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  • 1. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 2.
    Andreyev, Oleg A.
    et al.
    Barents Center for Social Research, Murmansk, Russia.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Vinogradov, Andrey I.
    Barents Center for Social Research, Murmansk, Russia.
    Privatization of municipal property in Murmansk1995In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 88-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study of privatization of municipal property in the Russian North based on data from the Murmansk city government. After a general overview of the process in Russia and Murmansk city, the paper outlines a number of positive and negative aspects of the privatization of city-owned enterprises on the basis of interviews conducted with the management of the newly privatized enterprises.

  • 3. Dannevig, Halvor
    et al.
    Bay-Larsen, Ingrid
    van Oort, Bob
    Keskitalo, Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptive capacity to changes in terrestrial ecosystem services amongst primary small-scale resource users in northern Norway and Sweden2015In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from case studies in which we investigate the interrelations between changes in ecosystem services (ESs) and adaptive capacity among small-scale users of multi-use forest or outfields resources in northern Sweden and Norway. The study presents a framework that utilizes scenarios for changes in ESs under climate change in combination with qualitative interviews with outfield resource users in order to assess their adaptive capacity to the projected changes. The study illustrates that ESs may change significantly under climate change, and in particular affect winter snow and ice conditions, for instance increasing the duration of the growing season but with consequences for pasture quality. We find that given structural constraints, the key factors that influence the selected resource users' adaptive capacity at an individual level include motivation and entrepreneurial inclinations, which are related to the lifestyle choice of making a livelihood based on small-scale and multi-use occupations.

  • 4.
    Hägglund, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    How is 'Sami tourism' represented in the English-language scholar literature?2019In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 58-68Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Sami tourism' seems to be increasing, both as a practice as well as a focus of research attention. The present study illustrates a review of English language literature concerning Sami tourism and discusses the specific perspectives in this. The study uses a systematic literature review approach to grasp these perspectives and summarize the findings of pertinent English-language publications. In total 37 relevant publications were found that focus clearly on both 'tourism' and 'Sami' (28 articles and 9 book chapters, all published between the years 1998-2017). Our analysis identifies three central themes in the literature so far: (1) the roles and limitations of Sami tourism, (2) conflicts regarding tourism development, and (3) the representation of Sami in relation to tourism. Finally, these findings are discussed in relation to broader literature including literature published in regional languages.

  • 5.
    Leu, Traian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Maintaining inherited occupations in changing times: the role of tourism among reindeer herders in northern Sweden2016In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 40-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is often identified as able to provide opportunities for indigenous populations. In northern Sweden, correspondingly tourism has been proposed to create employment opportunities and help preserve Sámi indigenous culture. Although there are numerous studies on the topic, they are lacking in a time dimension and comprehensiveness. Often they are based on limited case studies and narratives of those members of the indigenous population who have engaged in new activities successfully. Therefore, this work aims to investigate on a national scale how widespread are tourism occupations among reindeer herders and what are some of the characteristics of those engaged in them. This paper uses detailed census and population register data containing personal and professional information on reindeer herders in Sweden and their families spanning 50 years. The findings suggest that involvement in tourism is more common among reindeer herders than farmers. Moreover, involvement in tourism is highly gendered with women being more likely to be engaged in it. Findings also show that the type of tourism professions people are engaged in is more a result of the available geographical resource than an inherent inclination among reindeer herders to work with specific fields such as nature-based attractions.

  • 6.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    The complex fertility of indigenous Sami and non-reindeer-herding settlers in Jokkmokk 1815–18952014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 157-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though contemporary fertility shows a steady decrease among indigenous populations in the circumpolar area during the twentieth century, they display a far higher fertility compared to the rest of the population's respective countries. In the absence of Swedish modern data on ethnicity, this study concentrates on fertility in historical times to improve our knowledge on Sami fecundity. Using digitized parish records we aim to study nineteenth century fertility among the Sami and non-Sami in an ethnically mixed parish in the Northern Sweden. The sources also enable an intra-ethnic perspective; thus, the study includes comparisons between forest and mountain Sami. The data revealed a Sami fertility deviating not only from their non-Sami neighbors, but also to a Swedish average. Both Sami and non-Sami women had very low birth rates among young women; nevertheless, Sami women gave birth to fewer children than the non-Sami. Toward the end of the nineteenth century non-Sami women showed crude birth rates well above both Sami and a Swedish average. The fertility pattern among the forest and the mountain Sami revealed both social and economic differences within the Sami group.

  • 7. Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Representations and uses of indigenous areas in tourism experiences in the Russian Arctic2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 85-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the representation of indigenous tourism experiences in advertisement materials with representations gathered from site visits and tourism sector interviews in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in northern Russia. The study shows that a majority of the visual images and text used for marketing of the area construct a picture of an indigenous people living 'in harmony' with nature, representing a romanticized and historical image of indigenous communities. In contrast with these marketing images, large variations exist in everyday practices and among the numerous practical considerations related to the recent and limited development of tourism in the NAO.

  • 8.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Making Russian Arctic accessible for tourists: analysis of the institutional barriers2014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in nature protection in the European territory of Russia's Arctic islands and archipelagoes – such as the creation of the Russian Arctic National Park – have also resulted in an increase in visitation to this area. This study uses the Key Informants' Technique to analyze Russian tourism planning and development of this territory since 2011. The majority of the principle stakeholders identified for this study agreed that these areas have great potential for tourism development and are already attracting both foreign and Russian tourists. At the same time, impediments to foreign cruise companies and individual travelers spell rather gloomy prospects for further destination development in the area. The contradictions of the current stage of tourism development support the assumption that Russia's territorial interests still prevail. Tourism development appears to be a top-down enterprise, organized by less experienced tourism developers and bureaucrats and without consideration for the long-term perspective.

  • 9.
    Turi, Ellen Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Arctic Ealat Institute at International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, Guovdageaidnu, Norway.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Governing reindeer husbandry in western Finnmark: barriers for incorporating traditional knowledge in local-level policy implementation2014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 234-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway, recent policy reforms for indigenous reindeer husbandry incorporate traditional social organizational units into the governance regime, and are intended to induce greater internal autonomy through self-regulation. Implementation of the reforms have, however, proved challenging, both in terms of achieving policy goals and for incorporating internal autonomy. This article explores how reindeer herders' traditional knowledge and social organization are incorporated into policy implementation through legislative, economic, institutional, and informational means, focusing on western Finnmark, where implementation challenges have been most pronounced. By drawing upon an analysis of policy documents in combination with semi-structured interviews, this paper highlights barriers to knowledge integration induced by the design of supportive policy instruments of information and institution building, where traditional knowledge is de-prioritized in relation to scientific knowledge and notions of rationality and practicality. As such, this study draws attention to the importance of considering the design of supportive policy instruments from a traditional knowledge perspective, and in particular, to asymmetrical power relations between ways of knowing.

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