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  • 1. Almroth, Bethanie M. Carney
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lina M.
    Cuklev, Filip
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Waterborne beclomethasone dipropionate affects the physiology of fish while its metabolite beclomethasone is not taken up2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 511, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is commonly treated with inhalable glucocorticosteroids, including beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP). This is a synthetic prodrug which is metabolized to the more active monopropionate (BMP) and free beclomethasone in humans. To evaluate potential effects of residual drugs on fish, we conducted a 14 day flow-through exposure experiment with BDP and beclomethasone using rainbow trout, and analyzed effects on plasma glucose, hepatic glutathione and catalase activity together with water and body concentrations of the BDP, BMP and beclomethasone. We also analyzed hepatic gene expression in BDP-exposed fish by micro-array and quantitative PCR Beclomethasone (up to 0.65 mu g/L) was not taken up in the fish while BDP (0.65 and 0.07 mu g/L) resulted in accumulation of both beclomethasone, BMP and BDP in plasma, reaching levels up to those found in humans during therapy. Accordingly, exposure to 0.65 mu g/L of BDP significantly increased blood glucose as well as oxidized glutathione levels and catalase activity in the liver. Exposure to beclomethasone or the low concentration of BDP had no effect on these endpoints. Both exposure concentrations of BDP resulted in significantly higher transcript abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase involved in gluconeogenesis, and of genes involved in immune responses. As only the rapidly metabolized prodrug was potent in fish, the environmental risks associated with the use of BDP are probably small. However, the observed physiological effects in fish of BDP at plasma concentrations known to affect human physiology provides valuable input to the development of read-across approaches in the identification of pharmaceuticals of environmental concern.

  • 2. Alonso, Carlos
    et al.
    Roman, Alfonso
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Garcia de Jalon, Diego
    Carolli, Mauro
    A graphical approach to characterize sub-daily flow regimes and evaluate its alterations due to hydropeaking2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, p. 532-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most flow regime characterizations focus on long time scale flow patterns, which are not precise enough to capture key components of short-term flow fluctuations. Recent proposed methods describing sub-daily flow fluctuations are focused on limited components of the flow regime being unable to fully represent it, or on the identification of peaking events based on subjectively defined thresholds, being unsuitable for evaluations of short-term flow regime alterations through comparisons between regulated and free-flowing rivers. This study aims to launch an innovative approach based on the visual display of quantitative information to address the challenge of the short-term hydrologic characterization and evaluation of alteration resulting from hydropeaking. We propose a graphical method to represent a discrete set of ecologically relevant indices that characterize and evaluate the alteration of sub-daily flow regimes. The frequency of occurrence of classified values of a descriptive hydrological variable is represented in a map-like graph where longitude, latitude and altitude represent the Julian day, the value of the variable and the frequency of occurrence, respectively. Subsequently, we tested the method on several rivers, both free-flowing and subjected to hydropower production. The advantages of our approach compared to other analytical methods are: (i) it displays a great amount of information without oversimplification; (ii) it takes into account changes in the intensity, timing and frequency of the sub-daily flows, without needing a priori defined thresholds to identify hydropeaking events; and (iii) it supports the Water Framework Directive goal. Specifically, results from applications of our graphical method agree with Sauterleute and Charmasson (2014) analytical method.

  • 3. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodríguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    la Cour Jansen, Jes
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 456-457, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1μg/L) and treated with different O3 doses (0.5-12.0mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments. In order to compare the sensitivity of APIs in each matrix, the specific dose of ozone required to achieve reduction by one decade of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics. The specific ozone dose was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents. 15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.7<DDO3/DOC≤1.4), and 8 were recalcitrant towards O3-treatment (DDO3/DOC >1.4). Furthermore, we predict that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent.

  • 4.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Danet, Andrei-Florin
    Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) - A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 514, p. 459-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mustafa, Majid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The Kd was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and Kd values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log Kd-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log Kd values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  • 6. Bazzanti, Marcello
    et al.
    Mastrantuono, Luciana
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Depth-related response of macroinvertebrates to the reversal of eutrophication in a Mediterranean lake: Implications for ecological assessment2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 579, p. 456-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic Wastewater. The infralittoral zone responded more rapidly than the other two depth-zones to the improved ecological conditions, as shown by larger differences in community composition between the two periods. In the eulittoral sand, the combined effects of hydromorphological pressures and reversal of eutrophication hindered the biotic response. In the eulittoral and infralittoral zones, typical taxa of mesotrophic waters appeared or increased their abundances after the eutrophication reversal. Benthic invertebrate response was slower in the sublittoral/profundal zone due to deoxygenation that continued to prevail in the deepest area of the lake during summer. However, both tolerant and more sensitive taxa were collected there for the first time. After the reversal of eutrophication, the percentage of molluscan + large crustaceans increased in the infralittoral zone, whereas the oligochaete/chironomid ratio decreased in both sublittoral/profundal and infralittoral zones. Functional feeding metrics (percentages of filter-feeders, collector-gatherers, miners and scrapers/grazers) differently tracked the reversal of eutrophication in the three depth-zones probably according to the effects of the-reduction of nutrients on food-web structure influencing macroinvertebrates. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) seemed to respond to eutrophication reversal only in the sublittoral/profundal zone, where deoxygenation plays a major role as a structuring agent of the community. Our results suggest that the effects of re-. versal of eutrophication can be better assessed by examining the response of the communities belonging to each zone individually. 

  • 7. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammarén, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resistance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, p. 697-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as “hotspots” for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted.

  • 8. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 20, p. 4326-4334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  • 10. Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    Ripszám, Mátyás
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57–3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10−9 s−1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

  • 11.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 612, p. 1532-1542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the impact of emissions of micropollutants from small and large-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) on drinking water source areas. We investigated a populated catchment that drains into Lake Malaren, which is the drinking water source for around 2 million people including the inhabitants of Stockholm, Sweden. To assess the persistence, mobility, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of 32 structurally diverse emerging organic contaminants, sediment, integrated passive and grab water samples were collected along the catchment of the River Fyris, Sweden. The samples were complemented with STP effluent and fish samples from one sampling event. Contaminants identified as persistent, mobile, and bioavailable were 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g] isochromene (galaxolide), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Galaxolide and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol were additionally found to be bioaccumulative, whereas n-butylbenzenesulfonamide was found to be only persistent and mobile. The total median mass flux of the persistent and mobile target analytes from Lake Ekoln into the drinking water source area of Lake Malaren was estimated to be 27 kg per year. Additionally, 10 contaminants were tentatively identified by non-target screening using NIST library searches and manual review. Two of those were confirmed by reference standards and further two contaminants, propylene glycol and rose acetate, were discharged from STPs and travelled far from the source. Attenuation of mass fluxes was highest in the summer and autumn seasons, suggesting the importance of biological degradation and photodegradation for the persistence of the studied compounds.

  • 12.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Renman, Gunno
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Gros, Meritxell
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, α-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. α-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L− 1), galaxolide (1400 ng L− 1), octocrylene (1200 ng L− 1), and α-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L− 1).

  • 13. Bratt, P
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Linder, J
    Ericson, T
    Function of the rat salivary glands after exposure to inorganic mercury1995In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 172, no 1, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of many studies on the toxicity of mercury, very little is known about the effects of mercury on the function of exocrine glands. In the present paper selected functions of Sprague-Dawley rat salivary glands were studied after the exposure of the animals to inorganic mercury at two different doses; 3.25 mg/kg body weight given during 25 days and 7.0 mg/kg body weight given during 27 days. The function of the salivary glands was estimated by saliva secretion rate, secretion of electrolytes, proteins and biosynthesis of glycoproteins. The function was compared between mercury exposed rats and age and sex matched control rats that were given injections with equal volumes of 0.154 mol/l NaCl on the same time schedule. In the present study we report that no significant effect on saliva secretion rate, concentrations of salivary constituents or biosynthesis of glycoproteins in the salivary glands could be observed in rats as a result of mercury exposure at two levels that gave 30 or 60 times higher serum mercury concentrations than in the majority of the Swedish population.

  • 14. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Engström, Emma
    Pallavicin, Nicola
    Sörlin, Dieke
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Seasonal shift of diet in bank voles explains trophic fate of anthropogenic osmium?2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 624, p. 1634-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet shifts are common in mammals and birds, but little is known about how such shifts along the food web affect contaminant exposure. Voles are staple food for many mammalian and avian predators. There is therefore a risk of transfer of contaminants accumulated in voles within the food chain. Osmium is one of the rarest earth elements with osmium tetroxide (OsO4 ) as the most toxic vapor-phase airborne contaminant. Anthropogenic OsO4 accumulates in fruticose lichens that are important winter food of bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Here, we test if a) anthropogenic osmium accumulates in bank voles in winter, and b) accumulation rates and concentrations are lower in autumn when the species is mainly herbivorous. Our study, performed in a boreal forest impacted by anthropogenic osmium, supported the hypotheses for all studied tissues (kidney, liver, lung, muscle and spleen) in 50 studied bank voles. In autumn, osmium concentrations in bank voles were even partly similar to those in the graminivorous field vole (Microtus agrestis: n =3D 14). In autumn but not in late winter/early spring, osmium concentrations were generally negatively correlated with body weight and root length of the first mandible molar, i.e. proxies of bank vole age. Identified negative correlations between organ-to-body weight ratios and osmium concentrations in late winter/early spring indicate intoxication. Our results suggest unequal accumulation risk for predators feeding on different cohorts of bank voles. 

  • 15. Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buck, Moritz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden, Uppsala SE-75236, Sweden.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Osman, Omneya A.
    Kronberg, Rose-Marie
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Formation of mercury methylation hotspots as a consequence of forestry operations2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613-614, p. 1069-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that boreal forest logging can increase the concentration and export of methylmercury (MeHg) in stream runoff. Here we test whether forestry operations create soil environments of high MeHg net formation associated with distinct microbial communities. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that Hg methylation hotspots are more prone to form after stump harvest than stem-only harvest, because of more severe soil compaction and soil disturbance. Concentrations of MeHg, percent MeHg of total Hg (THg), and bacterial community composition were determined at 200 soil sampling positions distributed across eight catchments. Each catchment was either stem-only harvested (n = 3), stem-and stump-harvested (n = 2) or left undisturbed (n = 3). In support of our hypothesis, higher MeHg to THg ratios was observed in one of the stump-harvested catchments. While the effects of natural variation could not be ruled out, we noted that most of the highest % MeHg was observed in water-filled cavities created by stump removal or driving damage. This catchment also featured the highest bacterial diversity and highest relative abundance of bacterial families known to include Hg methylators. We propose that water-logged and disturbed soil environments associated with stump harvest can favor methylating microorganisms, which also enhance MeHg formation. 

  • 16. Englyst, Vagn
    et al.
    Lundström, Nils-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Gerhardsson, Lars
    Rylander, Lars
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Lung cancer risks among lead smelter workers also exposed to arsenic2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 273, no 1-3, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Faleye, A. C.
    et al.
    Adegoke, A. A.
    Ramluckan, K.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bux, F.
    Stenstrom, T. A.
    Concentration and reduction of antibiotic residues in selected wastewater treatment plants and receiving waterbodies in Durban, South Africa2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 678, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa the incidence of resistant tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract diseases as well as diarrhoeal and parasitic infections is high. Treatment of these diseases with antibiotics is partly reflected by the excretion of the respective antibiotics and their subsequent occurrence in wastewater. Their quantitative reduction in wastewater treatment reflects their potential environmental as well as human impact, the latter due to the use of the recipient water for domestic purposes and for irrigation. Information of the occurrence and reduction of different classes of antibiotics in wastewater treatment is sparse, especially the particle bound fraction of these. Due to this, analyses of aqueous and particle bound antibiotics in untreated wastewater of four selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies was carried out in Durban, South Africa. The treatment step especially considered was the biological one, represented by activated sludge and trickling filters. The treatment further included secondary clarifiers and final chlorine disinfection. Composite samples were collected during the period February 2017 to May 2017 and analysed with online solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS). For the 13 assessed antibiotics, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 ng L-1 and 0.23 to 1.09 ng L-1 respectively, while the total percentage recovery was in the range of 51 to 111%. The percentage of individual antibiotics bound to the particulate fraction normally lost by sample (influent) filtration, if not analysed in parallel, was in the range of 2.6%-97.3% (n = 32). In this fraction (sludge from centrifuge sample), the concentration of bound antibiotics of all the target antibiotics were detected in the influent of all WWTP in concentration ranges between 1.3 ng L-1 (Azithromycin; AZI) to 81,748 ng(-1) (Ciprofloxacin; CIP). The antibiotics with the highest median concentrations in receiving water bodies of the respective WWTP were: Sulfamethoxazole; SUL (239 ng L-1) WWTP "K", Ciprofloxacin; CIP (708 ng L-1) WWTP "S" and Albendazole; ALB (325 ng L-1 and 683 ng L-1) WWTP "P" and "I" respectively.

    The overall percentage removal efficiency for the four WWTPs ranged from 21% to 100%. The biological treatment steps, activated sludge and trickling filters, were effective in removing antibiotics especially with the trickling filter and the impact of the sedimentation stage after activated sludge treatment. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18. Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Pal, Chandan
    Svensson, Carl Johan
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5–4 weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the clear increase of genes involved in mobilizing DNA provides a foundation for increased opportunities for gene transfer in such communities, which might also involve yet unknown resistance mechanisms.

  • 19.
    Gao, Qiuju
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo
    Wiberg, Karin
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Impact of on-site wastewater infiltration systems on organic contaminants in groundwater and recipient waters2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 651, p. 1670-1679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities, particularly septic systems combined with soil infiltration, can be an important source of emerging organic contaminants in groundwater and surface water and thus represent a significant source of environmental and human exposure. Two infiltration systems in Åre municipality, Sweden, were examined to assess the occurrence of contaminants in groundwater and their fate and transport during infiltration. Groundwater samples, recipient surface water samples, and wastewater samples from septic tanks were collected from 2016 to 2017 covering all climatological seasons. These samples were analysed for a total of 103 contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, organic phosphorus flame-retardants, plasticisers, perfluoroalkyl substances, and food additives. Fourteen of 103 contaminants showed 100% detection frequency in groundwater at concentrations in the low ng L−1 to low μg L−1 range. Of the compounds analysed, tris(2‑butoxyethyl) phosphate, sucralose, caffeine, and benzophenone showed high abundancy with maximum concentrations in the μg L−1 range. The data were normalised for dilution using chloride and sucralose as commonly applied tracers; however, the level of sucralose decreased significantly during infiltration and it is thus suboptimal as a sewage water tracer. Large differences between the two infiltration sites were observed in detection frequencies and concentrations in groundwater, which could be attributed to the system design and the contaminant's migration time from release to sampling point. Seasonal variation was observed for selected chemicals, and the more hydrophobic chemicals showed a higher tendency for attenuation, indicating sorption as a major retention mechanism. A moderate environmental risk to aquatic organisms was estimated in adjacent surface water for galaxolide, tris(1‑chloro‑2‑propyl) phosphate, and tris(2‑butoxyethyl) phosphate. Due to this site-dependency and potential environmental risks, further studies are needed on infiltration systems in different settings and on alternative treatment techniques to reduce the contaminant discharge from on-site sewage treatment facilities.

  • 20.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Ingrisch, Johannes
    Hasibeder, Roland
    Mills, Robert T E
    Buttler, Alexandre
    Gleixner, Gerd
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Bahn, Michael
    Winter ecology of a subalpine grassland: Effects of snow removal on soil respiration, microbial structure and function2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 316-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions. We found substantial winter C-mineralisation and high accumulation of inorganic and organic N in the topsoil, peaking at snowmelt. Soil microbial biomass doubled under the snow, paralleled by a fivefold increase in its C:N ratio, but no apparent change in its bacteria-dominated community structure. Snow removal led to a series of mild freeze-thaw cycles, which had minor effects on in situ soil CO2 production and N mineralisation. Incubated soil under advanced spring conditions, however, revealed an impaired microbial metabolism shortly after snow removal, characterised by a limited capacity for C-mineralisation of both fresh plant-derived substrates and existing soil organic matter (SOM), leading to reduced priming effects. This effect was transient and the observed recovery in microbial respiration and SOM priming towards the end of the winter season indicated microbial resilience to short-lived freeze-thaw disturbance under field conditions. Bacteria showed a higher potential for uptake of plant-derived C substrates during this recovery phase. The observed temporary loss in microbial C-mineralisation capacity and the promotion of bacteria over fungi can likely impede winter SOM cycling in mountain grasslands under recurrent winter climate change events, with plausible implications for soil nutrient availability and plant-soil interactions.

  • 21. Grabicova, Katerina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Randak, Tomas
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of antidepressants in fish exposed to effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of selected antidepressants was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to undiluted effluent from a Swedish municipal sewage treatment plant for 13 days. Citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine were found in the brains and livers of most fish, but not in blood plasma or muscle. Venlafaxine was the only drug found in plasma (3/20 fish). Fluoxetine was not detected in any fish tissue, in accordance with a low concentration in the effluent and a comparably high limit of quantification in tissues. Concentrations of citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine in fish brain were up to 1/12, 1/8 and 1/26, respectively, of the lowest concentrations found in the brains of mammals treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, given coexposure to several antidepressants and an assumed similar potency in fish, the margin of safety for targetrelated effects in fish residing in effluent-dominated streams is relatively low. Furthermore, the non-detectable levels of these drugs in blood plasma suggest that analyses of concentrations in target tissues (brain) would be more informative in field studies and other studies with environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Guedron, S.
    et al.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brisset, E.
    Sabatier, P.
    Perrot, V.
    Bouchet, S.
    Develle, A. L.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cossa, D.
    Fritz, S. C.
    Baker, P. A.
    Late Holocene volcanic and anthropogenic mercury deposition in the western Central Andes (Lake Chungará, Chile)2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 662, p. 903-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volcanismis one of the major natural processes emitting mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, representing a significant component of the global Hg budget. The importance of volcanic eruptions for local-scale Hg deposition was investigated using analyses of Hg, inorganic elemental tracers, and organic biomarkers in a sediment sequence from Lake Chungara (4520 m a.s.l.). Environmental change and Hg deposition in the immediate vicinity of the Parinacota volcano were reconstructed over the last 2700 years, encompassing the pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic periods. Twenty eruptions delivering large amounts of Hg (1 to 457 mu g Hg m(-2) yr(-1) deposited at the timescale of the event) were locally recorded. Peaks of Hg concentration recorded after most of the eruptions were attributed to a decrease in sedimentation rate together with the rapid re-oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg and deposition with fine particles and incorporation into lake primary producers. Over the study period, the contribution of volcanic emissions has been estimated as 32% of the total Hg input to the lake. Sharp depletions in primary production occurred at each eruption, likely resulting from massive volcaniclastic inputs and changes in the lake-water physico-chemistry. Excluding the volcanic deposition periods, Hg accumulation rates rose from natural background values (1.9 +/- 0.5 mu g m(-2) yr(-1)) by a factor of 2.3 during the pre-colonial mining period (1400-900 yr cal. BP), and by a factor of 6 and 7.6, respectively, during the Hispanic colonial epoch (400-150 yr cal. BP) and the industrial era (similar to 140 yr cal. BP to present). Altogether, the dataset indicates that lake primary production has been the main, but not limiting, carrier for Hg to the sediment. Volcanic activity and climate change are only secondary drivers of local Hg deposition relative to the magnitude of regional and global anthropogenic emissions.

  • 23.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kaste, James M.
    College of William & Mary.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Incorporation of radiometric tracers in peat and implications for estimating accumulation rates2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate dating of peat accumulation is essential for quantitatively reconstructing past changes in atmospheric metal deposition and carbon burial. By analyzing fallout radionuclides Pb-210, Cs-137, Am-241, and Be-7, and total Pb and Hg in 5 cores from two Swedish peatlands we addressed the consequence of estimating accumulation rates due to downwashing of atmospherically supplied elements within peat. The detection of Be-7 down to 18-20 cm for some cores, and the broad vertical distribution of Am-241 without a well-defined peak, suggest some downward transport by percolating rainwater and smearing of atmospherically deposited elements in the uppermost peat layers. Application of the CRS age-depth model leads to unrealistic peat mass accumulation rates (400-600 g m(-2) yr(-1)), and inaccurate estimates of past Pb and Hg deposition rates and trends, based on comparisons to deposition monitoring data (forest moss biomonitoring and wet deposition). After applying a newly proposed IP-CRS model that assumes a potential downward transport of Pb-210 through the uppermost peat layers, recent peat accumulation rates (200-300 g m(-2) yr(-1)) comparable to published values were obtained. Furthermore, the rates and temporal trends in Pb and Hg accumulation correspond more closely to monitoring data, although some off-set is still evident. We suggest that downwashing can be successfully traced using Be-7, and if this information is incorporated into age-depth models, better calibration of peat records with monitoring data and better quantitative estimates of peat accumulation and past deposition are possible, although more work is needed to characterize how downwashing may vary between seasons or years.

  • 24.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Downwash of atmospherically deposited trace metals in peat and the influence of rainfall intensity: An experimental test2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 506, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation records of pollutant metals in peat have been frequently used to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition rates. While there is good support for peat as a record of relative changes in metal deposition over time, questions remain whether peat archives represent a quantitative or a qualitative record. Several processes can potentially influence the quantitative record of which downwashing is particularly pertinent as it would have a direct influence on how and where atmospherically deposited metals are accumulated in peat. The aim of our study was two-fold: first, to compare and contrast the retention of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in peat cores; and second, to test the influence of different precipitation intensities on the potential downwashing of metals. We applied four 'rainfall' treatments to 13 peat cores over a 3-week period, including both daily (2 or 5.3 mm day(-1)) and event-based additions (37 mm day(-1), added over 1 h or over a 10 h rain event). Two main trends were apparent: 1) there was a difference in retention of the added dissolved metals in the surface layer (0-2 cm): 21-85% for Pb, 18-63% for Cu, 10-25% for Zn and 10-20% for Ni. 2) For all metals and both peat types (sphagnum lawn and fen), the addition treatments resulted in different downwashing depths, i.e., as the precipitation-addition increased so did the depth at which added metals could be detected. Although the largest fraction of Pb and Cu was retained in the surface layer and the remainder effectively immobilized in the upper peat (<= 10 cm), there was a smearing effect on the overall retention, where precipitation intensity exerts an influence on the vertical distribution of added trace metals. These results indicate that the relative position of a deposition signal in peat records would be preserved, but it would be quantitatively attenuated. 

  • 25.
    Holmgren, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Leif
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A generic emission model to predict release of organic substances from materials in consumer goods2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic chemicals may be released when consumer goods are used, contributing to environmental and human levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. A generic model was developed to predict emissions of organic chemicals from various materials in consumer products. The model involved three modules, which each predict a key parameter needed to calculate the mass of individual chemicals emitted. Partition coefficients between a material and the surrounding air were predicted using Abraham solvation parameters, diffusion coefficients in materials were calculated using the Piringer equation, and convective mass transfer coefficients were evaluated by applying the Chilton–Colburn analogy. The calculated emission rates from predicted parameters were evaluated and agreed well with literature data. The release of plasticizers from vinyl flooring used in Sweden was calculated to demonstrate the utility of the generic model. The estimated emitted masses of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonylphthalate (DINP), and 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid di-iso-nonyl ester (DINCH) in 2012 were 210 kg, 40 kg, and 3.6 kg respectively. Emissions from vinyl flooring were estimated for the period 1990 to 2035 and it was shown that the recent substitution of DEHP with DINP will help to reduce plasticizer emissions. Model calculations for alternative plasticizers revealed that DINCH would yield similar emissions to DINP, whereas use of diethyl hexyl-iso-sorbide or diethyl hexyl adipate would result in higher emissions.

  • 26. Idavain, J
    et al.
    Julge, K
    Rebane, T
    Lang, A
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. University of Tartu, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Respiratory symptoms, asthma and levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in schoolchildren in the industrial areas of Estonia2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 650, no Pt 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to air pollutants in the ambient environment has been associated with various respiratory symptoms, and with increased asthma diagnosis, in both children and adults. Most research to date has focussed on core pollutants, such as PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2, and less attention has been given to the effects of industry-specific contamination. The current study aimed to examine the associations between respiratory symptoms, asthma, increased levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) (as a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation) and ambient levels of industrial pollutants (such as benzene, phenol, formaldehyde and non-methane hydrocarbons) for schoolchildren living near oil shale industries in Ida-Viru County, Estonia.

    METHODS: A total of 1326 schoolchildren from Ida-Viru, Lääne-Viru and Tartu Counties participated in a cross-sectional study, consisting of questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and asthma, as well as clinical examinations to measure FeNO. Dispersion modelling was used to characterize individual-level exposure to industrial air pollutants at each subject's home address. Associations between exposure and respiratory health were investigated using logistic regression analysis, and differences in results between regions were analysed using the Chi-squared test.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.05) in children living near (i.e. within 5 km) of an oil shale industry site in Ida-Viru County was 2-4 times higher than in children living in the reference area of Tartu County. Children exposed to 1 μg/m3 higher levels of benzene and formaldehyde had a higher odds ratio (OR) of having rhinitis without a cold (OR 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06), of ever having had attacks of asthma (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and of having a dry cough a few days per year (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10). Children exposed to 1 μg/m3 higher levels of benzene, formaldehyde, phenol and non-methane hydrocarbons had a higher odds ratio of having high FeNO levels (≥30 ppb): OR and 95% CI of 1.05, 1.01-1.09; 1.22, 1.06-1.41; 1.01, 1.00-1.01; and 1.75, 1.75-2.62, respectively.

  • 27.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Relationships between congener distribution patterns of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCNs, PCBs, PCBzs and PCPhs formed during flue gas cooling2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 416, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The congener patterns of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC(1-8)DD), dibenzofurans (PC(1-8)DF), naphthalenes (PC(1-8)N), mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC(1-10)B), di- to hexa-chlorinated benzenes (PC(2-6)Bz) and mono- to penta-chlorinated phenols (PC(1-5)Ph) in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at 450°C, 300°C and 200°C in the post-combustion zone during waste incineration in a laboratory-scale reactor in a previous study, were in this study evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA). To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive chemical and multivariate analysis to date of the thermal formation of dioxins. The PCA indicated that different formation pathways occur in the temperature regions 450-300°C and 300-200°C, and reflected a chlorination effect of PCDF and PCDD between 450°C and 200°C which could not be discerned or was less pronounced for the other compound groups. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, as well as total TEQ values (TEQ(Total)) were also calculated, and correlations between changes in levels of specific congeners and the TEQs were explored in the PCA. Levels of four HxCDF congeners and 1,2,3,4,8-, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showed the strongest correlations with TEQ(Total) (R(2)≥0.9). In addition, levels of 1,2,4-TriCBz correlated strongly with TEQ(Total) (R(2)>0.7), supporting previous reports that it may be a potential indicator of the TEQ.

  • 28.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effect of injection of di- and tricyclic aromatic compounds on post-combustion formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 18, p. 3386-3393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of mono- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC(1-8)DD) and dibenzofurans (PC(1-8)DF) was studied using a model waste in a laboratory-scale combustion reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas at three different temperatures (450°C, 300°C, and 200°C) in the post-combustion zone. To investigate the influence of chlorination reactions and the effects of carbon backbone-containing compounds present in the flue gases, five aromatic compounds were injected into the flue gas, namely dibenzofuran (DF), biphenyl (BP), naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The injection of DF induced a reduction in the concentration of PC(3-5)DD, but did not significantly influence the concentration of PCDF. A reduction in the concentration of PC(3-5)DD was also observed during the injection of fluorene, which is structurally very similar to DF. The injection of biphenyl, naphthalene and phenanthrene had less pronounced effects on the formation of PCDD and PCDF. A possible explanation of the observed changes during injection of DF and fluorene, based on homologue profiles and affected congeners, involves formation of radical species from fluorene and/or dibenzofuran. The fluorene radical is stabilized by the delocalization of electrons across the aromatic ring structure and has the propensity to react with highly abundant hydrogen chloride, whereas the molecular species would require reaction with Cl(2) or chlorine radicals.

  • 29. Jaspers, Veerle L. B.
    et al.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Deleu, Pieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Eens, Marcel
    Concentrations in bird feathers reflect regional contamination with organic pollutants2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 4, p. 1447-1451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feathers have recently been shown to be potentially useful non-destructive biomonitoring tools for organic pollutants. However, the suitability of feathers to monitor regional variations in contamination has not been investigated until now. Here concentrations of organic pollutants were compared in feathers of common magpies (/Pica pica/) between urban and rural areas in Flanders, Belgium. The results showed that concentrations of /p,p/'/-/dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were significantly higher in the rural areas (rural: 12-140 ng/g feather, urban: 1.1-7.2 ng/g feather), while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were significantly more available in an urban environment (sum PCBs - rural: 2.9-22 ng/g feather, urban: 41-240 ng/g feather). This pattern agrees with previous studies using other tissues than feathers as a biomonitoring tool. In addition, differences in PCBs and PBDEs profiles were found with lower halogenated congeners being more prominent in the urban areas in comparison to the rural areas. In summary, feathers seem to reflect regional variations in contamination, which strengthens their usefulness as a non-destructive biomonitor for organic pollutants.

  • 30. Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Schantz, Peter
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Almström, Peter
    Markstedt, Anders
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is based on individual data on people's home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 min bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in > 111,000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation.

    Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 μg m− 3decrease in NOx, this corresponds to > 449 (95% CI: 340–558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172–617) and 185 (95% CI: 158–209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Piovano, Susanna
    School of Marine Studies, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 648, p. 1257-1262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg L−1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey – effects would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.

  • 32.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ershammar, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of an antihistamine on carbon and nutrient recycling in streams2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 538, p. 240-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream ecosystems, microbes and macroinvertebrates consume leaf litter deposited from the riparian vegetation, and thereby recycle resources tied up in the litter. Several environmental variables influence rates of this recycling, but it is not well known if common pharmaceuticals, such as antihistamines, originating from waste-water effluent, have additional impacts. Exposure to dilute concentrations of antihistamines may adversely influence aquatic detritivorous invertebrates, because invertebrates use histamines for neurotransmission, resulting in hampered recycling of resource tied up in leaf detritus. In this study, we therefore investigated if the antihistamine fexofenadine, at a concentration of 2000 ng l(-1), alters rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream microcosms. Stonefly larvae (n = 10, per microcosm), together with natural microbial communities, served as main decomposer organisms on alder leaf litter. First, we used 30 microcosms containing fexofenadine, while the other 30 served as non-contaminated controls, and of each 30 microcosms, 14 contained stonefly larvae and microbes, while the remaining 16 contained only microbes. We found, in contrast to our hypothesis, that fexofenadine had no effect on leaf litter decomposition via impacts on the stonefly larvae. However, independent on if stoneflies were present or not, concentrations of organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) were strongly affected, with 20-26 and 24-31% lower concentrations of TOC and N, respectively, in the presence of fexofenadine. Second, in a scaled down follow-up experiment we found that microbial activity increased by 85%, resulting in a 10% decrease in pH, in the presence of fexofenadine. While the antihistamine concentration we used is higher than those thus far found in the field (1-10 ng l(-1)), it is still 100 times lower than the predicted no-effect concentration for fexofenadine. As such, our results indicate that low mu g l(-1) levels of antihistamines can have an effect on carbon and nutrient recycling in aquatic system. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Antihistamines and aquatic insects: Bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, p. 108-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 +/- 42 and 2200 +/- 43 ng 1(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Farmer, John G
    School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland, UK.
    Mackenzie, Angus B
    Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland, UK.
    The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: Atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 20, p. 4344-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.170±0.002; mean±SD) overlapped with that of the peat ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.16±0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources.

  • 35.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leander, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Less anxious salmon smolt become easy prey during downstream migration2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 687, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hatchery-reared salmon smolt used for supplementary stocking often display poor migration behavior compared to wild smolt, which reduces the success of this management action. Oxazepam, an anxiolytic drug, has been shown to intensify salmon smolt migration in mesocosm experiments, and treatment with this drug has, therefore, been suggested as a management option to improve downstream smolt migration. In this study, we tested this by assessing migration performance of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt along a 21-km long natural river-to-sea migration route in a boreal river in Northern Sweden. Using acoustic telemetry, the migration rate and survival of smolt that had been exposed to oxazepam (200 mu g L-1, N = 20) was monitored and compared with a control group (N = 20) of unexposed smolt. Exposed smolt took significantly longer time to initiate migration after release compared to the control fish, but after that we observed no significant difference in downstream migration speed. However, exposed smolt had considerably higher probability of being predated on compared to control smolt. We attribute these results to increased risk-taking and higher activity in oxazepam-exposed smolt, which in turn increased initial non-directional exploratory behavior and decreased predator vigilance. These results are discussed based on current concerns for ecological implications of behavioral modifications induced by pharmaceutical pollution and climate change. We conclude that exposure to oxazepam is an unsuitable management option to prime migration of reared salmon in natural systems.

  • 36.
    Krohn, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, Georg-August University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
    Lozanovska, Ivana
    Kuzyakov, Yakov
    Parvin, Shahnaj
    Dorodnikov, Maxim
    CH4 and CO2 production below two contrasting peatland micro-relief forms: An inhibitor and delta C-13 study2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 586, p. 142-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two peatland micro-relief forms (microforms) - hummocks and hollows - differ by their hydrological characteristics (water table level, i.e. oxic-anoxic conditions) and vegetation communities. We studied the CH4 and CO2 production potential and the localization of methanogenic pathways in both hummocks and hollows at depths of 15, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm in a laboratory incubation experiment. For this purpose, we measured CH4 and CO2 production rates, peat elemental composition, as well as delta C-13 values of gases and solids; the specific inhibitor of methanogenesis BES (2-bromo-ethane sulfonate, 1 mM) was aimed to preferentially block the acetoclastic pathway. The cumulative CH4 production of all depths was almost one fold higher in hollows than in hummocks, with no differences in CO2. With depth, CO2 and CH4 production decreased, and the relative contribution of the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methanogenesis increased. The highest methanogenic activity among all depths and both microforms was measured at 15 cm of hollows (91%) at which the highest relative contribution of acetoclastic vs. hydrogenotrophic pathway (92 and 8%, respectively) was detected. For hummocks, the CH4 production was the highest at 50 cm (82%), where relative contribution of acetoclastic methanogenesis comprised 89%. The addition of 1 mM BES was not selective and inhibited both methanogenic pathways in the soil. Thus, BES was less efficient in partitioning the pathways compared with the delta C-13 signature. We conclude that the peat microforms - dry hummocks and wet hollows - play an important role for CH4 but not for CO2 production when the effects of living vegetation are excluded. 

  • 37.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    No evidence of increased growth or mortality in fish exposed to oxazepam in semi-natural ecosystems2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 615, p. 608-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of short-term laboratory studies on fish reports behavioral effects from exposure to aquatic contaminants or raised carbon dioxide levels affecting the GABAAreceptor. However, how such GABAergic behavioral modifications (GBMs) impact populations in more complex natural systems is not known. In this study, we induced GBMs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) via exposure to a GABA agonist (oxazepam) and followed the effects on growth and survival over one summer (70 days) in replicated pond ecosystems. We hypothesized that anticipated GBMs, expressed as anti-anxiety like behaviors (higher activity and boldness levels), that increase feeding rates in laboratory assays, would; i) increase growth and ii) increase mortality from predation. To test our hypotheses, 480 PIT tagged perch of known individual weights, and 12 predators (northern pike, Esox lucius) were evenly distributed in 12 ponds; six control (no oxazepam) and six spiked (15.5 ± 4 μg l− 1 oxazepam [mean ± 1 S.E.]) ponds. Contrary to our hypotheses, even though perch grew on average 16% more when exposed to oxazepam, we found no significant difference between exposed and control fish in growth (exposed: 3.9 ± 1.2 g, control: 2.9 ± 1 g [mean ± 1 S.E.], respectively) or mortality (exposed: 26.5 ± 1.8 individuals pond− 1, control: 24.5 ± 2.6 individuals pond− 1, respectively). In addition, we show that reduced prey capture efficiency in exposed pike may explain the lack of significant differences in predation. Hence, our results suggest that GBMs, which in laboratory studies impact fish behavior, and subsequently also feeding rates, do not seem to generate strong effects on growth and predation-risk in more complex and resource limited natural environments.

  • 38.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bioaccumulation of five pharmaceuticals at multiple trophic levels in an aquatic food web: Insights from a field experiment2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 568, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals derived from manufacturing and human consumption contaminate surface waters worldwide. To what extent such pharmaceutical contamination accumulates and disperses over time in different compartments of aquatic food webs is not well known. In this study we assess to what extent five pharmaceuticals (diphenhydramine, oxazepam, trimethoprim, diclofenac, and hydroxyzine) are taken up by fish (European perch) and four aquatic invertebrate taxa (damselfly larvae, mayfly larvae, waterlouse, and ramshorn snail), by tracing their bioconcentrations over several months in a semi-natural large-scale (pond) system. The results suggest both significant differences among drugs in their capacity to bioaccumulate and differences among species in uptake. While no support for in situ uptake of diclofenac and trimethoprim was found, oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine were detected in all analyzed species. Here, the highest bioaccumulation factor (tissue:water ratio) was found for hydroxyzine. In the food web, the highest concentrations were found in the benthic species ramshorn snail and waterlouse, indicating that bottom-living organism at lower trophic positions are the prime receivers of the pharmaceuticals. In general, concentrations in the biota decreased over time in response to decreasing water concentrations. However, two interesting exceptions to this trend were noted. First, mayfly larvae (primarily grazers) showed peak concentrations (a fourfold increase) of oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine about 30 days after initial addition of pharmaceuticals. Second, perch (top-predator) showed an increase in concentrations of oxazepam throughout the study period. Our results show that drugs can remain bioavailable for aquatic organism for long time periods (weeks to months) and even re-enter the food web at a later time. As such, for an understanding of accumulation and dispersion of pharmaceuticals in aquatic food webs, detailed ecological knowledge is required.

  • 39. Lundström, Sara V.
    et al.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Rutgersson, Carolin
    Thoudal, Malin
    Sircar, Triranta
    Blanck, Hans
    Eriksson, K. Martin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Minimal selective concentrations of tetracycline in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 553, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection pressure generated by antibiotics released into the environment could enrich for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, thereby increasing the risk for transmission to humans and animals. Tetracyclines comprise an antibiotic class of great importance to both human and animal health. Accordingly, residues of tetracycline are commonly detected in aquatic environments. To assess if tetracycline pollution in aquatic environments promotes development of resistance, we determined minimal selective concentrations (MSCs) in biofilms of complex aquatic bacterial communities using both phenotypic and genotypic assays. Tetracycline significantly increased the relative abundance of resistant bacteria at 10 μg/L, while specific tet genes (tetA and tetG) increased significantly at the lowest concentration tested (1 μg/L). Taxonomic composition of the biofilm communities was altered with increasing tetracycline concentrations. Metagenomic analysis revealed a concurrent increase of several tet genes and a range of other genes providing resistance to different classes of antibiotics (e.g. cmlA, floR, sul1, and mphA), indicating potential for co-selection. Consequently, MSCs for the tet genes of ≤ 1 μg/L suggests that current exposure levels in e.g. sewage treatment plants could be sufficient to promote resistance. The methodology used here to assess MSCs could be applied in risk assessment of other antibiotics as well.

  • 40. Madrigal-Gonzalez, Jaime
    et al.
    Andivia, Enrique
    Zavala, Miguel A.
    Stoffel, Markus
    Calatayud, Joaquin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Sanchez-Salguero, Raul
    Ballesteros-Canovas, Juan
    Disentangling the relative role of climate change on tree growth in an extreme Mediterranean environment2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 642, p. 619-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change can impair ecosystem functions and services in extensive dry forests worldwide. However, attribution of climate change impacts on tree growth and forest productivity is challenging due to multiple interannual patterns of climatic variability associated with atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Moreover, growth responses to rising atmospheric CO2, namely carbon fertilization, as well as size ontogenetic changes can obscure the climate change signature as well. Here we apply Structural Equation Models (SEM) to investigate the relative role of climate change on tree growth in an extreme Mediterranean environment (i.e., extreme in terms of the combination of sandy-unconsolidated soils and climatic aridity). Specifically, we analyzed potential direct and indirect pathways by which different sources of climatic variability (i.e. warming and precipitation trends, the North Atlantic Oscillation, [NAO]; the Mediterranean Oscillation, MOO: the Atlantic Mediterranean Oscillation, [AMO]) affect aridity through their control on local climate (in terms of mean annual temperature and total annual precipitation), and subsequently tree productivity, in terms of basal area increments (BAI). Our results support the predominant role of Diameter at Breast Height (DHB) as the main growth driver. In terms of climate, NAO and AMO are the most important drivers of tree growth through their control of aridity (via effects of precipitation and temperature, respectively). Furthermore and contrary to current expectations, our findings also support a net positive role of climate warming on growth over the last 50 years and suggest that impacts of climate warming should be evaluated considering multi-annual and multi-decadal periods of local climate defined by atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the North Atlantic. 

  • 41. Martínez Cortizas, Antonio
    et al.
    López-Merino, Lourdes
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mighall, Tim
    Kylander, Malin E.
    Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 545-546, p. 398-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to similar to 3500-3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From similar to 8000 to similar to 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 +/- 4 mu g g(-1); Pb-206/Pb-207 1.204 +/- 0.002). A sustained period of low Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios occurred from similar to 4980 to similar to 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (similar to 4980-3700 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (similar to 3700-3500 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (similar to 3500-2800 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (similar to 2800-2470 cal. yr. BP), Pb-206/Pb-207 increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and archaeological records.

  • 42.
    McCallum, Erin S.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Krutzelmann, Emily
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Balshine, Sigal
    Exposure to wastewater effluent affects fish behaviour and tissue-specific uptake of pharmaceuticals2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605-606, p. 578-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) are increasingly being reported in wastewater effluents and surface waters around the world. The presence of these products, designed to modulate human physiology and behaviour, has created concern over whether PhACs similarly affect aquatic organisms. Though laboratory studies are beginning to address the effects of individual PhACs on fish behaviour, few studies have assessed the effects of exposure to complex, realistic wastewater effluents on fish behaviour. In this study, we exposed a wild, invasive fish species—the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)—to treated wastewater effluent (0%, 50% or 100% effluent dilutions) for 28 days. We then determined the impact of exposure on fish aggression, an important behaviour for territory acquisition and defense. We found that exposure to 100% wastewater effluent reduced the number of aggressive acts that round goby performed. We complimented our behavioural assay with measures of pharmaceutical uptake in fish tissues. We detected 11 of 93 pharmaceutical compounds that we tested for in round goby tissues, and we found that concentration was greatest in the brain followed by plasma, then gonads, then liver, and muscle. Fish exposed to 50% and 100% effluent had higher tissue concentrations of pharmaceuticals and concentrated a greater number of pharmaceutical compounds compare to control fish exposed to no (0%) effluent. Exposed fish also showed increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver tissue, suggesting that fish were exposed to planar halogenated/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHHs/PAHs) in the wastewater effluent. Our findings suggest that fish in effluent-dominated systems may have altered behaviours and greater tissue concentration of PhACs. Moreover, our results underscore the importance of characterizing exposure to multiple pollutants, and support using behaviour as a sensitive tool for assessing animal responses to complex contaminant mixtures, like wastewater effluent.

  • 43. Molander, Linda
    et al.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rudén, Christina
    Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? Missing links in EU chemical management.2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 435-436, p. 280-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

  • 44.
    Nyholm Rattfelt, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Moskeland, Thomas
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Environmental occurrence of emerging and legacy brominated flame retardants near suspected sources in Norway2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, p. 307-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental occurrence of potentially emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was investigated near suspected source zones in Norway, within seepage water, sewage waste water, sewage sludges, and sediments. Analyzed emerging BFRs included 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), ethylene bis(tetrabromophthalimide) (EBTPI), tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether (TBBPA AE), and tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dipropyl ether) (TBBPA DBPE). In addition selected polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were analyzed, so that findings could be compared to legacy BFRs. An analytical method based on liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analysis of EBTPI, TBBPA AE, and TBBPA DBPE. The legacy BFRs were in general found in higher levels and abundances than the studied emerging BFRs. However, BTBPE was detected in most of the studied matrices (sewage sludge, seepage water and sediment). DBDPE was detected in sewage sludge, waste water, seepage water and in sediment taken close to a combined metal recycling and car dismantling site. TBECH was found in seepage water, waste water and sewage sludge. EBTPI was identified in one seepage water sample; TBBPA AE was detected both in seepage water and sediment, and TBPPA DBPE in waste water and seepage water. Of the emerging BFRs, the highest levels in water samples were quantified for TBBPA DBPE (81ng/L, seepage water from a combined metal recycling and car dismantling site) and in sediment for BTBPE (6.5ng/g, taken close to landfill). The findings of current-use BFRs in seepage water, sediment and in sewage suggest that further investigations are needed of the environmental fate and effects of these flame retardants.

  • 45.
    Olid, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Diego, David
    Garcia-Orellana, Jordi
    Martinez Cortizas, Antonio
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Modeling the downward transport of Pb-210 in Peatlands: Initial Penetration-Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 541, p. 1222-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical distribution of 210Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100-150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of 210Pb within somepeat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration-Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radio-nuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived 210Pb (210Pbxs) in peat taking into account both incorporation of 210Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of 210Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous 210Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used210Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. 241Am and 137Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where 210Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene.

  • 46.
    Olid, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Garcia-Orellana, Jordi
    Masque, Pere
    Martinez Cortizas, Antonio
    Albert Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Improving the Pb-210-chronology of Pb deposition in peat cores from Chao de Lamoso (NW Spain)2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, p. 597-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural radionuclide Pb-210 is commonly used to establish accurate and precise chronologies for the recent (past 100-150 years) layers of peat deposits. The most widely used Pb-210-dating model, Constant Rate of Supply (CRS), was applied using data from three peat cores from Chao de Lamoso, an ombrotrophic mire in Galicia (NW Spain). On the basis of the CRS-chronologies, maximum Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EFs) occurred in the 1960s and late 1970s, consistent with the historical use of Pb. However, maximum Pb fluxes were dated in the 1940s and the late 1960s, 10 to 20 years earlier. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that, although the Pb-210 distribution was mainly (74%) controlled by radioactive decay, about 20% of the Pb-210 flux variability was associated with atmospheric metal pollution, suggesting an extra Pb-210 supply source and thus invalidating the main assumption of the CRS model. When the CRS-ages were recalculated after correcting for the extra input from the Pb-210 inventory of the uppermost peat layers of each core, Pb flux variations were consistent with the historical atmospheric Pb deposition. Our results not only show the robustness of the CRS model to establish accurate chronologies of recent peat deposits but also provide evidence that there are confounding factors that might influence the calculation of reliable peat accumulation rates (and thus also element accumulation rates/fluxes). This study emphasizes the need to verify the hypotheses of Pb-210-dating models and the usefulness of a full geochemical interpretation of peat bog records.

  • 47.
    Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
    Kimmel, Veljo
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Kikas, Ülle
    University of Tartu.
    Soon, Argo
    Archimedes Foundation.
    Künzli, Nino
    CREAL.
    Schins, Roel
    University of Dusseldorf.
    Borm, Paul
    Centre of Expertise Life Sciences .
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Elemental composition and oxidative properties of PM2.5 in Estonia in relation to origin of air masses: results from the ECRHS II in Tartu2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 7, p. 1515-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was sampled at an urban background site in Tartu, Estonia over one-year period during the ECRHS II study. The elemental composition of 71 PM2.5 samples was analyzed for different chemical elements using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF). The oxidative activity of 36 samples was assessed by measuring their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.

    The origin of air masses was determined by computing 96-hour back trajectories of air masses with the HYSPLIT Model. The trajectories of air masses were divided into four sectors according to geographical patterns: “Russia,” “Eastern Europe,” “Western Europe,” and “Scandinavia.”

    During the study period, approximately 30% of air masses originated from “Scandinavia.”  The other three sectors had slightly lower values (between 18 and 22%). In spring, summer, and winter, higher total PM levels originated from air masses from continental areas, namely “Russia” and “Eastern Europe” (18.51±7.33 and 19.96±9.23 μgm-3, respectively). In autumn, the PM levels were highest in “Western Europe”. High levels of Fe, Ti, and AlCaSi (Al, Ca, Si) were also detected in air masses from the Eurasian continent. The oxidative properties were correlated to the origin of air masses. The ∙OH values were approximately 1.5 times higher when air masses originated from the direction of “Eastern Europe” or “Russia.”

    The origin of measured particles was evaluated using principal compo­nent factor analysis. When comparing the PM2.5 elemental composition with seasonal variation, factor scores, and other studies, the factors represent: (1) combustion of biomass; (2) crustal dust; (3) traffic; and (4) power plants and industrial processes associated with oil burning.

    The total PM2.5 is driven mainly by biomass and industrial combustion (63%) and other unidentified sources (23%). Other sources of PM, such as crustal dust and traffic, contribute a total of 13%.

  • 48. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Hao, Xin
    Wang, Li
    Xu, Yixue
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gao, Xiang
    Lin, Chunye
    Watershed diffuse pollution dynamics and response to land development assessment with riverine sediments2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 659, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores can reflect diffuse pollution history due to the accumulation of pollutants over time, therefore, the quantitative relationship between the sedimentation flux of pollutants and diffuse loads can identify the historical change. Sediment cores were collected from two river reaches in a small agricultural watershed (143 km2), and the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were determined. The sediments were dated using 210Pb isotope radioactivity and the TN and TP sedimentation flux was calculated with Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) and Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) models. Watershed loss loads were simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the same temporal period. As the similar natural condition in the post-depositional period of sediments, a linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship between TN and TP sedimentation flux and the hindcast model data. The TP sedimentation flux showed a clear positive relationship with its simulated load (R2 = 0.600 and 0.664) using the CRS model, and better reflected long-term diffuse pollution loss dynamics than nitrogen. The impacts of land use change on diffuse pollution loading were identified with the combination of sedimentation flux from different reaches and watershed modeling. During the expansion of paddy land in the lower reach, the difference of TP sedimentation flux between upper and lower reaches narrowed, while gap of TN sedimentation flux increased. Base on the lateral correlations of two sections, the sediment concentration of TP was more reliable for the long term diffuse pollution assessment under land development.

  • 49.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Emissions of two phthalate esters and BDE 209 to indoor air and their impact on urban air quality2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 470-471, p. 527-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimated emissions of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) and the two phthalate esters diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) to indoor air in Stockholm, Sweden were used to assess the contribution of chemical outflows from the indoor environment to urban outdoor air pollution for these substances, by applying the recently developed Stockholm MUltimedia URban fate (SMURF) model (Cousins, 2012). Emission rates of DEHP and DINP from PVC materials were measured and used as input to the model, as well as recently reported estimates of BDE 209 emissions to indoor air in Stockholm. Model predicted concentrations were compared to empirical monitoring data obtained from the literature and from additional measurements of phthalates in ventilation outlets and urban air performed in the current study. The predicted concentrations of the phthalates DEHP and DINP in indoor air and dust were within a factor of 1.8-8 of the measured concentrations, but indoor concentrations of BDE 209 were underpredicted by about a factor of 30. The outflow of DEHP and DINP from the indoor environment was shown to be negligible compared with the estimated amounts entering the city with inflowing air, whereas for BDE 209, releases from the indoor environment may correspond to about 30 % of the input via inflowing air, if the suggested understimation of emissions is taken into account. The study further shows that chemical removal from the indoor environment through various cleaning activities is more important for BDE 209 than for the phthalates, but that cleaning affects the concentration in dust for all three substances. Improved knowledge of indoor particle behaviour would reduce the uncertanity in the modeled concentration in indoor air and dust.

  • 50. Pascal, M
    et al.
    Corso, M
    Chanel, O
    Declercq, C
    Badaloni, C
    Cesaroni, G
    Henschel, S
    Meister, Kadri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Haluza, D
    Martin-Olmedo, P
    Medina, S
    Assessing the public health impacts of urban air pollution in 25 European cities: Results of the Aphekom project2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 449, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The Aphekom project aimed to provide new, clear, and meaningful information on the health effects of air pollution in Europe. Among others, it assessed the health and monetary benefits of reducing short and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and ozone in 25 European cities. METHOD: Health impact assessments were performed using routine health and air quality data, and a common methodology. Two scenarios were considered: a decrease of the air pollutant levels by a fixed amount and a decrease to the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines. Results were economically valued by using a willingness to pay approach for mortality and a cost of illness approach for morbidity. RESULTS: In the 25 cities, the largest health burden was attributable to the impacts of chronic exposure to PM2.5. Complying with the WHO guideline of 10μg/m3 in annual mean would add up to 22months of life expectancy at age 30, depending on the city, corresponding to a total of 19,000 deaths delayed. The associated monetary gain would total some €31billion annually, including savings on health expenditures, absenteeism and intangible costs such as well-being, life expectancy and quality of life. CONCLUSION: European citizens are still exposed to concentrations exceeding the WHO recommendations. Aphekom provided robust estimates confirming that reducing urban air pollution would result in significant health and monetary gains in Europe. This work is particularly relevant now when the current EU legislation is being revised for an update in 2013.

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