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  • 1.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meier, H.E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effectson the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2–4 Cwarming and 50–80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100.Precipitation may increase *30 % in the north, causingincreased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter(AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity.Coupled physical–biogeochemical models indicate that, inthe south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing codrecruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release,thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north,heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, whilephytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophiclevels in the food web may increase energy losses andconsequently reduce fish production. Future managementof the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climatechange on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as wellas the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load.Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassingboth autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g.,bacterial) processes.

  • 2. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Axelsson, Robert
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Degerman, Erik
    Eggers, Sönke
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Johansson, Therese
    Müller, Jörg
    Paltto, Heidi
    Snäll, Tord
    Soloviy, Ihor
    Törnblom, Johan
    Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability: The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards' ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC's ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.

  • 3.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Strömgren, Mårten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Importance of coastal primary production in the northern Baltic Sea2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 635-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular.

  • 4.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. Suppl 3, no 44, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and "bulk'' (precipitation ? dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

  • 5.
    Björn, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Larsson, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lambertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Frech, Wolfgang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Recent Advances in Mercury Speciation Analysis with Focus on Spectrometric Methods and Enriched Stable Isotope Applications2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 443–51-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses some recent advances in spectrometric methods and approaches for mercury speciation analysis of environmental samples with focus on isotope dilution techniques for determination of mercury species' concentrations in gaseous samples and reaction rates in soils and sediments. Such analytical data is important inter alia in fundamental research on mercury biogeochemistry and for risk assessments of mercury-contaminated soils and sediments and for designing effective remedial actions. The paper describes how the use of enriched stable isotope tracers in mercury speciation analysis can improve the traceability and accuracy of results, facilitate rational method developments, and be useful for studying biogeochemical processes, i.e. rate of reactions and fluxes, of mercury species. In particular the possibilities to study and correct for unwanted species transformation reactions during sample treatment and to study “natural” transformations of species in environmental samples, or micro- and mesocosm ecosystems, during incubations are highlighted. Important considerations to generate relevant data in isotope tracer experiments as well as reliability and quality assurance of mercury speciation analysis in general are also discussed.

  • 6. Blenckner, Thorsten
    et al.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Larsson, Per
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S507-S515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea.

  • 7. Bonsdorff, Erik
    et al.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Integrating social and ecological perspectives2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S333-S334Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Department of Aquatic Science and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Innala, Sophia
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Department of Aquatic Science and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Acidification remediation alternatives: Exploring the temporal dimension with cost benefit analysis2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification of soils and surface waters caused by acid deposition is still a major problem in southern Scandinavia, despite clear signs of recovery. Besides emission control, liming of lakes, streams, and wetlands is currently used to ameliorate acidification in Sweden. An alternative strategy is forest soil liming to restore the acidified upland soils from which much acidified runoff originates. This cost–benefit analysis compared these liming strategies with a special emphasis on the time perspective for expected benefits. Benefits transfer was used to estimate use values for sport ffishing and nonuse values in terms of existence values. The results show that large-scale forest soil liming is not socioeconomically profitable, while lake liming is, if it is done efficiently—in other words, if only acidified surface waters are treated. The beguiling logic of “solving” an environmental problem at its source (soils), rather than continuing to treat the symptoms (surface waters), is thus misleading.

  • 9.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ulf
    Hjälten, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ståhl, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, David
    Olsson, Jens
    Declining coastal piscivore populations in the Baltic Sea: where and when do sticklebacks matter?2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S462-S471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraguild predation interactions make fish communities prone to exhibit alternative stable states with either piscivore or prey fish dominance. In the Baltic Sea, local declines of coastal piscivores like perch (Perca fluviatilis) have been observed to coincide with high densities of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Mechanisms behind this shift between piscivore and stickleback dominance were studied both experimentally and in field. Results showed that predation by sticklebacks has a strong negative effect on perch larvae survival, but this effect rapidly decreases with increasing perch size, likely due to gape limitations and digestion constraints in sticklebacks. Large spatial and temporal variations in patterns of stickleback migration into perch spawning sites were observed. Whether or not high density of sticklebacks will cause declines in coastal piscivore populations is suggested to depend on the availability of spawning sites in which sticklebacks do not migrate into or arrive late in the reproduction season of coastal piscivores.

  • 10. Callaghan, Terry V.
    et al.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Brown, Ross D.
    Groisman, Pavel Ya
    Labba, Niklas
    Radionov, Vladimir
    Bradley, Raymond S.
    Blangy, Sylvie
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Colman, Jonathan E.
    Essery, Richard L. H.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Forchhammer, Mads C.
    Golubev, Vladimir N.
    Honrath, Richard E.
    Juday, Glenn P.
    Meshcherskaya, Anna V.
    Phoenix, Gareth K.
    Pomeroy, John
    Rautio, Arja
    Robinson, David A.
    Schmidt, Niels M.
    Serreze, Mark C.
    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.
    Shiklomanov, Alexander I.
    Shmakin, Andrey B.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sturm, Matthew
    Woo, Ming-ko
    Wood, Eric F.
    Multiple effects of changes in arctic snow cover2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, p. 32-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow cover plays a major role in the climate, hydrological and ecological systems of the Arctic and other regions through its influence on the surface energy balance (e.g. reflectivity), water balance (e.g. water storage and release), thermal regimes (e.g. insulation), vegetation and trace gas fluxes. Feedbacks to the climate system have global consequences. The livelihoods and well-being of Arctic residents and many services for the wider population depend on snow conditions so changes have important consequences. Already, changing snow conditions, particularly reduced summer soil moisture, winter thaw events and rain-on-snow conditions have negatively affected commercial forestry, reindeer herding, some wild animal populations and vegetation. Reductions in snow cover are also adversely impacting indigenous peoples' access to traditional foods with negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, there are likely to be some benefits from a changing Arctic snow regime such as more even run-off from melting snow that favours hydropower operations.

  • 11. Chapin, F Stuart
    et al.
    Hoel, Michael
    Carpenter, Steven R
    Lubchenco, Jane
    Walker, Brian
    Callaghan, Terry V
    Folke, Carl
    Levin, Simon A
    Mäler, Karl-Göran
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Barrett, Scott
    Berkes, Fikret
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Danell, Kjell
    Rosswall, Thomas
    Starrett, David
    Xepapadeas, Anastasios
    Zimov, Sergey A
    Building resilience and adaptation to manage Arctic change2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 198-202Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Centre of Biostochastics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Quantifying spatial patterns of landscapes2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 573-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss information theoretical landscape indices based on data from digitized maps in grid format: measures based on Shannon's entropy, e.g. the measures of diversity and contagion; and measures based on conditional entropy, e.g. a new index which can be seen as an alternative to the measure of contagion that does not have the disadvantage of being highly correlated to the measure of diversity. We also introduce a measurement on how much information Is contained in a coarse-scale map about a fine-scale map.

  • 13. Elmgren, Ragnar
    et al.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Baltic Sea management: Successes and failures2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S335-S344Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe environmental problems documented in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s led to the 1974 creation of the Helsinki Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area. We introduce this special issue by briefly summarizing successes and failures of Baltic environmental management in the following 40 years. The loads of many polluting substances have been greatly reduced, but legacy pollution slows recovery. Top predator populations have recovered, and human exposure to potential toxins has been reduced. The cod stock has partially recovered. Nutrient loads are decreasing, but deep-water anoxia and cyanobacterial blooms remain extensive, and climate change threatens the advances made. Ecosystem-based management is the agreed principle, but in practice the various environmental problems are still handled separately, since we still lack both basic ecological knowledge and appropriate governance structures for managing them together, in a true ecosystem approach.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Cech, Thomas L.
    Corcobado, Tamara
    Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure
    Hietala, Ari M.
    Horta Jung, Marília
    Jung, Thomas
    Lehtijarvi, Hatice Tugba Dogmus
    Oskay, Funda
    Slavov, Slavtcho
    Solheim, Halvor
    Stenlid, Jan
    Oliva, Jonàs
    Invasive forest pathogens in Europe: Cross-country variationin public awareness but consistency in policy acceptability2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political action can reduce introductions of diseases caused by invasive forest pathogens (IPs) and public support is important for effective prevention. The public’s awareness of IP problems and the acceptability of policies aiming to combat these pathogens were surveyed in nine European countries (N = 3469). Although awareness of specific diseases (e.g., ash dieback) varied, problem awareness and policy acceptability were similar across countries. The public was positive towards policies for informational measures and stricter standards for plant production, but less positive towards restricting public access to protected areas. Multilevel models, including individual and country level variables, revealed that media exposure was positively associated with awareness of IP problems, and strengthened the link between problem awareness and policy acceptability. Results suggest that learning about IPs through the media and recognizing the associated problems increase policy acceptability. Overall, the study elaborates on the anthropogenic dimension of diseases caused by IPs.

  • 15. Eriksson, Ove
    et al.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A Spatial Dimension of Ecology: Ilkka Hanski Crafoord Laureate in 20112011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 247-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Boberg, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Drössler, Lars
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Gong, Peichen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Holmström, Emma
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Klapwijk, Maartje
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Niklasson, Mats
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU)/Foundation Nordens Ark.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 124-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 17. Futter, Martyn N.
    et al.
    Högbom, Lars
    Valinia, Salar
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S188-S202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle.

  • 18. Harvey, E. Therese
    et al.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S392-S401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all differed between the two coastal areas studied; the W Gulf of Bothnia with high terrestrial input and the NW Baltic Proper with relatively little terrestrial input. The CDOM: DOC ratio was higher in the Gulf of Bothnia, where CDOM had a greater influence on the Secchi depth, which is used as an indicator of eutrophication and hence important for Baltic Sea management. Based on the results of this study, we recommend regular CDOM measurements in monitoring programmes, to increase the value of concurrent Secchi depth measurements.

  • 19. Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Lidberg, William
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Agren, Anneli
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Identifying and assessing the potential hydrological function of past artificial forest drainage2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 546-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drainage of forested wetlands for increased timber production has profoundly altered the hydrology and water quality of their downstream waterways. Some ditches need network maintenance (DNM), but potential positive effects on tree productivity must be balanced against environmental impacts. Currently, no clear guidelines exist for DNM that strike this balance. Our study helps begin to prioritise DNM by: (1) quantifying ditches by soil type in the 68 km(2) Krycklan Catchment Study in northern Sweden and (2) using upslope catchment area algorithms on new high-resolution digital elevation models to determine their likelihood to drain water. Ditches nearly doubled the size of the stream network (178-327 km) and 17% of ditches occurred on well-draining sedimentary soils, presumably making DNM unwarranted. Modelling results suggest that 25-50% of ditches may never support flow. With new laser scanning technology, simple mapping and modelling methods can locate ditches and model their function, facilitating efforts to balance DNM with environmental impacts.

  • 20.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    et al.
    Abisko Sci Res Stn, CIRC, Abisko, Sweden.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Future distribution of Arctic Char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: Effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish.

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Burrows, Ryan M.
    Lidman, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fältström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Land use influences macroinvertebrate community composition in boreal headwaters through altered stream conditions2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 311-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use is known to alter the nature of land-water interactions, but the potential effects of widespread forest management on headwaters in boreal regions remain poorly understood. We evaluated the importance of catchment land use, land cover, and local stream variables for macroinvertebrate community and functional trait diversity in 18 boreal headwater streams. Variation in macroinvertebrate metrics was often best explained by in-stream variables, primarily water chemistry (e.g. pH). However, variation in stream variables was, in turn, significantly associated with catchment-scale forestry land use. More specifically, streams running through catchments that were dominated by young (11-50 years) forests had higher pH, greater organic matter standing stock, higher abundance of aquatic moss, and the highest macroinvertebrate diversity, compared to streams running through recently clear-cut and old forests. This indicates that catchment-scale forest management can modify in-stream habitat conditions with effects on stream macroinvertebrate communities and that characteristics of younger forests may promote conditions that benefit headwater biodiversity.

  • 22.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Kivinen, Sonja
    Forbes, Bruce
    Kayhko, Jukka
    "Generality of mis-fit"?: The real-life difficulty of matching scales in an interconnected world2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 742-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A clear understanding of processes at multiple scales and levels is of special significance when conceiving strategies for human-environment interactions. However, understanding and application of the scale concept often differ between administrative-political and ecological disciplines. These mirror major differences in potential solutions whether and how scales can, at all, be made congruent. As a result, opportunities of seeking "goodness-of-fit" between different concepts of governance should perhaps be reconsidered in the light of a potential "generality of mis-fit." This article reviews the interdisciplinary considerations inherent in the concept of scale in its ecological, as well as administrative-political, significance and argues that issues of how to manage "mis-fit" should be awarded more emphasis in social-ecological research and management practices. These considerations are exemplified by the case of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia. Whilst an indigenous small-scale practice, reindeer husbandry involves multi-level ecological and administrative-political complexities-complexities that we argue may arise in any multi-level system.

  • 23.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Baird, Julia
    Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Social network analysis of multi-level linkages: a Swedish case study on Northern forest-based sectors2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest use in Northern Sweden is being influenced both by global trends and local situations. This results in interactions between numerous groups that may impact local forest governance. Social network analysis can here provide insight into the total pattern of positive, negative, and cross-level interactions within user group community structure (within and among groups). This study analyses interactions within selected renewable resource sectors in two northern Swedish municipalities, both with regard to whether they are positive, neutral, or negative, as well as with regard to how local actors relate to actors across levels, e.g., with regional, national, and international actors. The study illustrates that many interactions both within and outside a given sector are seen as neutral or positive, and that considerable interaction and impact are defined as national and in some cases even international. It also indicates that the impact of Sweden's only existing Model Forest may to some extent constitute a bridge between different sectors and levels, in comparison with the interactions between sectors in a municipality where such a cooperation mechanism does not exist.

  • 24.
    Keuper, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, Lund, Sweden .
    Blok, Daan
    Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Permafrost Dynam Greenland CENPERM, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    van Bodegom, Peter M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Ecol Sci, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    van Hal, Jürgen R.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Ecol Sci, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Ecol Sci, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Aerts, Rien
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Ecol Sci, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Tundra in the rain: Differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 3, p. 269-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation.

  • 25.
    Kivinen, Sonja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berg, Anna
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Effects of modern forest management on winter grazing resources for reindeer in Sweden2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests in Sweden are exploited in a number of ways, including forestry and reindeer husbandry. In the winter, reindeer feed mainly on lichens, and lichen-rich forests are a key resource in the herding system. Commercial forestry has mainly negative effects on reindeer husbandry, and conflicts between these two industries have escalated over the last century. This article reviews the effects of modern forest management practices on the winter resources available for reindeer husbandry. Forestry affects reindeer husbandry at both the stand level and the landscape level and over various time scales. Clear-cutting, site preparation, fertilization, short rotation times, and forest fragmentation have largely resulted in a reduced amount of ground growing and arboreal lichens and restricted access to resource. This article also discusses alternative forestry practices and approaches that could reduce the impacts of forestry on reindeer husbandry, both in the short and long term.

  • 26. Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    et al.
    Hopkins, Anna J. M.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Schroeder, Martin
    Lindelow, Ake
    Ronnberg, Jonas
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Kenis, Marc
    Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S223-S234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  • 27.
    Kullman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A Richer, Greener and Smaller Alpine World: Review and Projection of Warming-Induced Plant Cover Change in the Swedish Scandes2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 159-169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine plant life is proliferating, biodiversity is on the rise and the mountain world appears more productive and inviting than ever. Upper range margin rise of trees and low-altitude (boreal) plant species, expansion of alpine grasslands and dwarf-shrub heaths are the modal biotic adjustments during the past few decades, after a century of substantial climate warming in the Swedish Scandes. This course of biotic landscape evolution has reached historical dimensions and broken a multi-millennial trend of plant cover retrogression, alpine tundra expansion, floristic and faunal impoverishment, all imposed by progressive and deterministic neoglacial climate cooling. Continued modest warming over the present century will likely be beneficial to alpine biodiversity, geoecological stability, resilience, sustainable reindeer husbandry and aesthetic landscape qualities. These aspects are highlighted by an integrative review of results from long-term monitoring of subalpine/alpine vegetation in the Swedish Scandes. This forms the basis for some tentative projections of landscape transformations in a potentially warmer future. Notably, these results and projections are not necessarily valid in other regions and differ in some respects from model predictions. Continued monitoring is mandatory as a basis for generation of more realistic vegetation and ecosystem models.

  • 28. Kuparinen, Jorma
    et al.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Mattila, Johanna
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Food web structure and function in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea1996In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the spatio-temporal information of ecological variables, a multidisciplinary joint study between Finnish and Swedish marine scientists was conducted in the Gulf of Bothnia, 1991. The study corroborated previous reports, suggesting a markedly lower phytoplankton production and biomass of benthic fauna in the Bothnian Bay than in the Bothnian Sea, However, contrary to the general view, the offshore carbon fixation in the Bothnian Sea exceeded that at the corresponding coastal station. The results further indicated a greater importance of bacterioplankton production to the food web in the Bothnian Bay than previously assumed. The total carbon requirement of bacteria and zooplankton was estimated to exceed carbon fixation by a factor of 1.7 in the northern basin, possibly a result of the discharge of riverine organic carbon. Diversity and biomass of both fish and benthic fauna were lower in the Bothnian Bay, with benthic meiofauna being of relatively greater importance than macrofauna in this basin.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Engstedt, Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S451-S461Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments.

  • 30. Laudon, Hjalmar
    et al.
    Kuglerova, Lenka
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Futter, Martyn
    Nordin, Annika
    Bishop, Kevin
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Agren, Anneli M.
    The role of biogeochemical hotspots, landscape heterogeneity, and hydrological connectivity for minimizing forestry effects on water quality2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S152-S162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protecting water quality in forested regions is increasingly important as pressures from land-use, long-range transport of air pollutants, and climate change intensify. Maintaining forest industry without jeopardizing sustainability of surface water quality therefore requires new tools and approaches. Here, we show how forest management can be optimized by incorporating landscape sensitivity and hydrological connectivity into a framework that promotes the protection of water quality. We discuss how this approach can be operationalized into a hydromapping tool to support forestry operations that minimize water quality impacts. We specifically focus on how hydromapping can be used to support three fundamental aspects of land management planning including how to (i) locate areas where different forestry practices can be conducted with minimal water quality impact; (ii) guide the off-road driving of forestry machines to minimize soil damage; and (iii) optimize the design of riparian buffer zones. While this work has a boreal perspective, these concepts and approaches have broad-scale applicability.

  • 31. Legrand, Catherine
    et al.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Larsson, Per
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Interannual variability of phyto-bacterioplankton biomass and production in coastal and offshore waters of the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S427-S438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microbial part of the pelagic food web is seldom characterized in models despite its major contribution to biogeochemical cycles. In the Baltic Sea, spatial and temporal high frequency sampling over three years revealed changes in heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton coupling (biomass and production) related to hydrographic properties of the ecosystem. Phyto- and bacterioplankton were bottom-up driven in both coastal and offshore areas. Cold winter temperature was essential for phytoplankton to conform to the successional sequence in temperate waters. In terms of annual carbon production, the loss of the spring bloom (diatoms and dinoflagellates) after mild winters tended not to be compensated for by other taxa, not even summer cyanobacteria. These results improve our ability to project Baltic Sea ecosystem response to short- and long-term environmental changes.

  • 32. Lindborg, Tobias
    et al.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Sohlenius, Gustav
    Strömgren, Mårten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Eva
    Lofgren, Anders
    Landscape Development During a Glacial Cycle: Modeling Ecosystems from the Past into the Future2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 402-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how long-term abiotic and biotic processes are linked at a landscape level is of major interest for analyzing future impact on humans and the environment from present-day societal planning. This article uses results derived from multidisciplinary work at a coastal site in Sweden, with the aim of describing future landscape development. First, based on current and historical data, we identified climate change, shoreline displacement, and accumulation/erosion processes as the main drivers of landscape development. Second, site-specific information was combined with data from the Scandinavian region to build models that describe how the identified processes may affect the site development through time. Finally, the process models were combined to describe a whole interglacial period. With this article, we show how the landscape and ecosystem boundaries are affected by changing permafrost conditions, peat formation, sedimentation, human land use, and shoreline displacement.

  • 33.
    Lindeberg, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Rosen, P
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Mercury pollution trends in subarctic lakes in the northern Swedish mountains2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 401-405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Elmquist, Helena
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Environmental and economic impacts of decision-making at an Arable farm: an integrative modeling approach2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 4-5, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the dependency between physical and anthropogenic systems in arable farming. The dynamic simulation model, which has its methodological origins in the modeling traditions of environmental systems analysis and microsimulation, reproduces the mutual links between the physical flows (e.g. energy, materials, emissions, and products), the farmer as a decision-making agent, and structural conditions influencing the farm. In running the model, the intention is to answer the question: What are the impacts on profitability and the environment (i.e. greenhouse gas effects, eutrophication, acidification, and energy use) of variations in prices, subsidies, the farmer's environmental values, and the farmer's skill in making production allocation choices? The results of the model simulations indicate, for example, that in terms of economic performance, a farmer can choose between two relatively sustainable strategies-either to specialize in organic production (thereby benefiting from higher subsidies and output prices), or to focus on conventional cultivation and use of pesticides and fertilizers (thereby benefiting from large yields). Regarding environmental impacts, there was no clear-cut divide between organic and conventional farming due to difficulties in allocating the use of manure. This finding is essentially related to the choice of system boundary, which is thoroughly discussed in the paper.

  • 35. Lindh, Markus V.
    et al.
    Lefébure, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Marine Stewardship Council, London EC1A 2DH, England.
    Degerman, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Consequences of increased terrestrial dissolved organic matter and temperature on bacterioplankton community composition during a Baltic Sea mesocosm experiment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S402-S412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicted increases in runoff of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sea surface temperatures implicate substantial changes in energy fluxes of coastal marine ecosystems. Despite marine bacteria being critical drivers of marine carbon cycling, knowledge of compositional responses within bacterioplankton communities to such disturbances is strongly limited. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we examined bacterioplankton population dynamics in Baltic Sea mesocosms with treatments combining terrestrial DOM enrichment and increased temperature. Among the 200 most abundant taxa, 62 % either increased or decreased in relative abundance under changed environmental conditions. For example, SAR11 and SAR86 populations proliferated in combined increased terrestrial DOM/temperature mesocosms, while the hgcI and CL500-29 clades (Actinobacteria) decreased in the same mesocosms. Bacteroidetes increased in both control mesocosms and in the combined increased terrestrial DOM/temperature mesocosms. These results indicate considerable and differential responses among distinct bacterial populations to combined climate change effects, emphasizing the potential of such effects to induce shifts in ecosystem function and carbon cycling in the future Baltic Sea.

  • 36.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Langston, Nancy
    Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader—and often ecologically focused—concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Vlassova, Tatiana
    Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Sutinen, Marja-Liisa
    The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Chapin III, F. Stuart
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.
    Challenges to adaptation in northernmost Europe as a result of global climate change2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 81-84Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Berner, James
    Dudarev, Alexey A
    Mulvad, Gert
    Odland, Jon Oyvind
    Parkinson, Alan
    Tikhonov, Constantine
    Rautio, Arja
    Evengård, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    A call for urgent monitoring of food and water security based on relevant indicators for the Arctic2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 816-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This perspective paper argues for an urgent need to monitor a set of 12 concrete, measurable indicators of food and water security in the Arctic over time. Such a quantitative indicator approach may be viewed as representing a reductionist rather than a holistic perspective, but is nevertheless necessary for actually knowing what reality aspects to monitor in order to accurately understand, quantify, and be able to project critical changes to food and water security of both indigenous and non-indigenous people in the Arctic. More relevant indicators may be developed in the future, taking us further toward reconciliation between reductionist and holistic approaches to change assessment and understanding. However, the potential of such further development to improved holistic change assessment is not an argument not to urgently start to monitor and quantify the changes in food and water security indicators that are immediately available and adequate for the Arctic context.

  • 39. Nordin, Annika
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Interdisciplinary science for future governance and management of forests2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S69-S73Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable use of forests constitutes one of the great challenges for the future due to forests' large spatial coverage, long-term planning horizons and inclusion of many ecosystem services. The mission of the Future Forests programme is to provide a scientifically robust knowledge base for sustainable governance and management of forests preparing for a future characterized by globalization and climate change. In this introduction to the Special Issue, we describe the interdisciplinary science approach developed in close collaboration with actors in the Future Forests programme, and discuss the potential impacts of this science on society. In addition, we introduce the 13 scientific articles and present results produced by the programme.

  • 40.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Danielsson, Sara
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet.
    Miller, Aroha
    University of British Columbia.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Temporal and spatial trends of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB in Swedish marine biota 1969–20122015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. 484-497Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gupta, Joyeeta
    Tockner, Klement
    Societal Learning Needed to Face the Water Challenge2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 549-553Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42. Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 214-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World Trade Organisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  • 43.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Berglind, Rune
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Leffler, Per
    Environmental Hazard Screening of a Metal-polluted Site Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Two In Vitro Bioassays2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 494-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid screening methods can improve the cost effectiveness, throughput, and quality of risk assessments of contaminated sites. In the present case study, the objective was to evaluate a combination of pressurized liquid extraction and 2 in vitro bioassays for the hazard assessment of surface soil sampled from 46 points across a pyrotechnical industrial site. Pressurized liquid extraction was used to rapidly produce soil-water extracts compatible with 2 high-capacity bioassays. Hazard assessment using combined toxicological and chemical screening revealed zones with relatively high potential risks of metal pollution. Multivariate data analysis provided indications that significant inhibition in the bioassays was correlated with levels of metals in the extracts, suggesting an elevated toxic potential from certain metals. Low pH and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon were associated with increased cytotoxicity of extracts, indicating that these factors influence metal bioavailability. The cytotoxicity observed was more strongly correlated to metal concentrations in the extracts than in the soil, suggesting that measurements of total metal concentrations in soils do not provide good indications of the soil's potential toxicity.

  • 44.
    Ranius, Thomas
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Erland, Mårald
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

  • 45. Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    Finér, Leena
    Lībiete, Zane
    Lode, Elve
    Stupak, Inge
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic–Baltic region: large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 46. Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    Felton, Adam
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Rosvall, Ola
    Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden’s current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership—characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  • 47.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Björkman, Christer
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Southern Swedish Forest Res Ctr, Rorsjovagen 1,Box 49, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Granström, Anders
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 109-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socioecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  • 48.
    Rundqvist, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Sandström, Anneli
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Callaghan, Terry V
    Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 683-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (<3.5 cm diameter at breast height) were estimated during 2009-2010 and compared with historical documentation from 1976 to 1977. Similarly, all tree stems (>= 3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  • 49.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin
    Mossing, Annika
    Nordin, Annika
    Nordstrom, Eva-Maria
    Räty, Riitta
    Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S100-S108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups' visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests' social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

  • 50.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Futter, Martyn
    Ring, Eva
    Nordin, Annika
    Näsholm, Torgny
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Nitrogen dynamics in managed boreal forests: Recent advances and future research directions2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. S175-S187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) availability plays multiple roles in the boreal landscape, as a limiting nutrient to forest growth, determinant of terrestrial biodiversity, and agent of eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. We review existing research on forest N dynamics in northern landscapes and address the effects of management and environmental change on internal cycling and export. Current research foci include resolving the nutritional importance of different N forms to trees and establishing how tree-mycorrhizal relationships influence N limitation. In addition, understanding how forest responses to external N inputs are mediated by above-and belowground ecosystem compartments remains an important challenge. Finally, forestry generates a mosaic of successional patches in managed forest landscapes, with differing levels of N input, biological demand, and hydrological loss. The balance among these processes influences the temporal patterns of stream water chemistry and the long-term viability of forest growth. Ultimately, managing forests to keep pace with increasing demands for biomass production, while minimizing environmental degradation, will require multi-scale and interdisciplinary perspectives on landscape N dynamics.

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