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  • 1. Bohdalkova, Leona
    et al.
    Novak, Martin
    Buzek, Frantisek
    Kreisinger, Jakub
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pazderu, Katerina
    Pacherova, Petra
    The response of a mid- and high latitude peat bog to predicted climate change: methane production in a 12-month peat incubation2014In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 997-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are fears that global warming will lead to degradation of peatlands, higher emissions of greenhouse gases from peat, and accelerated warming. Anaerobic decomposition of organic soils produces methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. Two peat bogs differing in mean annual temperature, Velke Darko (VD, Czech Republic, 7.2 A degrees C), and Stor myran (SA, Sweden, 4.0 A degrees C), were selected for a comparative study of how organic soils in different climatic zones will respond to warmer and drier conditions. Twenty peat cores from each bog were incubated in growth chambers. Under present-day summer conditions, VD produced 14 times more CH4 than SA. Two different warming scenarios were used. Peat-core replicates were kept at temperatures of 11 versus 16 A degrees C, and 11 versus 22 A degrees C. From 11 to 16 A degrees C, the CH4 production slightly decreased at SA, and slightly increased at VD. From 11 to 22 A degrees C, the CH4 production increased 9 times at SA, but slightly decreased at VD. After an 8-month incubation, peat cores under drying conditions (water table at -14 cm) were compared to samples with original water table (-2 cm). Drying conditions led to a steeper reduction in CH4 production at VD, compared to SA. The CH4 production decreased more than 100 times at VD. Then, the combined effect of simultaneous warming and drying at 11 and 22 A degrees C was studied. We did not find any significant effect of interactions between increasing temperature and decreasing water table level. Overall, the warmer site VD responded more strongly to the simulated climate change than the colder site SA.

  • 2.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity2009In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change. This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent be formed in responses to globalising factors, such as internationalisation of economies and the changing role of the state. The paper presents a study of adaptation in reindeer (Rangifier tarandus) herding, forestry and fishing communities in northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland, with a focus on assessing stakeholders’ own perceptions of environmental, socio-political and economic factors that affect them. In general, the paper illustrates the integration of non-subsistence economies into large and complex interactions where local adaptation is a result of the sum of stresses impacting individual entrepreneurs, and the potential they have to adapt their practices given governance (and their access to support) on different scales.

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