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  • 1. Augustis, Marika
    et al.
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hillborg, Helene
    The meaning of work: Perceptions among persons with maintenance treatment for opioid addiction who are employed2015In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 146, p. e212-e212Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Wargelius, Hanna-Linn
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Oreland, Lars
    The MAO-A gene, platelet MAO-B activity and psychosocial environment in adolescent female alcohol-related problem behaviour.2008In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 93, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antisocial behaviour has been associated with polymorphic variants in candidate genes and recently also gene-environmental interaction models have been presented. It has been suggested that antisocial behaviour, associated with alcohol consumption in males, is related to a variation in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAO-A) promoter. Furthermore, platelet MAO-B activity has in several studies been reported to be low in male alcoholics, while this has not been the case with regard to female alcoholics. Aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate possible interactions between the MAO-A polymorphism, family relations and maltreatment/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among female adolescents; (2) to investigate if platelet MAO-B enzyme activity interacted with environment to predict female alcohol-related problems.

    METHODS: A random sample of 114 female individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county, who volunteered to participate in the study, were interviewed, filled in a questionnaire and a blood sample was drawn.

    RESULTS: In contrast to what has been reported in males, presence of the long (4-repeat) variant of the MAO-A gene in females interacted significantly with an unfavourable environment (poor family relations or maltreatment/abuse/sexual abuse) to increase the risk for high scores of alcohol-related problems. Furthermore, females with low platelet MAO-B activity showed an increased risk of alcohol-related problem behaviour in an unfavourable environment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor psychosocial environment interacts with the high activity MAO-A genotype and low platelet MAO-B enzyme activity to increase vulnerability for female adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour.

  • 3.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Use of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) and the risk of development of alcohol dependence: a cohort study in a middle-aged population in Sweden.2015In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 149, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Convincing evidence shows that smoking is associated with alcohol dependence (AD) and a positive correlation between snus and alcohol consumption was previously shown in cross-sectional studies. We performed a longitudinal evaluation of the risk of snus users to develop AD.

    METHODS: A cohort study in Västerbotten County, Sweden, linked individual data on socioeconomic situation and health survey data from 21,037 men and women (46.5% men). AD was defined by the CAGE questionnaire and evaluated at baseline 1991-1997 and again after 10 years. The risk of developing AD was assessed using logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching.

    RESULTS: 2370 men and 430 women used snus and were without AD at baseline. Over the 10-year period, 499 men and 257 women developed AD, among whom 191 and 26, respectively, were baseline snus users. The crude relative risks of AD for male and female snus users compared to non-users were 1.8 with 95% CI (1.5, 2.2) and 2.9 (2.0, 4.3), respectively. Adjusted logistic regression showed a positive dose-response relationship between snus use and risk of AD. Analyses involving propensity score matching revealed 33 and 17 new cases of AD in men and women, respectively, after 10 years given 1000 men and 1000 women without AD had been baseline snus users rather than non-users. Results for current, previous and never smokers were similar.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of snus is prospectively associated with an increased risk of AD with a dose-response relationship that is independent of smoking status.

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