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  • 1.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Australia.
    Mobilities and path dependence: challenges for tourism and "attractive" industry development in a remote company town2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 460-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the impacts of resource-based path dependence on alternative development scenarios in remote company towns, with a particular focus on understanding the prospects for new path creation in tourism and other "attractive" industries, such as retirement and lifestyle migration. The paper applies a mobilities perspective to the idea of path dependence in remote resource frontiers to analyse how the flows of people, skills and capital can become locked in by a range of factors, such as investments in infrastructure and transport technologies, established network connections for labour and knowledge provision, traditional economic development policies, and entrenched mobility cultures. The research examines the case of Nhulunbuy, a remote mining town in northern Australia, which currently faces severe socio-economic decline due to the closure of its alumina refinery. Using a range of secondary data sources, including population statistics and public documents, the case study traces Nhulunbuy's development path since the 1970s and identifies a number of exogenous and endogenous causes for the potential lock-in of its mobilities trajectory. The implications for alternative pathways in tourism and other "attractive" industries are discussed, focusing on identifying the institutional and infrastructural changes required to unlock mobility flows.

  • 2.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    International winter tourism entrepreneurs in northern Sweden: understanding migration, lifestyle, and business motivations2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 183-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the migration, lifestyle and business motivations of international winter tourism entrepreneurs who have moved to a “low-amenity” rural area in northern Sweden. Low-amenity areas are characterised by economic decline, outmigration and limited tourism development. Based on qualitative interviews, the research applied a multi-dimensional framework to the study of migrant tourism entrepreneurship, considering personal migration drivers, the value of location-specific amenities, desired consumptive experiences, previous familiarity with the destination, business-related goals, as well as temporal and technological dimensions of mobility and self-employment. The findings suggest that the northern winter and the undeveloped low-amenity character of the place were key factors in migration choices. Consumptive lifestyle interests around counter-urban living and winter outdoor hobbies were prominent, yet there was diversity in terms of business aspirations and considerable seasonal lifestyle-business balancing. Despite noticeable contributions to winter tourism development in the low-amenity north, the study also identified a sense of temporariness and expected onward migration among migrants, raising questions about the longevity of this development.

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  • 3.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 353-366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Dannevig, Halvor
    Aall, Carlo
    Climate change acknowledgement and responses of summer (glacier) ski visitors in Norway2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 419-438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mutual interaction of climate change and the highly weatherdependent ski tourism business is drawing increasing attention from the academic, commercial and political arenas. Changes in the cryosphere are becoming major determinants of the sustainability of ski areas. Therefore, there is a great deal of literature entailing impact and adaptation studies regarding ski areas, resorts, and destinations; however, research on the demand side of the issue is relatively limited. In this paper, the relationship between climate change and a niche segment of ski tourism, summer skiing, is discussed with regard to the awareness, perceptions, and mitigation and substitution behaviours of visitors to the summer downhill ski centres in Norway – an underresearched country, despite its recognition as the cradle of skiing. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was administered to a sample of 224 subjects. The results revealed high climate change awareness but limited climate friendliness, and a strong emphasis on the immediate climate impacts on summer skiing that create a tendency towards ski activity substitution within Norway. Individual profiles also played a significant role in the anticipated mitigation and substitution behaviours. The implications of the results involving demand attitude and behaviour are further discussed with regard to the suppliers.

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  • 5.
    Hedlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Inter-related summer vacation choices by Swedish tourists2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 42-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether and how different vacation choices vary with respect to a number of attributes and whether there are differences in this respect depending on how familiar the tourist is with the destination. In a web-based survey conducted in the fall of 2007, 681 Swedish residents (response rate 15%) retrospectively reported their vacation trips during the summer. The results warrant the conclusion that it is possible to rank choices of destination, departure date, primary activity, and travel mode according to primacy, importance, inflexibility, and impact on other choices. However, the different measures did not converge in identifying an invariant order of the choices. Individual and situational factors may play important roles for the order. A sequential decision-making process was still identified for the majority of the respondents and the examined choices were to a large extent made before departure. Familiarity with the destination only had an effect on the importance and inflexibility the respondents experienced in their destination choice. Both managerial and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  • 6.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Co-constructing "northern" tourism representations among tourism companies, DMOs and tourists: an example from Jukkasjärvi, Sweden2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 406-422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In tourism, simplified destination representations are often assumed to be a necessity in order to compete in an international marketplace. Consequently, destination dynamics are regarded as characterised by power struggles over these representations, and power is often seen as lying outside of the destination, depriving local tourism actors of agency. In this study, the Jukkasjärvi area in northern Sweden is taken as an example in order to study the complexity of these processes and show whether power also lies within destinations. This study was based on a Foucauldian discourse analysis taking into account different groups (tourism companies, DMOs and tourists) and both interview (local tourism) and online material (tourism websites and TripAdvisor reviews from mostly international tourists). The results illustrate that the different tourism actors in the Jukkasjärvi case discursively co-construct the destination as naturalised/authenticated while also regarding it as packaged and constructed for tourism production. Consequently, our work suggests a more critical approach towards depicting local tourism actors as deprived of power over representations, as well as paying more attention (also methodologically) to the co-constructive nature of destination discourses and how these are packaged in relation to potential tourism market requirements.

  • 7.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Ednarsson, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    International migration, self-employment and restructuring through tourism in sparsely populated areas2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 422-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that different forms of migration in general, and tourism-related international migration in particular, could act as potential drivers for various forms of rural transformations. This paper investigates self-employment in tourism among foreign-born people in rural Sweden. The questions addressed in this paper are: What is the magnitude of self-employment, and what types of business do in-migrants run, in rural areas? A discussion on the extent to which in-migrants to rural areas contribute to rural restructuring through self-employment in tourism follows. The results are analyzed by drawing on theories connected to restructuring and ideas of the “new economy”. The longitudinal, individual and geo-referenced database ASTRID with official Swedish register data is used to identify foreign-born people self-employed in tourism in Sweden. Self- employment is more common for in-migrants coming from culturally proximate Western countries, followed by Asia and the Middle East. The length of time in Sweden plays a significant role in the incidence of self-employment in tourism, with restaurants dominating as the type of establishment. It can be discussed how much restaurants help invigorate the economy of rural areas, and how much they contribute to rural change and transformation in qualitative terms. 

  • 8.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Second home ownership: a blessing for all?2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 281-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Second home ownership is often regarded as being positive for the owners. Previous research shows that owning a second home means a great deal for the general satisfaction and quality of life of the owners. Historically, the political goal of expanding second home ownership among the Swedish population was to improve health and well-being and provide access to outdoor recreation and rural landscapes for the growing urban population, which is assumed to correlate with high satisfaction and quality of life among individuals. However, owning a second home does not always relate to positive experiences for owners, an issue not highlighted in previous second home research. Therefore, the purpose of the research presented here is to add to existing theories on second home ownership with special reference to the ambiguous relationships that exist between owners and their second homes. This is done by exploring and describing the group of second home owners who express negative experiences. The data used are retrieved from a nationwide questionnaire survey, targeting a representative sample of second home owners in Sweden during 2009. Results show that some 72,000 second home owners in Sweden can be defined as less satisfied and that age, health and income are important for ownership satisfaction.

  • 9.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    The development of second homes’ assessed property values in Sweden 1991-20012007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 202-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The second home phenomenon is deeply rooted within the Swedish society. To own a second home or have frequent access to a second home is important and desirable for the Swedish population. The comparably high level of second home ownership in the country manifests this. Second homes are scattered all over the country, with main concentrations in or near densely populated areas. Some, not unimportant, concentrations can be registered in places with relatively low population density and at a considerable long distance from major population centres. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in second homes among the Swedish population, but also increasingly from incoming visitors. This has resulted in a growing competition for properties, especially those located in attractive areas with high amenity values. The purpose of this paper is to identify attractive second home landscapes and their characteristics in Sweden. Utilizing data from the comprehensive geo-referenced database ASTRID (generated by Statistics Sweden) covering all second homes in Sweden 1991-2001, attractive second home landscapes are examined and defined.

  • 10.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Progressing Second Home Research: A Nordic Perspective2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 273-280Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Unplanned development of literary tourism in two municipalities in rural Sweden2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 214-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, artistic places and places known from movies have induced an increase in tourism. However, rapid development also challenges the rural planning authorities who are not prepared to manage the high number of tourists. In this paper focus is put on two rural municipalities in southern Sweden. The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize and compare tourism development and tourism planning in these municipalities. This was accomplished by mapping tourism facilities and by in‐depth interviews with the local tourism managers. It is argued that tourism planning should be an integrated part of the rural planning process for achieving sustainable development. However, the case studies show that tourism planning does not reach this requirement. Although tourism is important to the local labor market, the municipal authorities are barely engaged in tourism at all. Instead tourism planning was outsourced to public‐private companies representing mainly the interests of the involved tourism entrepreneurs.

  • 12.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Hoogendoorn, Gijsbert
    University of Witwatersrand.
    Second Homes: Curse or Blessing?: A Review 36 Years Later2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 353-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Terry Coppock's (1977c) edited collection, Second homes: Curse or blessing? (Oxford: Pergamon) remains the most influential work investigating second-home tourism. Coppock's edited collection explored second-home tourism in a variety of locations globally. Different themes were studied in the collection, which includes planning aspects of second-home development, spatial modelling and predictive modelling and second homes as holiday accommodation (to name but three). Over the last 30 years, second-home research has blossomed, especially since the mid-1990s. Thus, we found it fitting to review the marked influence of this edited collection 30 years after the first conference was held that formed the basis of this book. Therefore, this article will investigate the relevance of the issues identified during the 1970s to issues surrounding present-day second-home tourism. The argument made in this article is that many of the issues that Coppock identified remain important today; however, many of the issues identified are less relevant to many second-home landscapes in both the developed and developing worlds.

  • 13.
    Müller, Dieter K
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Pettersson, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Access to Sami tourism in Northern Sweden2001Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 5-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been increased development of indigenous tourism as part of the tourism industry. Even the Sami of Northern Sweden are now engaging in tourism, not least because the restructuring of reindeer herding has forced them into taking up other occupations. The purpose of this article is to analyse the potential of the emerging Sami tourism in Sweden, with special emphasis on access to Sami tourism products. The analysis uses the four H approach outlined by V. L. Smith - habitat, heritage, history and handicraft. The article starts with a short description of the Sami and their culture, followed by a discussion of the relationship between the Sami and tourism in northern Sweden. Smith's concept is then introduced, modified and applied in relation to the new Sami tourism development in the area. The analysis is based on a survey of all 68 Sami tourist attractions and projects in Swedish Lapland in 1999.

  • 14.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Pettersson, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Sami heritage at the winter festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 54-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous tourism is an expansive sector in the growing tourism industry. However, the tourist experience of the indigenous heritage is often delimited to staged culture in museums, exhibitions and festivals. In this paper, focus is put on the annual Sámi winter festival in Jokkmokk, Sweden. It is discussed to what extent this festival truly is an indigenous event. This is accomplished by scrutinizing the Sámi representation at the festival regarding its content and its spatial location. It is argued that the available indigenous heritage is highly staged, although backstage experiences are available for the Sámi and for the curious tourists.

  • 15.
    Nouza, Martin
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Ólafsdóttir, Rannveig
    University of Iceland.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    A new approach to spatial–temporal development of second homes: case study from Iceland2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 20-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Europe, the interest in rural tourism is widely connected with the phenomenon of second homes as a private place to relax and spend holidays. This paper describes second home development in Iceland with the aim of assessing and analysing changes in spatial patterns. Furthermore, based on the data analysis, a new model of second home distribution development, describing the emergence of existing patterns with regard to both mobility and urbanization processes is being proposed. The results reveal that despite the relatively late start of the second home development in comparison with the Scandinavian countries, second home tourism in Iceland has grown to a significant size. The spatial distribution of second homes in Iceland reflects the country's specific physical, demographic and historical conditions. Common factors generating the need for second homes such as pollution, noise and high levels of stress seem not to be the major catalyst for second home development in Iceland, since a high occurrence of second home ownership can be observed in both smaller towns and rural areas. However, similar to other countries, the largest second home areas have developed a relatively short distance from the country's major cities.

  • 16.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tourism activity as an expression of place attachment: place perceptions among tourism actors in the Jukkasjärvi area of northern Sweden2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, s. S42-S59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thus far, the relation between place attachment and lifestyle entrepreneurship has received limited attention in tourism studies. Our study addresses tourism actors' relationship to the place of their engagement, here the Jukkasjärvi area of northern Sweden. Using a qualitative approach, we analyse their place attachment with particular attention to their perceptions of nature. Thereby, we contribute to a deeper understanding of the theoretical linkage between place attachment and lifestyle entrepreneurship in rural nature-based tourism. We find that all actors have strong bonds to the places of their engagement, which we suggest is a key motivator for their professional engagement with tourism. Furthermore, our findings highlight that not only the functional dimension of the environment, but particularly emotional attachment to the environment allows people to perceive places as "ideal" for their activities. All actors speak of their strong appreciation of the natural environment, in particular the climate and seasons, and they embody their attachment through diverse outdoor activities. They claim they wish to "share their lifestyle" with tourists and pursue work-related activities in the same ways and in the same places as their private activities. Hence, we propose that positive perceptions of the natural environment and particularly enthusiasm for different outdoor activities foster as well as promote tourism activity more than other factors do. Hence, our findings illustrate that place attachment may stimulate and promote tourism activity in different ways as well as that tourism activity itself can be seen as an expression of place attachment. This has significant implications both for successful tourism entrepreneurship and industry, or possibly entrepreneurship in rural areas more broadly, as well as for rural development and the promotion of active decisions to "stay".

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  • 17.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Environmental protection: an instrument for regional development? National ambitions versus local realities in the case of tourism2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 387-405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the relation between protection of land and local and regional development through a power and democracy perspective on planning. A Swedish case is used to illustrate the connection between planning, local power and local development, with reference to tourism in a Nordic context. When areas are protected, planning automatically becomes centralized, taking the planning process out of the hands of the local authorities. Within these state territories of set rules, regulations and institutionalized systems - eco-protectorates - the local population becomes powerless when it comes to making decisions about land-use and is unable to engage in economically viable tourism enterprises because of centralized decision-making. Even in nature-based tourism where the quality of nature is important, it could therefore be more advantageous to have access to non-protected land for nature tourism. This is even more so because the idea of regional and local development often appears to have been "attached" as an afterthought or pious wish to the central planning documents. With genuine intention to stimulate local and regional development, protection should itself be based on geographical awareness and sensitivity to the diverse conditions in which such development is visualized. Local initiatives regarding land-use and protection do not have to be in conflict with national and international ambitions and regulations but they easily can be.

  • 18. Wellton, Lotte
    et al.
    Jonsson, Inger M.
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Walter, Ute
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för restauranghögskolan.
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Restaurant practices: time, planning, knowledge and dreams2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 297-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to research on restaurant work, which plays an important role in culinary arts research. The aim of this study was to make visible and elucidate the daily work practices in eight small restaurants in a seasonal tourist destination on the Southeast coast of Sweden. The central methods used were observations and participant observations and interviews, along with an e-mail questionnaire and examination of published information concerning all the restaurants. By means of practice theory, three central elements were used to identify and understand the configuration of the activities involved in daily work in small seasonal restaurants. These three elements, knowledge/competence, technologies/materiality and creation of meaning, formed four practices. The practices identified in this study were managing time and seasons; planning, strategising and controlling; knowing and having skills; and dreams and lifestyle. The conclusion of the study indicates that small restaurant practices may be conflicting, as they involve an extremely time-consuming workload, vague planning and lingering knowledge growth in contrast to the ideas of creativity and development that are a part of the restaurant owners’ dreams and lifestyle.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Jundan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Tourism and the Sámi in transition: a discourse analysis of Swedish newspapers from 1982 to 20152018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 163-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how tourism in Sápmi is positioned in the broader discourses that contribute to the construction of Sámi identities. This is done through examining how the tourism industry is represented in the ethno-political discourses in newspaper media. Employing a discourse analysis framework, we collected 165 articles from 29 major Swedish newspapers for the period 1982–2015. The results show that the ethno-political discourses construct, and are constructed by, the discursive practice of tourism in Sápmi, thus forming an ongoing dialectical process. This process entails three aspects. First, while some narratives in newspapers construct a social knowledge that portrays the Sámi people as “exotic others” in the global and domestic tourism industry, others show that tourism can also be an opportunity to challenge such a view. Second, these news narratives demonstrate how the ethno-political discourses are intertwined in the social relations between tourism and other natural-resource-based industries. Third, an ever-changing social identity construction shows that, with the changing role of reindeer herding in the Sámi identity, how tourism assists or challenges this association is becoming increasingly important.

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  • 20.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Svels, Kristina
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Destination development in Ostrobothnia: great expectations of less involvement2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, s. S7-S23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-actor involvement and cooperation are emphasized elements of destination development. Whereas prior research has addressed challenges involved in creating inclusive structures and trust through bottom-up approaches, this paper’s focus is on the less explored attitude of acceptance of a top-down structure. The case study of Ostrobothnia in Finland shows a regional destination organization that went from broad involvement to less inclusiveness and transparency. Through interviews with public and private stakeholders, it was found that the formal exclusion was accepted by all actors, even those who were excluded, based on their common high expectations of enhanced effectiveness of the new organization. Building on institutional theory and inclusiveness, it is suggested that the long-lasting formal collaboration had created the trust needed among the stakeholders for a new, lean management to replace the old. However, lasting formal collaboration may also lead to development of informal networks that hinder further interaction. Any formal collaboration or partnership between the public and private sectors therefore needs to acknowledge the local socio-political context to overcome established social hierarchies and open up for new influences. Co-determination should be held as a potential solution rather than an imposed structure, as it depends on expectations and local conditions.

  • 21.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Implementing Tourism Events: The Discourses of Umeå's Bid for European Capital of Culture 20142012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 164-180Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional competitiveness has become a truism for many places today. In line with this competitive discourse, planners in Umeå, Northern Sweden, are seeking to create a sticky place where capital and people are attracted by enhancing the cultural sector through the hosting of events. By implementing the bid for the title of European Capital of Culture in 2014 through a positive growth-oriented discourse, it is hoped that a multitude of stakeholders will come together in a network of co-creation, and enhance an image of the city as a creative and gushing place with endless development possibilities. This paper studies how a development proposal is implemented among the stakeholders by seeking to create positive expectations. With a point of departure in stakeholder theory and interdiscursive analysis, this study explores the role of discourse in stakeholder dynamics and engagement. The results of this study show that implementation is not merely a marketing process, but different opinions will emerge that may contest the official discourse, and that the outcomes of the implementation strategy may be hard to control unless the official discourse is consciously elaborated to adapt to these counter-discourses.

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