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  • 1.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Vilhelmson, Bertil
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The divergent role of spatial access: the changing supply and location of service amenities and service travel distance in Sweden2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 49, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores and adds to the literature concerning the relationship between spatial structure and travel behaviour; specifically, the relationship between local and regional accessibility to service amenities and the distance of service-related trips. The analysis is based on a unique combination of national travel survey data for Sweden and official register data with detailed, geo-referenced information about the Swedish population and the location of service amenities in 1995 and 2005/2006. The results show that spatial access to service amenities increased in general over the study period, both locally (i.e., within ranges of 1 km and 5 km, respectively, of residential areas) and regionally (within 50 km). Despite increased spatial accessibility, the observed average travel distance also increased. We find strong and differing associations between spatial access to service amenities and travel distance, depending on level of scale. While the association was negative on the local scale (i.e., a numerically large supply of amenities was related to shorter travel distance), it was the opposite and positive, on the regional scale. In terms of implications for policy, the results imply that land use planning measures to promote local access, and thereby reduce traffic volumes, may per se be insufficient for attaining more sustainable levels of mobility.

  • 2.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Nordström, Jonas
    Nationalekonomi, Lunds Universitet.
    Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models: Accounting for substitution between number of trips and days to stay2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 446-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households’ joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the effects of an increased CO2 tax. In particular, we focus on the effect of including substitution between households choice of the number of trips and days to spend at a destination in the welfare analysis. The analysis reveals that the equivalent variation (EV) measure, for the count data demand system, can be seen as an upper bound for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive effect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. The difference in the estimated loss measures, from the considered CO2 tax reform, is about 20%. This emphasizes the importance of accounting for substitutions toward longer stays in travel demand policy evaluations.

  • 3.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Lund University School of Economics and Management, Sweden.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Acceptability of electric vehicle aimed measures: effects of norm activation, perceived justice and effectiveness2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 117, p. 205-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a model was applied on consumer acceptance of commonly implemented EV focused measures. The model is based on a norm-activation process as defined in the Value-Belief-Norm theory and the Norm-Activation Model. The study was based on a questionnaire survey study on three groups of car owners; conventional fossil fuel vehicle owners (CV, n = 312, owners of vehicles run on alternative fuels except electricity (AFVnon-electric, n = 386), and owners of some form of electric vehicle (EV, n = 494). The results indicate that activating a personal normative reasoning in people can have a positive influence on the level of acceptance of EV aimed policy measures. It is important that policy makers develop policies that are perceived as just and effective, which as a consequence are then more acceptable to citizens.

  • 4.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Influence of values, beliefs, and age on intention to travel by a new railway line under construction in northern Sweden2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to investigate determinants of intentions to use a new railway line under construction in the northern Sweden. To this end a test was made of a two-part hierarchical model of train-use intentions positing influences from general values and beliefs as well as specific beliefs about the new railway line. A questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1238 citizens residing in seven municipalities along the new railway line. In order to also investigate potential generation differences participants were sampled in four age groups, young adults, young middle-aged, middle-aged, and pensioners. The results supported the proposed hierarchical model showing that general values and beliefs influence intentions primarily through the specific beliefs about the railway line. In addition, the results showed that the youngest age group is more open to change and has stronger intentions to use the new railway.

  • 5. Orru, Kati
    et al.
    Poom, Age
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Socio-structural and psychological factors behind car use: Comparing Northern and Eastern Europe2019In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 119, p. 313-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores cross-cultural differences in car travel behaviour in a northern and an eastern European country, namely Sweden and Estonia. We assess the role of country-specific socio-structural circumstances, and the influence of individual motivations, including social values, perceived seriousness of environmental problems associated with car use, and car use reduction intentions, in shaping the frequency of car use for different purposes. The results show that compared to Swedish people, people in Estonia are more dependent on cars in their everyday travel. Our study shows that higher social position is associated with higher frequency of car trips in more stratified Estonian society, but not necessarily where socio-economic differences are less pronounced, as in Sweden. Regarding the relative significance of values and intentions next to socio-economic determinants, values and intentions have a greater explanatory power of car use frequency in Estonia, compared to Sweden. That values and preferences play a smaller role in car travel frequency in the socio-economically more secure Sweden, indicates that car travel is a basic habit, which is not easily discernible through individual values and attitudes in more affluent societies. Differences in car travel frequencies between the respondents from different settlement types in Estonian but no differences between settlement types in Sweden, shows that a country's broader approach to managing the economic and social viability of its regions, may shape car travel needs and opportunities. The results of this study may have implications in terms of ways of curbing emissions from transportation in different parts of Europe.

  • 6.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    The persevering commuter: Duration of long-distance commuting2010In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 433-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of people are long-distance commuters. For some long-distance commuting is a temporary solution, while as for others it can be a more long-term strategy to promote career and income. This study addresses duration of long-distance commuting – 30 km or more between home and work – in Sweden, and what characterizes individuals who commute for shorter or longer periods. The effects of long-distance commuting in terms of economic outcome for both partners in a commuter household are analysed. The study is based on register data for the years 1995–2005 covering all long-distance commuters in Sweden. One finding is that previous experience of long-distance commuting makes it more likely to have a long duration of long-distance commuting. In addition economic incentives, such as a higher income, are positively correlated for continuing to long-distance commuting more than a few years. Furthermore, the analysis shows that male commuters benefit more in terms of economic outcome of long-distance commuting. It is concluded that the trend with increasing long-distance commuting can sustain not only gender differences on the labour market but also within households. Finally, the paper indicates that long-distance commuting is a strategic mobility choice for households, rather than a short-term solution for a few years.

  • 7.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Department of Transport Science, Centre for Transport Studies (CTS), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Proost, Stef
    KU Leuven; KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Basck, Pierre
    Laboratoire d’Economie des Transports, CNRS, Université de Lyon, France.
    Raux, Charles
    Laboratoire d’Economie des Transports, CNRS, Université de Lyon.
    Achieving political acceptability for new transport infrastructure in congested urban regions2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 88, p. 286-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the efficiency and political acceptability of road pricing and infrastructure policies targeted at relieving urban congestion. It combines a stylized transport model of an urban road network with a model of the political process that incorporates interactions between voters, citizen interest groups and politicians to explore the possibilities to reach political acceptability for efficient transport policies. In a numerical illustration, the paper compares a set of pricing and investment policies in terms of efficiency and acceptability. The illustration shows how conflicting interests can lead to non-efficient policies being chosen.

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