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  • 1.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the value of large predators in Sweden: a regional stratified contingent valuation analysis2007In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 1066-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes with an applied policy analysis of the predator preservation policy in Sweden. We estimate the overall mean willingness to pay (WTP) for preserving the four large predators in the Swedish fauna by applying the contingent valuation method. Using survey data from 2004 we find that 50 percent of the Swedish population is willing to contribute financially toward implementation of the predator policy package, and that the estimated overall mean WTP is approximately SEK 290. Further, we test for spatial differences in attitudes and WTP and find that respondents in Stockholm have the highest overall mean WTP, while respondents living in wolf-territories have the lowest. Our mean WTP measure is flawed with upward bias, since we cannot estimate the willingness to accept for those with clearly negative preferences regarding the predator policy package (e.g. hunters). In this paper, we set their WTP equal to zero. Thus, we cannot rule out the possibility that the mean willingness to pay is, in fact, negative, i.e. the social-value of implementing the predator policy is negative. Finally, the estimates of the overall WTP are sensitive to response-uncertainty. When the respondents indicate uncertainty about their valuation, they tend to state higher values.

  • 2.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Effect of residue combinations on plant uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic elements2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 132, p. 287-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the plant pot experiment was to evaluate potential environmental impacts of combined industrial residues to be used as soil fertilisers by analysing i) element availability in fly ash and biosolids mixed with soil both individual and in combination, ii) changes in element phytoavailability in soil fertilised with these materials and iii) impact of the fertilisers on plant growth and element uptake.

    Plant pot experiments were carried out, using soil to which fresh residue mixtures had been added. The results showed that element availability did not correlate with plant growth in the fertilised soil with. The largest concentrations of K (3534 mg/l), Mg (184 mg/l), P (1.8 mg/l), S (760 mg/l), Cu (0.39 mg/l) and Zn (0.58 mg/l) in soil pore water were found in the soil mixture with biosolids and MSWI fly ashes; however plants did not grow at all in mixtures containing the latter, most likely due to the high concentration of chlorides (82 g/kg in the leachate) in this ash. It is known that high salinity of soil can reduce germination by e.g. limiting water absorption by the seeds. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in grown plants were negligible in most of the soils and were below the instrument detection limit values.

    The proportions of biofuel fly ash and biosolids can be adjusted in order to balance the amount and availability of macronutrients, while the possible increase of potentially toxic elements in biomass is negligible seeing as the plant uptake of such elements was low.

  • 3. Demuzere, M
    et al.
    Orru, K
    Heidrich, O
    Olazabal, E
    Geneletti, D
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. University of Tartu, Department of Public Health, Tartu, Estonia.
    Bhave, AG
    Mittal, N
    Feliu, E
    Faehnle, M
    Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 146, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas.

  • 4. Heidrich, O
    et al.
    Reckien, D
    Olazabal, M
    Foley, A
    Salvia, M
    de Gregorio Hurtado, S
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Flacke, J
    Geneletti, D
    Pietrapertosa, F
    Hamann, J J-P
    Tiwary, A
    Feliu, E
    Dawson, R J
    National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 168, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities.

  • 5.
    Kosawang, Chatchai
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Kudahettige, Rasika Lasanthi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Resman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Hydrogen yield from a hydrogenase in Frankia R43 at different levels of the carbon source propionate2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 95, no Supplement, p. S365-S368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fermentative hydrogen yield was investigated in the Frankia strain R43, which was grown in different amounts of the carbon source propionate. In relation to hydrogen yield, the hydrogenase enzyme was characterized by use of Western blot. A bioreactor study revealed a 10-fold increase in growth within 50 h. The study showed that there is an active anaerobic hydrogen production in Frankia R43 and that this hydrogenase is immunologically related to the subunit HoxU of Ralstonia eutropha.

  • 6. Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Viklund, Roine
    Competing pathways to sustainability?: Exploring conflicts over mine establishments in the Swedish mountain region2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 218, p. 402-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural resource (NR) exploitation often gives rise to conflict. While most actors intend to manage collectively used places and their NRs sustainably, they may disagree about what this entails. This article accordingly explores the origin of NR conflicts by analysing them in terms of competing pathways to sustainability. By comparing conflicts over mine establishments in three places in northern Sweden, we specifically explore the role of place-based perceptions and experiences.

    The results indicate that the investigated conflicts go far beyond the question of metals and mines. The differences between pathways supporting mine establishment and those opposing it refer to fundamental ideas about human nature relationships and sustainable development (SD). The study suggests that place-related parameters affect local interpretations of SD and mobilisation in ways that explain why resistance and conflict exist in some places but not others. A broader understanding of a particular conflict and its specific place-based trajectory may help uncover complex underlying reasons. However, our comparative analysis also demonstrates that mining conflicts in different places share certain characteristics. Consequently, a site-specific focus ought to be combined with attempts to compare, or map, conflicts at a larger scale to improve our understanding of when and how conflicts evolve. By addressing the underlying causes and origins of contestation, this study generates knowledge needed to address NR management conflicts effectively and legitimately. 

  • 7.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 150, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Firm performance and the role of environmental management2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 203, p. 330-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the interactions between three dimensions of firm performance productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance and especially sheds light on the role of environmental management. In this context, environmental management is investments to reduce environmental impact, which may also affect firm competitiveness, in terms of change in productivity, and spur more (or less) efficient use of energy. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique to calculate the Malmquist firm performance indexes, and a panel vector auto-regression (VAR) methodology is utilized to investigate the dynamic and causal relationship between the three dimensions of firm performance and environmental investment. Main results show that energy efficiency and environmental performance are integrated, and energy efficiency and productivity positively reinforce each other, signifying the cost saving property of more efficient use of energy. Hence, increasing energy efficiency, as advocated in many of today's energy policies, could capture multiple benefits. The results also show that improved environmental performance and environmental investments constrain next period productivity, a result that would be in contrast with the Porter hypothesis and strategic corporate social responsibility; both concepts conveying the notion that pro-environmental management can boost productivity and competitiveness.

  • 9.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Konjunkturinstitutet, National Institute of Economic Research.
    What is driving the EU burden-sharing agreement: Efficiency or equity?2007In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 317-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the Kyoto Protocol the European Union agreed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 8 percent. The Burden-Sharing Agreement (BSA) redistributes the reduction target among the member states. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the BSA. To determine if cost efficiency was considered, marginal abatement costs (MACs) are first calculated based on an estimation of the directional output distance function using country production data for 1990–2000. MACs, together with equity indicators, are then regressed on the emission change targets. The main conclusion is that both efficiency and equity were important aspects considered in the settlement.

  • 10. Ranius, Thomas
    et al.
    Hämäläinen, Aino
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Olsson, Bengt
    Eklöf, Karin
    Stendahl, Johan
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Felton, Adam
    The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: a synthesis2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 209, p. 409-425Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization), though these may also be associated with adverse environmental impacts.

  • 11.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Segerström, Ulf
    SLU, Department of Forest Ecology and Management.
    Environmental history: A piece in the puzzle for establishing plans for environmental management2009In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 2794-2800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishment of plans for environmental planning and management requires that a number of natural and societal factors must be taken into consideration. Insights into the inherent dynamics of nature as well as the role that past human activities have played for establishing the current condition of the landscape and the natural environment in general are essential. Many natural and man-made changes occur over time scales of decades or centuries, and these are difficult to comprehend without a historical perspective. Such a perspective can be obtained using palaeoecological studies, i.e. by geochemical and biological analyses of lake sediment and peat deposits. To illustrate the long-term dynamics of nature and particularly the role of man, we present here five case studies from Sweden concerning pollution, lake acidification, lake eutrophication, biodiversity, and landscape dynamics and conservation – topics of broad interests – and discuss benefits of including a longer time perspective in environmental management.

  • 12.
    Scott, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fängmark, Ingrid
    Use of questionnaires and an expert panel as a method to judge the environmental consequences of chemical spills for the development of an environment-accident index2005In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the environmental consequences of a chemical accident is a complex task. To date, the methods used to evaluate the environmental effects of an acute release of a chemical have often been based on measurements of chemical and physical variables deemed to be important, such as the concentration of the chemical. However, a broader strategy is needed to predict the environmental consequences of potential accidents during the planning process. An Environment-Accident Index (EAI), a simple tool based on such a strategy, has been developed to facilitate the consideration of a multitude of influential variables. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether questionnaire-based expert panel's judgements could provide useful data on the environmental consequences of chemical spills, and an effective basis for further development of the EAI. As expected, the judgements did not agree perfectly, but they do give rough indications of the environmental effects, and highlight consistent trends that should be useful inputs for planning, prevention and decontamination processes. The different accidents were also judged to have caused everything from minor to very major effects in the environment, implying that a wide range of accident scenarios were represented in the material and covered by the EAL Therefore, questionnaires and expert panel judgements can be used to collect useful data for estimating the likely environmental consequences of chemical accidents and for further development of the EAI.

  • 13. Volchko, Yevheniya
    et al.
    Norrman, Jenny
    Bergknut, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Envix, Umeå.
    Rosen, Lars
    Soderqvist, Tore
    Incorporating the soil function concept into sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives2013In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 129, p. 367-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil functions are critical for ecosystem survival and thus for an ecosystem's provision of services to humans. This is recognized in the proposed EU Soil Framework Directive from 2006, which lists seven important soil functions and services to be considered in a soil management practice. Emerging regulatory requirements demand a holistic view on soil evaluation in remediation projects. This paper presents a multi-scale, structured and transparent approach for incorporating the soil function concept into sustainability appraisal of remediation alternatives using a set of ecological, socio-cultural and economic criteria. The basis for the presented approach is a conceptualization of the linkages between soil functions and ecosystem services connected to with the sustainability paradigm. The approach suggests using (1) soil quality indicators (i.e. physical, chemical and biological soil properties) for exploring the performance of soil functions at the site level, and (2) soil service indicators (i.e. value-related measurements) for evaluating the performance of services resulting from soil functions across all levels of the spatial scale. The suggested approach is demonstrated by application in a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework for sustainability appraisals of remediation alternatives. Further, the possibilities of using soil quality indicators for soil function evaluation are explored by reviewing existing literature on potential negative and positive effects of remediation technologies on the functionality of the treated soil. The suggested approach for including the soil function concept in remediation projects is believed to provide a basis for better informed decisions that will facilitate efficient management of contaminated land and to meet emerging regulatory requirements on soil protection.

  • 14.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Who should manage protected areas in the Swedish mountain region?: A survey approach to co-management2008In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 154-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates attitudes towards co-management of protected areas in Sweden, at the national, county and local level. In Sweden, protected areas are still primarily designated and managed hierarchically—a practice increasingly contested by people living close to them, including indigenous Sámi reindeer herders whose economic activities are located within protected areas. The general view could, on the contrary, be anticipated to be pro-state since protected areas are considered to be of national interest. For democratic reasons, however, the opinions of the whole population should be considered. In order to measure both local and general views, this study is based on a two-sample survey of 8868 respondents. The objectives are to map and explain attitudes regarding who should manage protected areas in Sweden, and to test the usefulness of a multi-level quantitative method. Such an approach is unusual in co-management literature that is empirically mainly based on local case studies. The explanatory ambition sets out to test three hypotheses drawn from common-pool resource theory; resource dependency, common understanding, and trust. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that a considerable majority of the respondents (at all levels) wish to see self- or co-management. All three hypotheses are important to understand attitudes toward the management of protected areas, but not always in the way that the theory anticipates.

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