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  • 1. Aufgebauer, Anne
    et al.
    Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos
    Wagner, Bernd
    Schaebitz, Frank
    Viehberg, Finn A.
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Zanchetta, Giovanni
    Sulpizio, Roberto
    Leng, Melanie J.
    Damaschke, Magret
    Climate and environmental change in the Balkans over the last 17 ka recorded in sediments from Lake Prespa (Albania/FYR of Macedonia/Greece)2012In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, Vol. 274, 122-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents sedimentological, geochemical, and biological data from Lake Prespa (Albania/Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece). The 320 cm core sequence (Co1215) covers the last 17 ka calBP and reveals significant change in climate and environmental conditions on a local and regional scale. The sediment record suggests typical stadial conditions from 17.1 to 15.7 ka calBP, documented through low lake productivity, well-mixed conditions, and cold-resistant steppe catchment vegetation. Warming is indicated from 15.7 ka calBP with slightly increased in-lake productivity, gradual expansion of trees, and decreasing erosion through disappearance of local ice caps. Between 14.5 and 11.5 ka calBP relatively stable hydrological conditions are documented. The maximum in tree taxa percentages during the Bolling/Allerod interstadial (14.5-13.2 ka calBP) indicates increased temperatures and moisture availability, whereas the increase of cold-resistant open steppe vegetation taxa percentages during the Younger Dryas (13.2-11.5 ka calBP) is coupled with distinct colder and drier conditions. The Holocene sequence from 11.5 ka calBP indicates ice-free winters, stratification of the water column, a relatively high lake trophic level and dense vegetation cover over the catchment. A strong climate related impact on the limnology and physical parameters in Lake Prespa is documented around 8.2 ka through a significant decrease in productivity, enhanced mixing, strong decomposition and soil erosion, and a coeval expansion of herbs implying cool and dry climate conditions. Intensive human activity in the catchment is indicated from around 1.9 ka calBP. This multiproxy approach improves our understanding of short- and long-term climate fluctuations in this area and their impact on catchment dynamics, limnology, hydrology, and vegetation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database: 1000 sites and half a million fossils later2014In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, 272-282 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bugs database project started in the late 1980s as what would now be considered a relatively simple system, albeit advanced for its time, linking fossil beetle species lists to modern habitat and distribution information. Since then, Bugs has grown into a complex database of fossils records, habitat and distribution data, dating and climate reference data wrapped into an advanced software analysis package. At the time of writing, the database contains raw data and metadata for 1124 sites, and Russell Coope directly contributed to the analysis of over 154 (14%) of them, some 98790 identifications published in 231 publications. Such quantifications are infeasible without databases, and the analytical power of combining a database of modern and fossil insects with analysis tools is potentially immense for numerous areas of science ranging from conservation to Quaternary geology.

    BugsCEP, The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, is the latest incarnation of the Bugs database project. Released in 2007, the database is continually added too and is available for free download from http://www.bugscep.com. The software tools include quantitative habitat reconstruction and visualisation, correlation matrices, MCR climate reconstruction, searching by habitat and retrieving, among other things, a list of taxa known from the selected habitat types. It also provides a system for entering, storing and managing palaeoentomological data as well as a number of expert system like reporting facilities.

    Work is underway to create an online version of BugsCEP, implemented through the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) project (http://www.sead.se). The aim is to provide more direct access to the latest data, a community orientated updating system, and integration with other proxy data. Eventually, the tools available in the offline BugsCEP will be duplicated and Bugs will be entirely in the web.

    This paper summarises aspects of the current scope, capabilities and applications of the BugsCEP database and software, with special reference to and quantifications of the contributions of Russell Coope to the field of palaeoentomology as represented in the database. The paper also serves to illustrate the potential for the use of BugsCEP in biographical studies, and discusses some of the issues relating to the use of large scale sources of quantitative data.

    All datasets used in this article are available through the current version of BugsCEP available at http://www.bugscep.com.

  • 3. Chambers, Frank M.
    et al.
    Booth, Robert K.
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Le Roux, Gael
    Mauquoy, Dmitri
    Nichols, Jonathan E.
    van Geel, Bas
    Development and refinement of proxy-climate indicators from peats2012In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, Vol. 268, 21-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat, especially from acidic mires (bogs), is a natural archive of past environmental change. Reconstructions of past climate from bogs commenced in the 19th Century through examination of visible peat stratigraphy, and later formed the basis for a postglacial climatic scheme widely used in Northwest Europe. Nevertheless, misconceptions as to how bogs grow led to a 50-year lacuna in peat-climate study, before the concept of 'cyclic regeneration' in bogs was refuted. In recent decades, research using proxy-climate indicators from bogs has burgeoned. A range of proxies for past hydrological change has been developed, as well as use of pollen, bog oaks and pines and other data to reconstruct past temperatures. Most of this proxy-climate research has been carried out in Northern Europe, but peat-based research in parts of Asia and North America has increased, particularly during the last decade, while research has also been conducted in Australia, New Zealand and South America. This paper reviews developments in proxy-climate reconstructions from peatlands; chronicles use of a range of palaeo-proxies such as visible peat stratigraphy, plant macrofossils, peat humification, testate amoebae and non-pollen palynomorphs: and explains the use of wiggle-match radiocarbon dating and relationship to climate shifts. It details other techniques being used increasingly, such as biomarkers, stable-isotopes, inorganic geochemistry and estimation of dust flux: and points to new proxies under development. Although explicit protocols have been developed recently for research on ombrotrophic mires, it must be recognised that not all proxies and techniques have universal applicability, owing to differences in species assemblages, mire formation, topographic controls, and geochemical characteristics. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Hahn, Annette
    et al.
    Compton, John S.
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kirsten, Kelly L.
    Lucasssen, Friedrich
    Perez Mayo, Manuel
    Schefuß, Enno
    Zabel, Matthias
    Holocene paleo-climatic record from the South African Namaqualand mudbelt: A source to sink approach2016In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 404, no B, 121-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in the sediment input to the Namaqualand mudbelt during the Holocene are assessed using an integrative terrestrial to marine, source to sink approach. Geochemical and Sr and Nd isotopic signatures are used to distinguish fluvial sediment source areas. Relative to the sediments of the Olifants River, craton outcrops in the northern Orange River catchment have a more radiogenic Sr and a more unradiogenic Nd isotopic signature. Furthermore, upper Orange River sediments are rich in heavier elements such as Ti and Fe derived from the chemical weathering of Drakensberg flood basalt. Suspension load signatures change along the Orange River's westward transit as northern catchments contribute physical weathering products from the Fish and Molopo River catchment area. Marine cores offshore of the Olifants (GeoB8323-2) and Orange (GeoB8331-4) River mouths show pulses of increased contribution of Olifants River and upper Orange River input, respectively. These pulses coincide with intervals of increased terrestrial organic matter flux and increased paleo-production at the respective core sites. We attribute this to an increase in fluvial activity and vegetation cover in the adjacent catchments during more humid climate conditions. The contrast in the timing of these wet phases in the catchment areas reflects the bipolar behavior of the South African summer and winter rainfall zones. While rainfall in the Orange River catchment is related to southward shifts in the ICTZ, rainfall in the Olifants catchment is linked to northward shifts in Southern Hemisphere Westerly storm tracks. The later may also have increased southern Benguela upwelling in the past by reducing the shedding of Agulhas eddies into the Atlantic. The high-resolution records of latitudinal shifts in these atmospheric circulation systems correspond to late Holocene centennial-millennial scale climate variability evident in Antarctic ice core records. The mudbelt cores indicate that phases of high summer rainfall zone and low winter rainfall zone humidity (at ca. 2.8 and 1 ka BP) may be synchronous with Antarctic warming events. On the other hand, dry conditions in the summer rainfall zone along with wet conditions in the winter rainfall zone (at ca 3.3, 2 and 0.5 ka BP) may be associated with Antarctic cooling events.

  • 5. Höbig, Nicole
    et al.
    Weber, Michael E.
    Kehl, Martin
    Weniger, Gerd-Christian
    Julia, Ramon
    Melles, Martin
    Fülöpb, Reka-Hajnalka
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Reicherter, Klaus
    Lake Banyoles (northeastern Spain): A Last Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy study with regard to environmental variability and human occupation2012In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, Vol. 274, 205-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of a 67-m long sediment core from Lake Banyoles (northeastern Spain) have revealed evidence for the palaeoclimate history of the northern Iberian Peninsula. Investigations have included high-resolution and non-destructive sediment-physical, geochemical, and optical methods to generate proxies indicative of sedimentologic variability and climate change. Primary stratigraphic control is based on C-14 and U-series dates of organic and inorganic material, as well as tephra from the Late Pleistocene Olot volcanic episode. While preliminary ages obtained for the core base date back to approximately 60 ka, the Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka) interval ends at 15 m. The top 8 m of deposits accumulated in the Holocene. Several slump events were observed in the core section, as were microtectonic structures, which constrain the movement. Evidence for palaeoclimate variations in element ratios is interpreted to represent effects of Heinrich Events H0-H5. Associated changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity) may have affected human occupation during the Palaeolithic-Neolithic period. Implications on human occupation in northeastern Iberia due to climate changes are discussed from archeological findings and cave sediments in neighboring areas and are analyzed with respect to the palaeolimnologic of lake Banyoles. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Fischer Mortensen, Morten
    Natl Museum Denmark, Environm Archaeol & Mat Sci, DE-1471 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lateglacial insect assemblages from the palaeolithic site Slotseng: new evidence concerning climate and environment in SW Denmark2014In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, 172-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The site Slotseng represents Paleolithic settlements of the Havelte phase of the Hamburgian culture (c. 15 to 14 cal yr BP). The Lateglacial sediment stratigraphy of an adjacent kettle hole was studied in a multidisciplinary project, including the analysis of pollen, macroscopic plant remains, vertebrate bones, and insect remains. In this article the results from the insect analysis are presented. Twelve samples were analysed from a monolith, which chronologically spans from 15,000 to 13,600 cal yr BP, and 108 taxa of Coleoptera and 15 taxa of Trichoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera were recorded. The beetle assemblages indicate an open heath environment with a shrub and herb vegetation during this period, minor changes during the stadials and interstadials. This is in good agreement with the interpretations based on pollen and plant macrofossil analyses. The presence of dung beetles indicates that reindeer herds grazed in the vicinity of the site. A number of finds of the carrion beetle Thanatophilus dispar suggest that fish may have been a complementary food resource for the hunters at Slotseng. MCR reconstructions indicate arctic/subarctic climate conditions during the periods GS-2a (Pre-Bølling) and GI-1d (Older dryas) with mean summer temperatures ca. 9-13°C and mean winter temperatures ca. -3 to -20°C. During the interstadials GI-1e (Bølling) and GI-1c (Allerød 1) mean summer temperatures were ca. 14-16°C, but mean winter temperatures remained similar to those during the colder periods. The reconstructed environments and living conditions for the Paleolithic hunters show striking similarities with contemporaneous conditions reconstructed for Magdalenian/Azilian sites at the LakeNeuchâtel, Switzerland.

  • 7.
    Macphail, Richard I
    et al.
    UCL.
    Bill, Jan
    Universitetsmuseet Oslo.
    Cannel, Rebecca
    Universitetsmuseet Oslo.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Rødsrud, Christian
    Universitetsmuseet Oslo.
    Integrated microstratigraphic investigations of coastal archaeological soils and sediments in Norway: the Gokstad ship burial mound and its environs including the Viking harbour settlement of Heimdaljordet, Vestfold2013In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, Vol. 315, 131-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of past coastal landscape development have included soil micromorphology, chemistry and microfossil recording of soils and sediments associated with marine inundation and terrestrial soil formation in marine sediments. This paper reports on similarly studied site formation processes at Norwegian coastal sites in Vestfold, Norway: the Viking Period Gokstad Ship Burial Mound and nearby contemporary harbour site of Heimdaljordet. At Gokstad, strategically-focused coring revealed mound composition and an example of its buried soil and geology. The latter investigation suggested that post glacial uplift led to a ‘slowstand’ period of intertidal reworking of till before ∼700 BC emergence and development of terrestrial soils. At Heimdaljordet, typically laminated intertidal silty clay loam sediments were sealed by beach sands, into which, for example, a boat grave was dug. Post-depositional processes affecting the Gokstad Mound were compared to those in other mounds, including those recorded in experimental earthworks. Waterlogged conditions in the Gokstad mound led to iron–phosphate migration and preferential deposition of vivianite in turf layers where relict litter (L) layers remained visible, and where wood chips from constructional activities are also very well preserved (as is the long ship itself). These soil insights and other paleoenvironmental studies of the buried soil and numerous turf sequences showed that the contemporary AD 900 Viking landscape was totally terrestrial. It had become wet sedge grassland managed for grazing. The partial weathering of turves and anomalous presence within them of ‘fresh’ roots apparently indicates the possibility that turves were stacked and stored ahead of mound building. The 10th C robber trench had developed muddy features, and rooting traces show that it was not backfilled, but was slowly infilled by humic soil silting from turf mound layers. This event did not affect the overall anaerobic burial conditions in the mound, which can be starkly compared to those at the Heimdaljordet boat grave. Here, because of acidic subaerial weathering, the wooden boat only survives as an acidic pellety humus formed of wood residues that are often ferruginised. Iron appears to be concentrated at iron nail locations. Unlike the Gokstad mound, no bone survives, but one sample found a typical ‘body stain’ of secondary iron and phosphate close by the iron encrusted sword in the grave (potentially the pelvic region of the inhumation). Here, mineralised faecal gut remains have an assumed hydroxyapatite composition, and embed phytoliths and pollen/spores, as found in human coprolites and cess deposits studied elsewhere.

  • 8.
    Macphail, Richard I.
    et al.
    University College, London.
    Bill, Jan
    Crowther, John
    Haită, C.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Popovici, D.
    Rødsrud, Christian
    European ancient settlements: a guide to their composition and morphology based on soil micromorphology and associated geoarchaeological techniques; introducing the contrasting sites of Chalcolithic Borduşani-Popină, Borcea River, Romania and the Viking Age Heimdaljordet, Vestfold, Norway2017In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 460, 30-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific soil micromorphological, broader geoarchaeological and environmental archaeology signatures of settlement activities and land use have been identified from numerous case studies across Europe – from Romania to western Norway. In order to demonstrate how such investigations contribute to our understanding of settlement morphology and its wider landscape, an improved way of organising site-specific information or guide was created (Macphail and Goldberg, in press). Activities and land use are divided into ‘Within Settlement’, ‘Peripheral to Settlement’ and ‘The Settlement's Wider Landscape’. Major themes identified are: Constructions (and materials), Trackways and paths (and other communication/transport-associated features), Animal Management, Water Management, Waste Disposal (1: middening; 2: human waste), Specialist Domestic and Industrial Activities and Funerary Practices. In the case of trackway deposits, their characterisation aids the identification of intensely occupied areas compared to rural communications, although changing land use within urban areas has also produced ‘rural signatures’ (e.g. as associated with animal management), for example in Late Roman cities. Specialist activities such as fish and crop processing or working with lead and other metals, in-field and within-wall manuring, stabling and domestic occupation floor-use evidence, and identification of different funerary practice – cremations, boat graves and other inhumations, and excarnation features – and peripheral constructions such as boat-houses, are also noted. New information from the Chalcolithic tell site of Borduşani-Popină, Romania and seasonally occupied Viking settlement of Heimdaljordet, Norway, is introduced.

  • 9. Wagner, Bernd
    et al.
    Aufgebauer, Anne
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Zanchetta, Giovanni
    Sulpizio, Roberto
    Damaschke, Magret
    Late Pleistocene and Holocene contourite drift in Lake Prespa (Albania/FYR of Macedonia/Greece)2012In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, Vol. 274, 112-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydro-acoustic surveys and coring campaigns at Lake Prespa were carried out between 2007 and 2009. This paper presents hydro-acoustic profiles and provide lithological and chronostratigraphical information from three up to 15.75 m long sediment sequences from the Macedonian side of the lake. The sediment sequences comprise glacial and interglacial sediments likely deposited from the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 to present day. The information implies a distinct change of sedimentation patterns at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition and the establishment of a relatively strong Holocene current system and deposition of channel-related contourite drift in Lake Prespa. Potential causes for the establishment of this current during the Holocene include significant lake level change, reduced winter ice cover, and/or higher aeolian activity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

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