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  • 1. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Boeing, Heiner
    Jansen, Eugene
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Riboli, Elio
    Overvad, Kim
    Dahm, Christina C
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Rohrmann, Sabine
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Leufkens, Anke M
    Peeters, Petra H
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Bonet, Catalina
    Sánchez, María-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Navarro, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Allen, Naomi E
    Spencer, Elizabeth
    Romaguera, Dora
    Norat, Teresa
    Pischon, Tobias
    Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer: a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2010Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 172, nr 4, s. 407-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.

  • 2. Amirian, E. Susan
    et al.
    Armstrong, Georgina N.
    Zhou, Renke
    Lau, Ching C.
    Claus, Elizabeth B.
    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.
    Il'yasova, Dora
    Schildkraut, Joellen
    Ali-Osman, Francis
    Sadetzki, Siegal
    Johansen, Christoffer
    Houlston, Richard S.
    Jenkins, Robert B.
    Lachance, Daniel
    Olson, Sara H.
    Bernstein, Jonine L.
    Merrell, Ryan T.
    Wrensch, Margaret R.
    Davis, Faith G.
    Lai, Rose
    Shete, Sanjay
    Amos, Christopher I.
    Scheurer, Michael E.
    Aldape, Kenneth
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Brännström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Broholm, Helle
    Collins, Peter
    Giannini, Caterina
    Rosenblum, Marc
    Tihan, Tarik
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bondy, Melissa L.
    The Glioma International Case-Control Study: A Report From the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium2016Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 183, nr 2, s. 85-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Åström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Neonatal outcome following maternal antenatal depression and anxiety: a population-based study.2004Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 159, nr 9, s. 872-881Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine neonatal outcomes among women who had depressive and anxiety disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy in a population-based sample. Participants were 1,465 women and their neonates born at two obstetric clinics in Sweden. The inclusion period for the women was October 2, 2000-October 1, 2001. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) classification system was used to evaluate mental disorders in the second trimester of pregnancy. For assessment of demographic characteristics, birth statistics, and birth-related complications, the medical records of the included women and their offspring were reviewed after delivery. The study results revealed no differences in neonatal outcome between women with antenatal depressive disorders and/or anxiety disorders and healthy subjects. The authors conclude that neonatal outcome did not deteriorate despite the women's impaired mental health during pregnancy.

  • 4. Arokiasamy, Perianayagam
    et al.
    Uttamacharya, .
    Kowal, Paul
    Capistrant, Benjamin D.
    Gildner, Theresa E.
    Thiele, Elizabeth
    Biritwum, Richard B.
    Yawson, Alfred E.
    Mensah, George
    Maximova, Tamara
    Wu, Fan
    Guo, Yanfei
    Zheng, Yang
    Kalula, Sebastiana Zimba
    Rodriguez, Aaron Salinas
    Espinoza, Betty Manrique
    Liebert, Melissa A.
    Eick, Geeta
    Sterner, Kirstin N.
    Barrett, Tyler M.
    Duedu, Kwabena
    Gonzales, Ernest
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Negin, Joel
    Jiang, Yong
    Byles, Julie
    Madurai, Savathree Lorna
    Minicuci, Nadia
    Snodgrass, J. Josh
    Naidoo, Nirmala
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in 6 Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Findings From Wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)2017Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 185, nr 6, s. 414-428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine patterns of self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and prevalences of algorithm/measured test-based, undiagnosed, and untreated NCDs in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. Nationally representative samples of older adults aged >= 50 years were analyzed from wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010; n = 34,149). Analyses focused on 6 conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, and hypertension. Outcomes for these NCDs were: 1) self-reported disease, 2) algorithm/measured test-based disease, 3) undiagnosed disease, and 4) untreated disease. Algorithm/measured test-based prevalence of NCDs was much higher than self-reported prevalence in all 6 countries, indicating underestimation of NCD prevalence in low-and middle-income countries. Undiagnosed prevalence of NCDs was highest for hypertension, ranging from 19.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1, 21.3) in India to 49.6% (95% CI: 46.2, 53.0) in South Africa. The proportion untreated among all diseases was highest for depression, ranging from 69.5% (95% CI: 57.1, 81.9) in South Africa to 93.2% (95% CI: 90.1, 95.7) in India. Higher levels of education and wealth significantly reduced the odds of an undiagnosed condition and untreated morbidity. A high prevalence of undiagnosed NCDs and an even higher proportion of untreated NCDs highlights the inadequacies in diagnosis and management of NCDs in local health-care systems.

  • 5. Bjørge, Tone
    et al.
    Stocks, Tanja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Tretli, Steinar
    Selmer, Randi
    Manjer, Jonas
    Rapp, Kilian
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Almquist, Martin
    Concin, Hans
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Engeland, Anders
    Metabolic syndrome and endometrial carcinoma2010Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 171, nr 8, s. 892-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of incident endometrial and fatal uterine corpus cancer within a large prospective cohort study. Approximately 290,000 women from Austria, Norway, and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements of height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and circulating levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The metabolic syndrome was assessed as a composite z score, as the standardized sum of z scores for body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. A total of 917 endometrial carcinomas and 129 fatal cancers were identified. Increased risks of incident endometrial carcinoma and fatal uterine corpus cancer were seen for the metabolic syndrome factors combined, as well as for individual factors (except for cholesterol). The relative risk of endometrial carcinoma for the metabolic syndrome was 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.28, 1.46) per 1-unit increment of z score. The positive associations between metabolic syndrome factors (both individually and combined) and endometrial carcinoma were confined to the heaviest women. The association between the metabolic syndrome and endometrial carcinoma risk seems to go beyond the risk conferred by obesity alone, particularly in women with a high body mass index.

  • 6. Brenner, Darren R.
    et al.
    Fanidi, Anouar
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Muller, David C.
    Brennan, Paul
    Manjer, Jonas
    Byrnes, Graham
    Hodge, Allison
    Severi, Gianluca
    Giles, Graham G.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Inflammatory Cytokines and Lung Cancer Risk in 3 Prospective Studies2017Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 185, nr 2, s. 86-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To further investigate the role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated associations between proinflammatory cytokines and lung cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within 3 prospective cohort studies-the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (1990-1994), the Malm Diet and Cancer Study (1991-1996), and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (initiated in 1985)-involving 807 incident lung cancer cases and 807 smoking-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for serum cotinine concentrations were used to estimate odds ratios for lung cancer risk associated with concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon., tumor necrosis factor a, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We observed a higher lung cancer risk for participants with elevated concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8. These associations seemed to be stronger among former smokers (for fourth quartile vs. first quartile, odds ratio (OR) = 2.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55, 4.70) and current smokers (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.44) for IL-6 and among former smokers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.18, 6.75) and current smokers (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.69, 2.44) for IL-8. No notable associations were observed among never smokers. Risk associations with IL-6 and IL-8 were observed for blood samples taken close to diagnosis (< 5 years) as well as more than 15 years postdiagnosis.

  • 7. Costas, Laura
    et al.
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Benavente, Yolanda
    Allen, Naomi E.
    Amiano, Pilar
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Besson, Caroline
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Cervenka, Iris
    Fortner, Renee T.
    Fournier, Agnes
    Gunter, Marc
    Harlid, Sophia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Jerkeman, Mats
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Kotanidou, Anastasia
    Lund, Eiliv
    Masala, Giovanna
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Menendez, Virginia
    Murphy, Neil
    Nieters, Alexandra
    Overvad, Kim
    Riboli, Elio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Sieri, Sabina
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    de Sanjose, Silvia
    Agudo, Antonio
    Casabonne, Delphine
    Reproductive Factors, Exogenous Hormone Use, and Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Cohort of Women From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition2019Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 188, nr 2, s. 274-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of hormonal factors in the etiology of lymphoid neoplasms remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, have lacked sufficient statistical power to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or have lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use collected at baseline (1992-2000) among 343,458 women, including data on 1,427 incident cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up period of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had undergone surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) than women with natural menopause (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may have been due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.

  • 8. de Vries, Paul S.
    et al.
    Brown, Michael R.
    Bentley, Amy R.
    Sung, Yun J.
    Winkler, Thomas W.
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Schwander, Karen
    Kraja, Aldi T.
    Guo, Xiuqing
    Franceschini, Nora
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Sim, Xueling
    Vojinovic, Dina
    Huffman, Jennifer E.
    Musani, Solomon K.
    Li, Changwei
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Richard, Melissa A.
    Noordam, Raymond
    Aschard, Hugues
    Bartz, Traci M.
    Bielak, Lawrence F.
    Deng, Xuan
    Dorajoo, Rajkumar
    Lohman, Kurt K.
    Manning, Alisa K.
    Rankinen, Tuomo
    Smith, Albert V.
    Tajuddin, Salman M.
    Evangelou, Evangelos
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Alver, Maris
    Boissel, Mathilde
    Chai, Jin Fang
    Chen, Xu
    Divers, Jasmin
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Gao, Chuan
    Goel, Anuj
    Hagemeijer, Yanick
    Harris, Sarah E.
    Hartwig, Fernando P.
    He, Meian
    Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.
    Hsu, Fang-Chi
    Jackson, Anne U.
    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Kuehnel, Brigitte
    Laguzzi, Federica
    Lee, Joseph H.
    Luan, Jian'an
    Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
    Matoba, Nana
    Nolte, Ilja M.
    Pietzner, Maik
    Riaz, Muhammad
    Said, M. Abdullah
    Scott, Robert A.
    Sofer, Tamar
    Stancakova, Alena
    Takeuchi, Fumihiko
    Tayo, Bamidele O.
    van der Most, Peter J.
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Wang, Yajuan
    Ware, Erin B.
    Wen, Wanqing
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Zhang, Weihua
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Afaq, Saima
    Amin, Najaf
    Amini, Marzyeh
    Arking, Dan E.
    Aung, Tin
    Ballantyne, Christie
    Boerwinkle, Eric
    Broeckel, Ulrich
    Campbell, Archie
    Canouil, Mickael
    Charumathi, Sabanayagam
    Chen, Yii-Der Ida
    Connell, John M.
    de Faire, Ulf
    de las Fuentes, Lisa
    de Mutsert, Renee
    de Silva, H. Janaka
    Ding, Jingzhong
    Dominiczak, Anna F.
    Duan, Qing
    Eaton, Charles B.
    Eppinga, Ruben N.
    Faul, Jessica D.
    Fisher, Virginia
    Forrester, Terrence
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Friedlander, Yechiel
    Ghanbari, Mohsen
    Giulianini, Franco
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Grove, Megan L.
    Gu, C. Charles
    Harris, Tamara B.
    Heikkinen, Sami
    Heng, Chew-Kiat
    Hirata, Makoto
    Hixson, James E.
    Howard, Barbara V.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Jacobs, David R., Jr.
    Johnson, Craig
    Jonas, Jost Bruno
    Kammerer, Candace M.
    Katsuya, Tomohiro
    Khor, Chiea Chuen
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Koh, Woon-Puay
    Koistinen, Heikki A.
    Kolcic, Ivana
    Kooperberg, Charles
    Krieger, Jose E.
    Kritchevsky, Steve B.
    Kubo, Michiaki
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Lakka, Timo A.
    Langefeld, Carl D.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Launer, Lenore J.
    Lehne, Benjamin
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    Li, Yize
    Liang, Jingjing
    Liu, Jianjun
    Liu, Kiang
    Loh, Marie
    Louie, Tin
    Magi, Reedik
    Manichaikul, Ani W.
    McKenzie, Colin A.
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Metspalu, Andres
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Milani, Lili
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Mosley, Thomas H., Jr.
    Mukamal, Kenneth J.
    Nalls, Mike A.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Sotoodehnia, Nona
    O'Connell, Jeff R.
    Palmer, Nicholette D.
    Pazoki, Raha
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Peters, Annette
    Peyser, Patricia A.
    Polasek, Ozren
    Poulter, Neil
    Raffel, Leslie J.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Reiner, Alex P.
    Rice, Treva K.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Robino, Antonietta
    Robinson, Jennifer G.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Rudan, Igor
    Schmidt, Carsten O.
    Schreiner, Pamela J.
    Scott, William R.
    Sever, Peter
    Shi, Yuan
    Sidney, Stephen
    Sims, Mario
    Smith, Blair H.
    Smith, Jennifer A.
    Snieder, Harold
    Starr, John M.
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Tan, Nicholas
    Taylor, Kent D.
    Teo, Yik Ying
    Tham, Yih Chung
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    van Heemst, Diana
    Vuckovic, Dragana
    Waldenberger, Melanie
    Wang, Lihua
    Wang, Yujie
    Wang, Zhe
    Wei, Wen Bin
    Williams, Christine
    Wilson, Gregory, Sr.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Yao, Jie
    Yu, Bing
    Yu, Caizheng
    Yuan, Jian-Min
    Zhao, Wei
    Zonderman, Alan B.
    Becker, Diane M.
    Boehnke, Michael
    Bowden, Donald W.
    Chambers, John C.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Esko, Tonu
    Farrall, Martin
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin. Department of Nutrition, T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Freedman, Barry I.
    Froguel, Philippe
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Gieger, Christian
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Kamatani, Yoichiro
    Kato, Norihiro
    Kooner, Jaspal S.
    Laakso, Markku
    Leander, Karin
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Penninx, Brenda
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Scott, James
    Shu, Xiao-Ou
    van der Harst, Pim
    Wagenknecht, Lynne E.
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Watkins, Hugh
    Weir, David R.
    Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.
    Zheng, Wei
    Elliott, Paul
    North, Kari E.
    Bouchard, Claude
    Evans, Michele K.
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Liu, Ching-Ti
    Liu, Yongmei
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Zhu, Xiaofeng
    Rotimi, Charles N.
    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.
    Fornage, Myriam
    Kelly, Tanika N.
    Fox, Ervin R.
    Hayward, Caroline
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Liu, Jingmin
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Gauderman, W. James
    Province, Michael A.
    Munroe, Patricia B.
    Rice, Kenneth
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Rao, Dabeeru C.
    Morrison, Alanna C.
    Multiancestry Genome-Wide Association Study of Lipid Levels Incorporating Gene-Alcohol Interactions2019Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 188, nr 6, s. 1033-1054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 x 10(-6)) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 x 10(-8) using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.

  • 9. Dewi, Nikmah Utami
    et al.
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kampman, Ellen
    Steffen, Annika
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Overvad, Kim
    Severi, Gianluca
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Li, Kuanrong
    Boeing, Heiner
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Bamia, Christina
    Klinaki, Eleni
    Tumino, Rosario
    Palli, Domenico
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Tagliabue, Giovanna
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Gram, Inger Torhild
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ramon Quiros, Jose
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Johansson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Key, Tim
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Fanidi, Anouar
    Muller, David
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC2016Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 184, nr 2, s. 129-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings.

  • 10. Dossus, Laure
    et al.
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Allen, Naomi
    Cust, Anne E
    Becker, Susen
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Hansen, Louise
    Overvad, Kim
    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie
    Mesrine, Sylvie
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Teucher, Birgit
    Chang-Claude, Jenny
    Boeing, Heiner
    Drogan, Dagmar
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Benetou, Vasiliki
    Bamia, Christina
    Palli, Domenico
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Galasso, Rocco
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Onland-Moret, N Charlotte
    Redondo, Maria-Luisa
    Travier, Noémie
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Altzibar, Jone M
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Romaguera, Dora
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles and endometrial cancer risk within the EPIC cohort--a factor analysis.2013Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 177, nr 8, s. 787-799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A "Western" lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992-2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled "insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome," "steroids," and "inflammation" factors. A fourth component, "lipids," was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  • 11. Duell, Eric J
    et al.
    Travier, Noémie
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Boutron-Ruault, MC
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Rodriguez, Laudina
    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio
    Navarro, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Allen, Naomi E
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Jeurnink, Suzanne M
    Numans, ME
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Valanou, Elisabeth
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Lukanova-McGregor, Annekatrin
    Bergman, Manuela M
    Boeing, Heiner
    Manjer, Jonas
    Lindkvist, Björn
    Stenling, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Dahm, Christina C
    Overvad, Kim
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Bakken, Kjersti
    Lund, Eiliv
    Jenab, Mazda
    McCormack, Valerie
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Michaud, Dominique
    Mouw, Traci
    Nesi, Gabriella
    Carneiro, Fatima
    Riboli, Elio
    González, Carlos A
    Menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, and gastric cancer risk in a cohort of women from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition2010Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 172, nr 12, s. 1384-1393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) is lower in women than in men. Furthermore, cancer patients treated with estrogens have been reported to have a lower subsequent risk of GC. The authors conducted a prospective analysis of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, and GC in 335,216 women from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition, a cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years (through 2004), 181 women for whom complete exposure data were available developed GC. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Women who had ovariectomy had a 79% increased risk of GC (based on 25 cases) compared with women who did not (hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.78). Total cumulative years of menstrual cycling was inversely associated with GC risk (fifth vs. first quintile: hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.98; P(trend) = 0.06). No other reproductive factors analyzed were associated with risk of GC. The results of this analysis provide some support for the hypothesis that endogenous ovarian sex hormones lower GC incidence in women.

  • 12. Ferrari, Pietro
    et al.
    Al-Delaimy, Wael K
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C
    Roddam, Andrew
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Skeie, Guri
    Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Thiebaut, Anne
    Johansson, Gerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Palli, Domenico
    Boeing, Heiner
    Overvad, Kim
    Riboli, Elio
    An approach to estimate between- and within-group correlation coefficients in multicenter studies: plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables2005Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 162, nr 6, s. 591-598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a multicenter study, the overall correlation between two variables can be broken down into a within- and a between-group correlation reflecting associations at the individual and aggregate levels, respectively. A random-effects model is used to estimate variance components of nutrition-related variables and the within- and between-group correlation coefficients. Using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors analyzed the association between levels of three plasma carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene) and dietary intake of three items (total fruits, carrots, and tomatoes), assessed through dietary questionnaire and single 24-hour dietary recall measurements, in a cross-sectional study involving 3,089 subjects from nine European countries. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.178 for alpha-carotene, 0.216 for beta-cryptoxanthin, and 0.299 for lycopene. The between-group correlation coefficients were higher than the within-group coefficients for all three carotenoids. For beta-cryptoxanthin and fruit intake, the between-group versus the within-group correlations were 0.78 and 0.26 for the dietary questionnaire and 0.85 and 0.19 for the 24-hour dietary recall. Results indicate that variability of exposure is driven mainly by the individual compared with the aggregate variation and that biomarker levels perform fairly accurately in discriminating population-level consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  • 13. Fisher, James L.
    et al.
    Pettersson, David
    Palmisano, Sadie
    Schwartzbaum, Judith A.
    Edwards, Colin G.
    Mathiesen, Tiit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Prochazka, Michaela
    Bergenheim, Tommy
    Florentzson, Rut
    Harder, Henrik
    Nyberg, Gunnar
    Siesjo, Peter
    Feychting, Maria
    Loud Noise Exposure and Acoustic Neuroma2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 1, s. 58-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from studies of loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma are conflicting. A population-based case-control study of 451 acoustic neuroma patients and 710 age-, sex-, and region-matched controls was conducted in Sweden between 2002 and 2007. Occupational exposure was based on historical measurements of occupational noise (321 job titles summarized by a job exposure matrix) and compared with self-reported occupational noise exposure. We also evaluated self-reported noise exposure during leisure activity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. There was no statistically significant association between acoustic neuroma and persistent occupational noise exposure, either with or without hearing protection. Exposure to loud noise from leisure activity without hearing protection was more common among acoustic neuroma cases (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.03). Statistically significant odds ratios were found for specific leisure activities including attending concerts/clubs/sporting events (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.04) and participating in workouts accompanied by loud music (odds ratio = 2.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 5.89). Our findings do not support an association between occupational exposure to loud noise and acoustic neuroma. Although we report statistically significant associations between leisure-time exposures to loud noise without hearing protection and acoustic neuroma, especially among women, we cannot rule out recall bias as an alternative explanation.

  • 14.
    Franks, Paul W
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nettleton, Jennifer A
    Invited commentary: gene X lifestyle interactions and complex disease traits-inferring cause and effect from observational data, sine qua non2010Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 172, nr 9, s. 992-997Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observational epidemiology has made outstanding contributions to the discovery and elucidation of relations between lifestyle factors and common complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Recent major advances in the understanding of the human genetics of this disease have inspired studies that seek to determine whether the risk conveyed by bona fide risk loci might be modified by lifestyle factors such as diet composition and physical activity levels. A major challenge is to determine which of the reported findings are likely to represent causal interactions and which might be explained by other factors. The authors of this commentary use the Bradford-Hill criteria, a set of tried-and-tested guidelines for causal inference, to evaluate the findings of a recent study on interaction between variation at the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1) locus and total energy intake with respect to prevalent metabolic syndrome and hemoglobin A₁(c) levels in a cohort of 313 Japanese men. The current authors conclude that the study, while useful for hypothesis generation, does not provide overwhelming evidence of causal interactions. They overview ways in which future studies of gene × lifestyle interactions might overcome the limitations that motivated this conclusion.

  • 15. Fransson, Eleonor I
    et al.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Nyberg, Solja T
    Zins, Marie
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Westerholm, Peter
    Väänänen, Ari
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Theorell, Töres
    Suominen, Sakari
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Sabia, Séverine
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Pentti, Jaana
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nielsen, Martin L
    Marmot, Michael G
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L
    Madsen, Ida EH
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Kumari, Meena
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Koskinen, Aki
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Knutsson, Anders
    Kittel, France
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Joensuu, Matti
    Houtman, Irene L
    Hooftman, Wendela E
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Geuskens, Goedele A
    Ferrie, Jane E
    Erbel, Raimund
    Dragano, Nico
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Burr, Hermann
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Bjorner, Jakob B
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Hamer, Mark
    Batty, G David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity: an individual-participant meta-analysis of up to 170,000 men and women2012Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 176, nr 12, s. 1078-1089Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 19851988 to 20062008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50 women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 29 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26 higher (odds ratio 1.26, 95 confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21 higher (odds ratio 1.21, 95 confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21 and 20 higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio 1.21, 95 confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio 1.20, 95 confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

  • 16. Jankovic, Nicole
    et al.
    Geelen, Anouk
    Streppel, Martinette T
    de Groot, Lisette C P G M
    Orfanos, Philippos
    van den Hooven, Edith H
    Pikhart, Hynek
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Bobak, Martin
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Kee, Frank
    Franco, Oscar H
    Park, Yikyung
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    May, Anne M
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Malyutina, Sofia
    Kubinova, Růžena
    Amiano, Pilar
    Kampman, Ellen
    Feskens, Edith J
    Adherence to a healthy diet according to the world health organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 10, s. 978-988Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States.

  • 17. Joshi, Amit D.
    et al.
    Lindström, Sara
    Hüsing, Anika
    Barrdahl, Myrto
    VanderWeele, Tyler J.
    Campa, Daniele
    Canzian, Federico
    Gaudet, Mia M.
    Figueroa, Jonine D.
    Baglietto, Laura
    Berg, Christine D.
    Buring, Julie E.
    Chanock, Stephen J.
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Diver, W. Ryan
    Dossus, Laure
    Giles, Graham G.
    Haiman, Christopher A.
    Hankinson, Susan E.
    Henderson, Brian E.
    Hoover, Robert N.
    Hunter, David J.
    Isaacs, Claudine
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kolonel, Laurence N.
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Lee, I-Min
    Lund, Eiliv
    McCarty, Catherine A.
    Overvad, Kim
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Riboli, Elio
    Schumacher, Fredrick
    Severi, Gianluca
    Stram, Daniel O.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Thun, Michael J.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Willett, Walter C.
    Zhang, Shumin
    Ziegler, Regina G.
    Kraft, Peter
    Additive interactions between susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies and breast cancer risk factors in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 10, s. 1018-1027Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive interactions can have public health and etiological implications but are infrequently reported. We assessed departures from additivity on the absolute risk scale between 9 established breast cancer risk factors and 23 susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from genome-wide association studies among 10,146 non-Hispanic white breast cancer cases and 12,760 controls within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We estimated the relative excess risk due to interaction and its 95% confidence interval for each pairwise combination of SNPs and nongenetic risk factors using age- and cohort-adjusted logistic regression models. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified a statistically significant relative excess risk due to interaction (uncorrected P = 4.51 x 10(-5)) between a SNP in the DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 2 gene (RAD51L1; rs10483813) and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). We also compared additive and multiplicative polygenic risk prediction models using per-allele odds ratio estimates from previous studies for breast-cancer susceptibility SNPs and observed that the multiplicative model had a substantially better goodness of fit than the additive model.

  • 18. Kapeu, Aline Simen
    et al.
    Luostarinen, Tapio
    Jellum, Egil
    Dillner, Joakim
    Hakama, Matti
    Koskela, Pentti
    Lenner, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Löve, Arthur
    Mahlamaki, Eija
    Thoresen, Steinar
    Tryggvadóttir, Laufey
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Youngman, Linda
    Lehtinen, Matti
    Is smoking an independent risk factor for invasive cervical cancer?: A nested case-control study within Nordic biobanks2009Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 169, nr 4, s. 480-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong correlation between smoking and exposure to oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has made it difficult to verify the independent role of smoking in cervical carcinogenesis. Thus, the authors evaluated this role. Five large Nordic serum banks containing samples from more than 1,000,000 subjects were linked with nationwide cancer registries (1973-2003). Serum samples were retrieved from 588 women who developed invasive cervical cancer and 2,861 matched controls. The samples were analyzed for cotinine (a biomarker of tobacco exposure) and antibodies to HPV types 16 and 18, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Smoking was associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among HPV16- and/or HPV18-seropositive heavy smokers (odds ratio=2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 4.3). A similar risk of SCC (odds ratio=3.2, 95% confidence interval: 2.6, 4.0) was found in heavy smokers after adjustment for HPV16/18 antibodies. The point estimates increased with increasing age at diagnosis and increasing cotinine level. This study confirms that smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical cancer/SCC in women infected with oncogenic HPVs. These findings emphasize the importance of cervical cancer prevention among women exposed to tobacco smoke.

  • 19.
    Knudsen, Markus Dines
    et al.
    Danish Cancer Society, Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Danish Cancer Society, Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Cancer Society, Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dragsted, Lars O
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skeie, Guri
    Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Lund, Eiliv
    Department ofCommunity Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Åman, Per
    Department of food Science, Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Danish Cancer Society, Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala, Sweden and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Institute for Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Self-Reported Whole-Grain Intake and Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in Combination in Relation to the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 179, nr 10, s. 1188-1196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains and whole-grain products measured via FFQs and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, both separately and in combination (Howe's score with ranks). We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort from a research project on Nordic health and whole-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile was compared with the lowest (for alkylresorcinol concentrations, incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.92; for Howe's score with ranks, incidence rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.86). No association was observed between whole-grain intake and any colorectal cancer (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer by reducing the impact of misclassification, thereby increasing the statistical power of the study.

  • 20.
    Krachler, Benno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Re: “A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms”2015Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 182, nr 3, s. 278-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21. Leenders, Max
    et al.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Ros, Martine M
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C
    Siersema, Peter D
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise
    Nailler, Laura
    Teucher, Birgit
    Li, Kuanrong
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bergmann, Manuela M
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Peeters, Petra HM
    van Gils, Carla H
    Lund, Eiliv
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Redondo, Maria Luisa
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sanchez, Maria Jose
    Navarro, Carmen
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Warcham, Nicholas J
    Key, Timothy J
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Gunter, Marc J
    Gallo, Valentina
    Overvad, Kim
    Riboli, Elio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition2013Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 178, nr 4, s. 590-602Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22. Leufkens, Anke M
    et al.
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Woudt, Sjoukje HS
    Siersema, Peter D
    Jenab, Mazda
    Jansen, Eugene HJM
    Pischon, Tobias
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Dilis, Vardis
    Peeters, Petra H
    Skeie, Guri
    González, Carlos A
    Argüelles, Marcial
    Sánchez, María-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Huerta, José María
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Allen, Naomi E
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Biomarkers of oxidative stress and risk of developing colorectal cancer: a cohort-nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2012Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 175, nr 7, s. 653-663Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis, but prospective evidence for an association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is limited. The authors investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of oxidative stress indicators (i.e., reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) and CRC risk. This was examined in a nested case-control study (1,064 CRC cases, 1,064 matched controls) in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2003). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression analyses. ROM were associated with overall CRC risk (highest tertile vs. lowest: adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR(adj)) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47, 2.48), proximal (IRR(adj) = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.36) and distal (IRR(adj) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.89) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (IRR(adj) = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.72). When results were stratified by tertile of follow-up time, the association remained significant only in participants with less than 2.63 years of follow-up (IRR(adj) = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94; P-heterogeneity < 0.01). FRAP was not associated with CRC risk. In conclusion, prediagnostic serum ROM levels were associated with increased risk of CRC. However, this association was seen only in subjects with relatively short follow-up, suggesting that the association results from production of reactive oxygen species by preclinical tumors.

  • 23. Lukanova, Annekatrin
    et al.
    Andersson, Ritu
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Wulff, Marianne
    Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Dossus, Laure
    Afanasyeva, Yelena
    Johansson, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Arslan, Alan A
    Lenner, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Toniolo, Paolo
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in pregnancy and maternal risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study.2008Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 168, nr 11, s. 1284-1291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy hormones are believed to be involved in the protection against breast cancer conferred by pregnancy. The authors explored the association of maternal breast cancer with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). In 2001, a case-control study was nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort, an ongoing study in which blood samples have been collected from first-trimester pregnant women since 1975. Cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 357) were matched for age, parity, and date of blood donation. Concentrations of hCG and AFP were measured by immunoassay. No overall significant association of breast cancer with either hCG or AFP was observed. However, women with hCG levels in the top tertile tended to be at lower risk of breast cancer than women with hCG levels in the lowest tertile in the whole study population and in subgroups of age at sampling, parity, and age at cancer diagnosis. A borderline-significant decrease in risk with high hCG levels was observed in women who developed breast cancer after the median lag time to cancer diagnosis (> or =14 years; odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.27, 1.03; P = 0.06). These findings, though very preliminary, are consistent with a possible long-term protective association of breast cancer risk with elevated levels of circulating hCG in the early stages of pregnancy.

  • 24.
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bondy, Melissa L.
    Melin and Bondy Respond to "E Pluribus Unum for Epidemiology"2016Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 183, nr 2, s. 95-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25. Muller, David C.
    et al.
    Fanidi, Anouar
    Midttun, Oivind
    Steffen, Annika
    Dossus, Laure
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Severi, Gianluca
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena
    Alonso de la Torreon, Ramon
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Santiuste, Carmen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Giotaki, Maria
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Murphy, Neil
    Riboli, Elio
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Boeing, Heiner
    Brennan, Paul
    Johansson, Mattias
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.
    Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 in Relation to Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Survival in the EPIC Cohort2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 8, s. 810-820Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal renal function is essential for vitamin D metabolism, but it is unclear whether circulating vitamin D is associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We assessed whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3) was associated with risk of RCC and death after RCC diagnosis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC recruited 385,747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000. The current study included 560 RCC cases, 557 individually matched controls, and 553 additional controls. Circulating 25(OH)D-3 was assessed by mass spectrometry. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Death after RCC diagnosis was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models and flexible parametric survival models. A doubling of 25(OH)D-3 was associated with 28% lower odds of RCC after adjustment for season of and age at blood collection, sex, and country of recruitment (odds ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.86; P = 0.0004). This estimatewas attenuated somewhat after additional adjustment for smoking status at baseline, circulating cotinine, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), and alcohol intake (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99; P = 0.038). There was also some indication that both low and high 25(OH)D-3 levels were associated with higher risk of death from any cause among RCC cases.

  • 26. Nettleton, Jennifer A.
    et al.
    Hivert, Marie-France
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    McKeown, Nicola M.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Hruby, Adela
    Djousse, Luc
    Ngwa, Julius S.
    Follis, Jack L.
    Dimitriou, Maria
    Ganna, Andrea
    Houston, Denise K.
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Mikkila, Vera
    Manichaikul, Ani
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    de Koning, Lawrence
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Hassanali, Neelam
    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.
    Lohman, Kurt K.
    Raitakari, Olli
    Papoutsakis, Constantina
    Sjogren, Per
    Stirrups, Kathleen
    Ax, Erika
    Deloukas, Panos
    Groves, Christopher J.
    Jacques, Paul F.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    Liu, Yongmei
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    North, Kari
    Viikari, Jorma
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Dupuis, Josee
    Hofman, Albert
    Kolovou, Genovefa
    Mukamal, Kenneth
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Seppala, Ilkka
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Hu, Frank B.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Jacobs, David R., Jr.
    Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Pankow, James S.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Siscovick, David S.
    Dedoussis, George
    Meigs, James B.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Meta-analysis investigating associations between healthy diet and fasting glucose and insulin levels and modification by loci associated with glucose homeostasis in data from 15 cohorts2013Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 177, nr 2, s. 103-115Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether loci that influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels, as identified by genome-wide association studies, modify associations of diet with FG or FI is unknown. We utilized data from 15 US and European cohort studies comprising 51,289 persons without diabetes to test whether genotype and diet interact to influence FG or FI concentration. We constructed a diet score using study-specific quartile rankings for intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, and nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugared beverages, and fried potatoes (unfavorable). We used linear regression within studies, followed by inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis, to quantify 1) associations of diet score with FG and FI levels and 2) interactions of diet score with 16 FG-associated loci and 2 FI-associated loci. Diet score (per unit increase) was inversely associated with FG ( 0.004 mmol/L, 95 confidence interval: 0.005, 0.003) and FI ( 0.008 ln-pmol/L, 95 confidence interval: 0.009, 0.007) levels after adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle, and body mass index. Genotype variation at the studied loci did not modify these associations. Healthier diets were associated with lower FG and FI concentrations regardless of genotype at previously replicated FG- and FI-associated loci. Studies focusing on genomic regions that do not yield highly statistically significant associations from main-effect genome-wide association studies may be more fruitful in identifying diet-gene interactions.

  • 27. Paige, Ellie
    et al.
    Barrett, Jessica
    Pennells, Lisa
    Sweeting, Michael
    Willeit, Peter
    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Nordestgaard, Børge G.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Goldbourt, Uri
    Best, Lyle G.
    Assmann, Gerd
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Nietert, Paul J.
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Kronmal, Richard A.
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Bakker, Stephan J. L.
    Dagenais, Gilles R.
    Sato, Shinichi
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Willeit, Johann
    Onat, Altan
    de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez
    Roussel, Ronan
    Völzke, Henry
    Dankner, Rachel
    Tipping, Robert W.
    Meade, Tom W.
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Kuller, Lewis H.
    Peters, Annette
    Gallacher, John
    Kromhout, Daan
    Iso, Hiroyasu
    Knuiman, Matthew
    Casiglia, Edoardo
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Sundström, Johan
    Davis, Barry R.
    Njølstad, Inger
    Couper, David
    Danesh, John
    Thompson, Simon G.
    Wood, Angela
    Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction: An Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis2017Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 186, nr 8, s. 899-907Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data encompassing 1962-2014) with more than 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred. Risk prediction models using cumulative mean values of repeated measurements and summary measures from longitudinal modeling of the repeated measurements were compared with models using measurements from a single time point. Risk discrimination (C-index) and net reclassification were calculated, and changes in C-indices were meta-analyzed across studies. Compared with the single-time-point model, the cumulative means and longitudinal models increased the C-index by 0.0040 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0023, 0.0057) and 0.0023 (95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0042), respectively. Reclassification was also improved in both models; compared with the single-time-point model, overall net reclassification improvements were 0.0369 (95% CI: 0.0303, 0.0436) for the cumulative-means model and 0.0177 (95% CI: 0.0110, 0.0243) for the longitudinal model. In conclusion, incorporating repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol into CVD risk prediction models slightly improves risk prediction.

  • 28. Palmisano, Sadie
    et al.
    Schwartzbaum, Judith
    Prochazka, Michaela
    Pettersson, David
    Bergenheim, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Florentzson, Rut
    Harder, Henrik
    Mathiesen, Tiit
    Nyberg, Gunnar
    Siesjo, Peter
    Feychting, Maria
    Role of Tobacco Use in the Etiology of Acoustic Neuroma2012Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 175, nr 12, s. 1243-1251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two previous studies suggest that cigarette smoking reduces acoustic neuroma risk; however, an association between use of snuff tobacco and acoustic neuroma has not been investigated previously. The authors conducted a case-control study in Sweden from 2002 to 2007, in which 451 cases and 710 population-based controls completed questionnaires. Cases and controls were matched on gender, region, and age within 5 years. The authors estimated odds ratios using conditional logistic regression analyses, adjusted for education and tobacco use (snuff use in the smoking analysis and smoking in the snuff analysis). The risk of acoustic neuroma was greatly reduced in male current smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23, 0.74) and moderately reduced in female current smokers (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.40, 1.23). In contrast, current snuff use among males was not associated with risk of acoustic neuroma (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.55). The authors' findings are consistent with previous reports of lower acoustic neuroma risk among current cigarette smokers than among never smokers. The absence of an association between snuff use and acoustic neuroma suggests that some constituent of tobacco smoke other than nicotine may confer protection against acoustic neuroma.

  • 29. Scheurer, Michael E
    et al.
    Etzel, Carol J
    Liu, Mei
    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill
    Wiklund, Fredrik
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wrensch, Margaret R
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Bondy, Melissa L
    Familial aggregation of glioma: a pooled analysis2010Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 172, nr 10, s. 1099-1107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In genome-wide association studies, inherited risk of glioma has been demonstrated for rare familial syndromes and with common variants from 3-5 chromosomal regions. To assess the degree of familial aggregation of glioma, the authors performed a pooled analysis of data from 2 large glioma case-control studies in the United States (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (1994-2006) and University of California, San Francisco (1991-2004)) and from the Swedish Cancer Registry (1958-2006) to measure excess cases of cancer among first-degree relatives of glioma probands. This analysis included 20,377 probands with glioma and 52,714 first-degree relatives. No overall increase was found in the expected number of cancers among family members; however, there were 77% more gliomas than expected. There were also significantly more sarcoma and melanoma cases than expected, which is supported by evidence in the literature, whereas there were significantly fewer-than-expected cases of leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and bladder, lung, pancreatic, prostate, and uterine cancers. This large pooled analysis provided sufficient numbers of related family members to examine the genetic mechanisms involved in the aggregation of glioma with other cancers in these families. However, misclassification due to unvalidated cancers among family members could account for the differences seen by study site.

  • 30. Sluik, Diewertje
    et al.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Montonen, Jukka
    Pischon, Tobias
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Teucher, Birgit
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Berentzen, Tina L
    Overvad, Kim
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Bendinelli, Benedetta
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Spijkerman, Annemieke MW
    van der A, Daphne L
    Beulens, Joline W
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Hedblad, Bo
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Associations between general and abdominal adiposity and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus2011Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 174, nr 1, s. 22-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus are advised to achieve a healthy weight to prevent complications. However, fat mass distribution has hardly been investigated as a risk factor for diabetes complications. The authors studied associations between body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, and waist/height ratio and mortality among individuals with diabetes mellitus. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, a subcohort was defined as 5,435 individuals with a confirmed self-report of diabetes mellitus at baseline in 1992-2000. Participants were aged 57.3 (standard deviation, 6.3) years, 54% were men, the median diabetes duration was 4.6 (interquartile range, 2.0-9.8) years, and 22% of the participants used insulin. Body mass index, as indicator of general obesity, was not associated with higher mortality, whereas all measurements of abdominal obesity showed a positive association. Associations generally were slightly weaker in women. The strongest association was observed for waist/height ratio: In the fifth quintile, the hazard rate ratio was 1.88 (95% confidence interval: 1.33, 2.65) for men and 2.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.46, 4.14) for women. Measurements of abdominal, but not general, adiposity were associated with higher mortality in diabetic individuals. The waist/height ratio showed the strongest association. Respective indicators might be investigated in risk prediction models.

  • 31. Stijnen, Pieter
    et al.
    Tuand, Krizia
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, Malmo, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp Malmo, Malmo, Sweden; Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Aertgeerts, Bert
    Creemers, John W. M.
    RE: "The Association of Common Variants in PCSK1 With Obesity: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis" REPLY2015Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 181, nr 9, s. 733-735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32. Stijnen, Pieter
    et al.
    Tuand, Krizia
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Aertgeerts, Bert
    Creemers, John W. M.
    The Association of Common Variants in PCSK1 With Obesity: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 11, s. 1051-1065Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital deficiency of the proprotein convertase subtilisine/kexin type 1 gene (PCSK1), which encodes proprotein convertase 1/3, causes a severe multihormonal disorder marked by early-onset obesity. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs6232 and rs6234-rs6235 in PCSK1 have been associated with obesity. However, case-control studies carried out in populations of different ethnicities have only partly replicated this association. Moreover, these SNPs have only weakly been associated with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at a genome-wide level of significance. To investigate this discrepancy, we conducted a systematic search for studies published before December 2013 and extracted relevant data. Pooled estimates were calculated for overall and subgroup analyses. This meta-analysis confirmed the association of PCSK1 SNPs with obesity and provides the first evidence that the association between PCSK1 rs6232 and obesity is stronger for childhood obesity than for adult obesity. Moreover, we identified weak associations with body mass index and significantly stronger associations with waist circumference for rs6234-rs6235. No difference was found in the association with different obesity grades, and no association of PCSK1 rs6234-rs6235 with obesity was identified in Asian populations. This systematic Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review showed convincingly that the SNPs rs6232, rs6234, and rs6235 in PCSK1 are associated with obesity in Caucasians.

  • 33. Travis, Ruth C
    et al.
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Allen, Naomi E
    Appleby, Paul N
    Roddam, Andrew W
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Kröger, Janine
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Dilis, Vardis
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Vineis, Paolo
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sieri, Sabina
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Larrañaga, Nerea
    González, Carlos A
    Argüelles, Marcial V
    Sánchez, Maria-José
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Bingham, Sheila
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Slimani, Nadia
    Jenab, Mazda
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Timothy J
    Serum vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).2009Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 169, nr 10, s. 1223-1232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994-2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for trend = 0.188). Subgroup analyses showed no significant heterogeneity by cancer stage or grade, age at diagnosis, body mass index, time from blood collection to diagnosis, or calcium intake. In summary, the results of this large nested case-control study provide no evidence in support of a protective effect of circulating concentrations of vitamin D on the risk of prostate cancer.

  • 34. Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    et al.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Appleby, Paul N.
    Allen, Naomi E.
    Lindstrom, Sara
    Schumacher, Fredrick R.
    Cox, David
    Hsing, Ann W.
    Ma, Jing
    Severi, Gianluca
    Albanes, Demetrius
    Virtamo, Jarmo
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Johansson, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France .
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Siddiq, Afshan
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Tumino, Rosario
    Gaziano, J. Michael
    Giovannucci, Edward
    Hunter, David J.
    Kraft, Peter
    Stampfer, Meir J.
    Giles, Graham G.
    Andriole, Gerald L.
    Berndt, Sonja I.
    Chanock, Stephen J.
    Hayes, Richard B.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Interactions Between Genome-wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, Sex Hormones, and Binding Proteins in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium2012Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 175, nr 9, s. 926-935Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. There is limited information on the mechanistic basis of these associations, particularly about whether they interact with circulating concentrations of growth factors and sex hormones, which may be important in prostate cancer etiology. Using conditional logistic regression, the authors compared per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for 39 GWAS-identified SNPs across thirds (tertile groups) of circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) for 3,043 cases and 3,478 controls in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with growth factor or hormone concentrations, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations, although 4 interactions were marginally significant (MSMB-rs10993994 with androstenedione (uncorrected P = 0.008); CTBP2-rs4962416 with IGFBP-3 (uncorrected P = 0.003); 11q13.2-rs12418451 with IGF-1 (uncorrected P = 0.006); and 11q13.2-rs10896449 with SHBG (uncorrected P = 0.005)). The authors found no strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of IGF-1, sex hormones, or their major binding proteins.

  • 35. Varga, Tibor V
    et al.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Hu, Frank B
    Renström, Frida
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Smoking status, snus use, and variation at the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 locus in relation to obesity: the GLACIER study2013Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 178, nr 1, s. 31-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A genetic variant within the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region (rs1051730), previously associated with smoking quantity, was recently shown to interact with smoking on obesity predisposition. We attempted to replicate this finding in the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk (GLACIER) Study, a prospective cohort study of adults from northern Sweden (n = 16,426). We also investigated whether a similar interaction is apparent between rs1051730 and snus, a type of moist oral tobacco, to determine whether this interaction is driven by factors that cigarettes and snus have in common, such as nicotine. Main effects of smoking, snus, and the rs1051730 variant and pairwise interaction terms (smoking x rs1051730 and snus x rs1051730) were tested in relation to body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) through the use of multivariate linear models adjusted for age and sex. Smoking status and BMI were inversely related (beta = -0.46 kg/m(2), standard error (SE) = 0.08; P < 0.0001). Snus use and BMI were positively related (beta = 0.35 kg/m(2), SE = 0.12; P = 0.003). The rs1051730 variant was not significantly associated with smoking status or snus use (P > 0.05); the T allele was associated with lower BMI in the overall cohort (beta = -0.10 kg/m(2), SE = 0.05; P = 0.03) and with smoking quantity in those in whom this was measured (n = 5,304) (beta = 0.08, SE = 0.01; P < 0.0001). Neither smoking status (P-interaction = 0.29) nor snus use (P-interaction = 0.89) modified the association between the rs1051730 variant and BMI.

  • 36. Vermeulen, Esther
    et al.
    Zamora-Ros, Raul
    Duell, Eric J
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Scalbert, Augustin
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Touillaud, Marina
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Perquier, Florence
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Argueelles, Marcial Vicente
    Amiano, Pilar
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Pala, Valeria
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Saieva, Calogero
    Tumino, Rosario
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Vasilopoulou, Effie
    Ziara, Gianna
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Grote, Verena A
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Bredsdorff, Lea
    Overvad, Kim
    Siersema, Peter D
    Peeters, Petra HM
    May, Anne M
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Hjartaker, Anette
    Landberg, Rikard
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A
    Dietary flavonoid intake and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort2013Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 178, nr 4, s. 570-581Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; .
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Barcelona, Spain.
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Boston, Massachusetts.
    Schwartz, Joel
    Boston, Massachusetts.
    Armstrong, Ben
    London, United Kingdom.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality2016Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 183, nr 4, s. 286-293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985-2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed.

  • 38. Wilson, Lauren E.
    et al.
    Xu, Zongli
    Harlid, Sophia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    White, Alexandra J.
    Troester, Melissa A.
    Sandler, Dale P.
    Taylor, Jack A.
    Alcohol and DNA Methylation: An Epigenome-Wide Association Study in Blood and Normal Breast Tissue2019Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 188, nr 6, s. 1055-1065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological mechanisms driving associations between alcohol consumption and chronic diseases might include epigenetic modification of DNA methylation. We explored the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is associated with methylation in an epigenome-wide association study of blood and normal breast tissue DNA. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, California) array data on blood DNA methylation was examined in a discovery set of 2,878 non-Hispanic white women from the Sister Study (United States, 2004-2015) who provided detailed questionnaire information on lifetime alcohol use. Robust linear regression modeling was used to identify significant associations (false discovery rate of Q < 0.05) between the number of alcoholic drinks per week and DNA methylation at 5,458 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. Associations were replicated (P < 0.05) for 677 CpGs in an independent set of 187 blood DNA samples from the Sister Study and for 628 CpGs in an independent set of 171 normal breast DNA samples; 1,207 CpGs were replicated in either blood or normal breast, with 98 CpGs replicated in both tissues. Individual gene effects were notable for phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGHDH), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIF), solute carrier 15 (SLC15), solute carrier family 43 member 1 (SLC43A1), and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11). We also found that high alcohol consumption was associated with significantly lower global methylation as measured by the average of CpGs on the entire array.

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