PCDDs and PCDFs occurred at very low levels in the biochars. In terms of PAH, PCDD, and PCDF content, the biochars assessed in this study represent a low risk to the environment, regardless of the temperature and type and size of the pyrolysis unit.

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  • 20.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Thermal decomposition of municipal solid waste fly ash and desorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from fly ash surfaces2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 22, s. 22843-22851Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surfaces of fly ashes from three Swedish MSW incinerating plants were extensively characterized to better predict their involvement in the generation of persistent organic pollutants. The ashes were then subjected to thermal treatment at 400 °C in sealed glass ampoules to track the decomposition polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD and PCDF). Temperature programmed desorption experiments in the 30–900 °C range also enabled monitoring of thermally decomposing ashes by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as thermally desorbing effluent gases by mass spectrometry. In addition, one ash was doped with 13C-labelled PCDD and PCDF to evaluate the potential of the experimental setup for elucidating the thermal desorption of the organic molecules. It was found that in ashes with high carbon content PCDD and PCDF decomposition were led pronounced, and that PCDD degraded more readily than PCDF.

  • 21.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå Energi AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Using carbonized low-cost materials for removal of chemicals of environmental concern from water2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 16, s. 15793-15801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption on low-cost biochars would increase the affordability and availability of water treatment in, for example, developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the precursor materials and hydrochar surface properties that yield efficient removal of compounds of environmental concern (CEC). We determined the adsorption kinetics of a mixture containing ten CECs (octhilinone, triclosan, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxasole, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, paracetamol, diphenhydramine, fluconazole, and bisphenol A) to hydrochars prepared from agricultural waste (including tomato- and olive-press wastes, rice husks, and horse manure). The surface characteristics of the hydrochars were evaluated via diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2-adsorption. Kinetic adsorption tests revealed that removal efficiencies varied substantially among different materials. Similarly, surface analysis revealed differences among the studied hydrochars and the degree of changes that the materials undergo during carbonization. According to the DRIFTS data, compared with the least efficient adsorbent materials, the most efficient hydrochars underwent more substantial changes during carbonization.

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  • 22. Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Jantunen, Liisa M
    Papakyriakou, Tim
    Staebler, Ralf M
    Stern, Gary A
    Bidleman, Terry F
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Comparison of micrometeorological and two-film estimates of air-water gas exchange for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Canadian archipelago2012Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 1908-1914Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The air-sea gas exchange of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) in the Canadian Arctic was estimated using a micrometeorological approach and the commonly used Whitman two-film model. Concurrent shipboard measurements of alpha-HCH in air at two heights (1 and 15 m) and in surface seawater were conducted during the Circumpolar Flaw Lead study in 2008. Sampling was carried out during eight events in the early summer time when open water was encountered. The micrometeorological technique employed the vertical gradient in air concentration and the wind speed to estimate the flux; results were corrected for atmospheric stability using the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. The Whitman two-film model used the concentrations of alpha-HCH in surface seawater, in bulk air at 1 and 15 m above the surface, and the Henry's law constant adjusted for temperature and salinity to derive the flux. Both approaches showed that the overall net flux of alpha-HCH was from water to air. Mean fluxes calculated using the micrometeorological technique ranged from -3.5 to 18 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.4), compared to 3.5 to 14 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.5) using the Whitman two-film model. Flux estimates for individual events agreed in direction and within a factor of two in magnitude for six of eight events. For two events, fluxes estimated by micrometeorology were zero or negative, while fluxes estimated with the two-film model were positive, and the reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. Improvements are needed to shorten air sampling times to ensure that stationarity of meteorological conditions is not compromised over the measurement periods. The micrometeorological technique could be particularly useful to estimate fluxes of organic chemicals over water in situations where no water samples are available.

  • 23. Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Strid, Anna
    Zheng, Ziye
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Ma, Taowu
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Qiu, Yanling
    Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediments from Taihu Lake area, China2017Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 7740-7751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Taihu Lake area is one of the densest metropolitan areas in the world including diverse industrial activity. In the present study, the snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediment were collected from the Taihu Lake area to investigate the contamination status, congener pattern, spatial distribution, and bioaccumulation effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The samples underwent liquid extraction, lipid removal by sulfuric acid, and acidic silica gel column, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentration of S22PCBs ranged between 90 and 680 ng g(-1) lipid weight in the snails and between 0.018 and 0.82 ng g(-1) dry weight in the sediments. Concentration of S24PBDEs varied from 25 to 200 ng g(-1) lipid weight in the snails and from 0.62 to 67 ng g(-1) dry weight in the sediments. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs observed were in the medium to low range compared with other studies in the world. CB-153 was the predominant PCB congener in both snails and sediments whereas BDE-209 showed a low bioavailability in the snails, even if it contributed up to 70% of S24PBDEs in the sediments. The spatial distribution showed that the highest concentration of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in samples from Zhushan Lake. East Taihu Lake and Dianshan Lake showed lower concentration of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sampling sites. Biota-sediment accumulation was found between snails and sediments of most of PCB and PBDE congeners except for the highly brominated BDEs (i.e., BDE-209). Therefore, sediment is suggested to be an appropriate matrix to monitor BDE-209 while aquatic species such as the snail could be good for monitoring of PCBs and lower brominated BDE congeners. No significant correlation (Spearman correlation test, two-tailed) of CB-153 (r = 0.54, p = 0.27) or BDE-47 (r = 0.60, p = 0.21) was found between snails and sediments.

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  • 24. Zhu, Ying
    et al.
    Liu, Kun
    Muhammad, Yaseen
    Zhang, Hanbing
    Tong, Zhangfa
    Yu, Binbin
    Sahibzada, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Effects of divalent copper on tetracycline degradation and the proposed transformation pathway2020Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 5155-5167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To reveal the characteristics of tetracycline (TC) photocatalytic degradation under Cu(II) coexistence, effects of Cu(II) on TC photocatalytic degradation by ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as a function of pH, humic acid (HA), and initial Cu(II) concentration were investigated. Interaction of TC with Cu(II) in the treatment process was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, while TC degradation pathway was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-five percent and ninety-one percent TC degradation within 60 min in the absence and presence of Cu(II), respectively, was reported. Both adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of TC under Cu(II) coexistence increased with increasing pH from 3 to 6, while decreased with further increase in pH. HA inhibited the degradation of TC by ZnO NPs both in the presence as well absence of Cu(II), while TC degradation decreased from 91 to 73% and from 73 to 37% in the presence and absence of Cu(II), respectively. TC degradation by ZnO NPs first increased then decreased with increasing Cu(II). Maximum TC degradation (about 94%) was obtained in the optimum concentration range of Cu(II) (0.05-0.15 mmol/L). In addition, there was a lag effect between TC adsorption and degradation on ZnO NPs. TC degradation was improved via Cu(II)-TC surface complexation and followed N-demethylation and hydroxylation routes. This study could be of potential importance in extrapolating the transformation of TC or other antibiotics under the coexistence of heavy metals in water.

  • 25.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    MacLeod, Matt
    Hanberg, Annika
    Andersson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bergek, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Rickard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Exposure assessment at a PCDD/F contaminated site in Sweden: field measurements of exposure media and serum analysis2010Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 26-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: The main pathway for human exposure to the highly toxic polychlorinated-p-dioxins and polychlorinated furans [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)] is via dietary intake. Other exposure pathways may, however, be important in close proximity to point sources, such as wood preservation sites, where PCDD/F contaminated chlorophenols (CP) were previously used. In this study, a heavily PCDD/F contaminated CP saw mill site in Sweden was investigated. Human exposure through a broad spectrum of exposure pathways was assessed. Such studies are in demand since the question whether contaminated sites represent a current or future risk can only be answered by detailed site-specific risk assessments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sampling of exposure media (soil, air, groundwater, raspberries, carrots, potatoes, grass, milk, eggs, and chicken fodder) was made. Exposure media concentrations and congener distribution patterns were used to investigate the mobilization of PCDD/Fs from soil to the environment and to calculate exposure levels for adults. Blood serum levels from site-exposed and control individuals were also analyzed. RESULTS: Congener distribution patterns at the site were generally dominated by a specific marker congener (1234678-HpCDF), which is highly abundant in the polluted soil. The dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) concentrations were notably elevated as compared to national reference samples for most exposure media, and the marker congener was a major contributor to increased TEQ levels. There were also indications of soil-to-air volatilization of tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs. People who participated in the restoration of a contaminated building showed higher levels of 1234678-HpCDF compared to controls, and calculated exposure levels suggest that several site-specific exposure routes may be of importance for the daily intake of PCDD/F. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND PERSPECTIVES: Despite low mobility of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, these contaminants were transferred from the polluted soil to the surroundings and into human tissue. The extent of increased exposure from contaminated sites depends on the PCDD/F source strength of the soil, composition of the pollution, human activities, and dietary patterns of the residents. Impact from the contaminated soil on other exposure media was seen also for areas with low to moderate soil contamination. In the future, not only the levels of PCDD/F soil pollution but also the composition must be considered in risk assessments of contaminated sites.

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