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  • 1.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 334-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 2. Barnett, A. G.
    et al.
    Hajat, S.
    Gasparrini, A.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Cold and heat waves in the United States2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 112, p. 218-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme cold and heat waves, characterized by a number of cold or hot days in succession, place a strain on people's cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The increase in deaths due to these waves may be greater than that predicted by extreme temperatures alone. We examined cold and heat waves in 99 US cities for 14 years (1987-2000) and investigated how the risk of death depended on the temperature threshold used to define a wave, and a wave's timing, duration and intensity. We defined cold and heat waves using temperatures above and below cold and heat thresholds for two or more days. We tried five cold thresholds using the first to fifth percentiles of temperature, and five heat thresholds using the 95-99 percentiles. The extra wave effects were estimated using a two-stage model to ensure that their effects were estimated after removing the general effects of temperature. The increases in deaths associated with cold waves were generally small and not statistically significant, and there was even evidence of a decreased risk during the coldest waves. Heat waves generally increased the risk of death, particularly for the hottest heat threshold. Cold waves of a colder intensity or longer duration were not more dangerous. Cold waves earlier in the cool season were more dangerous, as were heat waves earlier in the warm season. In general there was no increased risk of death during cold waves above the known increased risk associated with cold temperatures. Cold or heat waves earlier in the cool or warm season may be more dangerous because of a build up in the susceptible pool or a lack of preparedness for extreme temperatures.

  • 3. Barnett, A. G.
    et al.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Commentary: What measure of temperature is the best predictor of mortality?2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 118, p. 149-151Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Berg, Vivian
    et al.
    Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Charles, Dolley
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nøst, Therese H.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sandanger, Torkjel M.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Huber, Sandra
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pre- and post-diagnostic blood profiles of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and metabolic markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus cases and controls: a pilot study2021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 195, article id 110846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are also associated with blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and factors related to the disease may affect POP concentrations, and subsequent associations between POPs and T2DM. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the change in concentrations of lipids, hormones and POPs pre- and post-diagnosis in T2DM cases compared to healthy controls and their associations with T2DM.

    Methods: We measured POPs, lipids, and thyroid and steroid hormones in plasma from 44 female cases collected prior to (pre-diagnostic) and following (post-diagnostic) T2DM diagnosis, and in 44 healthy female age-matched controls. We compared cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes within and between matched cases and controls with t-tests and multivariable linear regression models. Associations between POP concentrations and T2DM were investigated using conditional logistic regression.

    Results: Between the pre- and post-diagnostic measurement, cases developed more favorable lipid profiles and the longitudinal changes in lipid-normalized concentrations of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like PCBs, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDE) differed significantly between cases and controls. The longitudinal changes in POPs were mainly driven by changes in bodyweight, total lipids and T2DM status. Cases had significantly higher pre-diagnostic concentrations of POPs and triglycerides, and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free thyroxin than controls. Pre-diagnostic POP concentrations were not significantly associated with incident T2DM, whereas several post-diagnostic POP concentrations were significantly positively associated with prevalent T2DM.

    Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that factors related to T2DM affect blood concentrations of POPs and may partly explain the positive associations between POPs and T2DM.

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  • 5.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sturve, J
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Förlin, Lars
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden2007In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 330-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  • 6.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Andersson, Eva M
    Molnár, Peter
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Xu, Yiyi
    Wichmann, Janine
    Spanne, Mårten
    Stroh, Emilie
    Engström, Gunnar
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Incident cardiovascular disease and long-term exposure to source-specific air pollutants in a Swedish cohort2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 209, article id 112698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but its role in the development of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the role of different pollution sources in cardiovascular disease remain uncertain.

    METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort in 1991-1996 with information on lifestyle and clinical indicators of cardiovascular disease. The cohort participants were followed through registers until 2016. Annual total and local source-specific concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from traffic, residential heating, and industry were assigned to each participant's address throughout the study period. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders was used to estimate associations between air pollution 1-5 years prior to outcomes of incident CHF, fatal myocardial infarction (MI), major adverse coronary events (MACE), and ischemic stroke.

    RESULTS: Air pollution exposure levels (mean annual exposures to PM2.5 of 11 μg/m3 and NOx of 26 μg/m3) within the cohort were moderate in terms of environmental standards. After adjusting for confounders, we observed statistically significant associations between NOx and CHF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.22) and NOx and fatal MI (HR 1.10, 95%CI 1.01-1.20) per interquartile range (IQR) of 9.6 μg/m3. In fully adjusted models, the estimates were similar, but the precision worse. In stratified analyses, the associations were stronger in males, ever-smokers, older participants, and those with baseline carotid artery plaques. Locally emitted and traffic-related air pollutants generally showed positive associations with CHF and fatal MI. There were no associations between air pollution and MACE or stroke.

    DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In an area with low to moderate air pollution exposure, we observed significant associations of long-term residential NOx with increased risk of incident CHF and fatal MI, but not with coronary events and stroke.

  • 7.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Centre of Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Zoëga, Helga
    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur
    Gíslason, Thórarinn
    Hrafnkelsson, Birgir
    Hydrogen sulfide and particle matter levels associated with increased dispensing of anti-asthma drugs in Iceland's capital2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 113, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Air pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure.

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area.

    Methods The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables.

    Results The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3–5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10 μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively.

    Conclusion Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed.

  • 8.
    Charles, Dolley
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Berg, Vivian
    Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Community Medicine and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Huber, Sandra
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Ayotte, Pierre
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, QC, Québec, Canada; Centre de Toxicologie du Québec, INSPQ, QC, Québec, Canada.
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Averina, Maria
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Services, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sandanger, Torkjel
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Tromsø, Norway.
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Longitudinal changes in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (1986–2016) and their associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 204, article id 112129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Positive associations have been reported between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, causality has not been established. Over the last decades, environmental exposure to legacy POPs has decreased, complicating epidemiological studies. In addition, physiological risk factors for T2DM may also influence POP concentrations, contributing to a complex network of factors that could impact associations with T2DM. Longitudinal studies on this topic are lacking, and few have assessed prospective and cross-sectional associations between repeated POP measurements and T2DM in the same individuals, which may shed light on causality.

    Objectives: To compare longitudinal trends in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in T2DM cases and controls, and to examine prospective and cross-sectional associations between PCBs, OCPs and T2DM at different time-points before and after T2DM diagnosis in cases.

    Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, nested case-control study (1986–2016) of 116 T2DM cases and 139 controls from the Tromsø Study. All participants had three blood samples collected before T2DM diagnosis in cases, and up to two samples thereafter. We used linear mixed-effect models to assess temporal changes of POPs within and between T2DM cases and controls, and logistic regression models to investigate the associations between different POPs and T2DM at different time-points.

    Results: PCBs, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, cis-heptachlor epoxide, p,p’-DDE, and p,p’-DDT declined more slowly in cases than controls, whereas β-HCH and HCB declined similarly in both groups. Most POPs showed positive associations between both pre- and post-diagnostic concentrations and T2DM, though effect estimates were imprecise. These associations were most consistent for cis-heptachlor epoxide.

    Discussion: The observed positive associations between certain POPs and T2DM may be because of higher POP concentrations within prospective T2DM cases, due to slower temporal declines as compared to controls.

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  • 9. Cheng, Wei
    et al.
    Zhou, Lian
    Marsac, Remi
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hanna, Khalil
    Effects of organic matter-goethite interactions on reactive transport of nalidixic acid: Column study and modeling2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 191, article id 110187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fractionation of natural organic matter (NOM) and its impact on the binding of quinolones to mineral surfaces and transport behavior under flow-through conditions have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the sorption and transport of a widely used quinolone antibiotic, Nalidixic acid (NA), were investigated in goethite-coated sand (GCS) columns over a wide concentration range (5-50 mg/L) of Leonardite humic acid (LHA), a representative NOM. Simultaneous injection of NA and LHA in GCS columns mutually alter transport of each other, i.e. NA mobility and LHA molecular fractionation. Preloading of GCS column with LHA dramatically facilitated the transport behavior of NA, where nonspecific interactions with LHA-covered goethite surfaces controlled NA mobility. Simulations using a two-site nonequilibrium model showed that a modified sorption rate constant was required to accurately describe the breakthrough curves of NA under these conditions. This altered rate constant suggests that nonspecific interactions of NA on bound LHA may take place as an additional binding mechanism affecting adsorption kinetics. NOM fractionation alters sorption mechanisms and kinetics of quinolone antibiotics, which in turn affect their fractionation. These results may have important implications for an accurate assessment of the fate of these types of antibiotics in aquatic environments.

  • 10. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Gulliver, John
    Donkelaar, Aaron van
    Martin, Randall V
    Marshall, Julian D
    Bechle, Matthew J
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Dedele, Audrius
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Korek, Michal
    Künzli, Nino
    Lindley, Sarah J
    Lepeule, Johanna
    Meleux, Frederik
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nystad, Wenche
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Peters, Annette
    Peuch, Vincent-Henri
    Rouil, Laurence
    Udvardy, Orsolya
    Slama, Rémy
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Stephanou, Euripides G
    Tsai, Ming Y
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Hoek, Gerard
    Development of West-European PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models incorporating satellite-derived and chemical transport modelling data2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models, all including local traffic and land use variables, were compared (LUR without SAT or CTM, with SAT only, with CTM only, and with both SAT and CTM). LUR models were developed using two monitoring data sets: PM2.5 and NO2 ground level measurements from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and from the European AIRBASE network. LUR PM2.5 models including SAT and SAT+CTM explained ~60% of spatial variation in measured PM2.5 concentrations, substantially more than the LUR model without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.33-0.38). For NO2 CTM improved prediction modestly (adjR(2): 0.58) compared to models without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.47-0.51). Both monitoring networks are capable of producing models explaining the spatial variance over a large study area. SAT and CTM estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 significantly improved the performance of high spatial resolution LUR models at the European scale for use in large epidemiological studies.

  • 11. Dreij, Kristian
    et al.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Le Bihanic, Florane
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Polycyclic aromatic compounds in urban soils of Stockholm City: Occurrence, sources and human health risk assessment2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 182, article id 108989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are ubiquitous pollutants that are found everywhere in our environment, including air, soil and water. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations, distribution, sources and potential health risk of 43 PACs in soils collected from 25 urban parks in Stockholm City, Sweden. These PACs included 21 PAHs, 11 oxygenated PAHs, 7 methylated PAHs, and 4 azaarenes whose concentrations ranged between 190 and 54 500, 30.5-5 300, 14.9-680, and 4.17-590 ng/g soil, respectively. Fluoranthene was found at the highest levels ranging between 17.7 and 9800 ng/g, benzo[a]pyrene between 9.64 and 4600 ng/g, and the highly potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene up to 740 ng/g. The most abundant oxy-PAH was 6H-benzo[cd] pyren-6-one (2.09-2300 ng/g). Primary sources of PAHs were identified by use of diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization modelling and found to be pyrogenic including vehicle emissions and combustion of biomass. Estimating the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRS) associated with exposure to PAHs in these soils indicated that the PAH levels in some parks constitute a considerable increased risk level for adults and children (total ILCR > 1 x 10(-4)). Compared to worldwide urban parks contamination, we conclude that the PAC soil levels in parks of Stockholm City in general are low, but that some parks are more heavily contaminated and should be considered for clean-up actions to limit human health risks.

  • 12.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kyobutungi, C
    Gatari, M
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Measuring exposure levels of inhalable airborne particles (PM2.5) in two socially deprived areas of Nairobi, Kenya2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 148, p. 500-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ambient air pollution is a growing global health concern tightly connected to the rapid global urbanization. Health impacts from outdoor air pollution exposure amounts to high burdens of deaths and disease worldwide. However, the lack of systematic collection of air pollution and health data in many low-and middle-income countries remains a challenge for epidemiological studies in the local environment. This study aimed to provide a description of the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in the poorest urban residential areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Real-time measurements of (PM2.5) were conducted in two urban informal settlements of Nairobi City, Kenya"s Capital, from February 2013 to October 2013. The measurements were conducted using DustTrak II 8532 hand-held samplers at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level with a resolution of 1-min logging. Sampling took place from early morning to evenings according to a fixed route of measurement within areas including fixed geographical checkpoints. Results: The study period average concentration of PM2.5 was 166 mu g/m(3) in the Korogocho area and 67 mu g/m(3) in the Viwandani area. The PM2.5 levels in both areas reached bimodal daily peaks in the morning and evening. The average peak value of morning concentration in Korogocho was 214 mu g/m(3), and 164 mu g/m(3) in the evening and in Viwandani was 76 mu g/m(3) and 82 mu g/m(3) respectively. The daily midday average low observed during was 146 mu g/m(3) in Korogocho and 59 mu g/m(3) in Viwandani. Conclusion: The results show that residents in both slums are continuously exposed to PM2.5 levels exceeding hazardous levels according to World Health Organization guidelines. The study showed a marked disparity between the two slum areas situated only 7 km apart indicating the local situation and sources to be very important for exposure to PM2.5.

  • 13.
    Flanagan, Erin
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Ebba
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Susanna
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Malmö, Skåne, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden.
    Estimated public health benefits of a low-emission zone in Malmö, Sweden2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 214, no Part 4, article id 114124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low-emission zones (LEZ) have been increasingly implemented in cities throughout Europe as a measure to reduce the adverse health effects and premature deaths associated with traffic-related air pollution. In the present study, a health impact analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of a hypothetical LEZ on mortality and morbidity in Malmö, Sweden. Baseline health statistics were gathered from health registers and applied to each resident according to individual-level data on age and/or sex. Concentration-response parameters were derived from current epidemiological literature, specifically meta-analyses. A Gaussian dispersion model (AERMOD) combined with a detailed emission database was used to calculate NO2 emissions from traffic, which could be applied on an individual-level using data on each person's residential coordinates. The adjusted exposure scenario replaced all vehicles on municipal roads having Euro 5 or lower emission standards with Euro 6 equivalents. This LEZ would, on average, decrease NO2 concentrations by 13.4%, preventing an estimated 9-26 deaths in Malmö each year. Additionally, 12 respiratory disease hospitalizations, 8 childhood asthma cases, and 9 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were estimated to be avoided annually. These results suggest that LEZs can effectively improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and safeguard public health.

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  • 14.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sheridan, Scott C.
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Effect of extreme hot and cold weather on cause-specific hospitalizations in Sweden: A time series analysis2021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 193, article id 110535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that several meteorological variables can contribute to weather vulnerability, the estimation of their synergetic effects on health is particularly useful. The spatial synoptic classification (SSC) has been used in biometeorological applications to estimate the effect of the entire suite of weather conditions on human morbidity and mortality. In this study, we assessed the relationships between extremely hot and dry (dry tropical plus, DT+) and hot and moist (moist tropical plus, MT+) weather types in summer and extremely cold and dry (dry polar plus, DP+) and cold and moist (moist polar, MP+) weather types in winter and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations by age and sex. Time-series quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lags was used to assess the relationship between oppressive weather types and daily hospitalizations over 14 subsequent days in the extended summer (May to August) and 28 subsequent days during the extended winter (November to March) over 24 years in 4 Swedish locations from 1991 to 2014. In summer, exposure to hot weather types appeared to reduce cardiovascular hospitalizations while increased the risk of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases, mainly related to MT+. In winter, the effect of cold weather on both cause-specific hospitalizations was small; however, MP+ was related to a delayed increase in cardiovascular hospitalizations, whilst MP+ and DP + increased the risk of hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. This study provides useful information for the staff of hospitals and elderly care centers who can help to implement protective measures for patients and residents. Also, our results could be helpful for vulnerable people who can adopt protective measures to reduce health risks.

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  • 15.
    Fonseca-Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adams, Ryan E.
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, OH, Kent, United States.
    Sheridan, Scott C.
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, OH, Kent, United States.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Projection of extreme heat- and cold-related mortality in Sweden based on the spatial synoptic classification2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 239, article id 117359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate change is projected to result in increased heat events and decreased cold events. This will substantially impact human health, particularly when compounded with demographic change. This study employed the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) to categorize daily weather into one of seven types. Here we estimated future mortality due to extremely hot and cold weather types under different climate change scenarios for one southern (Stockholm) and one northern (Jämtland) Swedish region.

    Methods: Time-series Poisson regression with distributed lags was used to assess the relationship between extremely hot and cold weather events and daily deaths in the population above 65 years, with cumulative effects (6 days in summer, 28 days in winter), 1991 to 2014. A global climate model (MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR) and two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) were used to project the occurrence of hot and cold days from 2031 to 2070. Place-specific projected mortality was calculated to derive attributable numbers and attributable fractions (AF) of heat- and cold-related deaths.

    Results: In Stockholm, for the RCP 4.5 scenario, the mean number of annual deaths attributed to heat increased from 48.7 (CI 32.2–64.2; AF = 0.68%) in 2031–2040 to 90.2 (56.7–120.5; AF = 0.97%) in 2061–2070, respectively. For RCP 8.5, heat-related deaths increased more drastically from 52.1 (33.6–69.7; AF = 0.72%) to 126.4 (68.7–175.8; AF = 1.36%) between the first and the last decade. Cold-related deaths slightly increased over the projected period in both scenarios. In Jämtland, projections showed a small decrease in cold-related deaths but no change in heat-related mortality.

    Conclusions: In rural northern region of Sweden, a decrease of cold-related deaths represents the dominant trend. In urban southern locations, on the other hand, an increase of heat-related mortality is to be expected. With an increasing elderly population, heat-related mortality will outweigh cold-related mortality at least under the RCP 8.5 scenario, requiring societal adaptation measures.

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  • 16. Gasull, Magda
    et al.
    Pumarega, José
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Sandanger, Torkjel Manning
    Goñi, Fernando
    Cirera, Lluís
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Alguacil, Juan
    Iglesias, Mar
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Severi, Gianluca
    Johnson, Theron
    Kühn, Tilman
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Peppa, Eleni
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Verschuren, Monique
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Haugdahl Nøst, Therese
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Molinuevo, Amaia
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Key, Tim
    Ye, Weimin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Michaud, Dominique
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Canzian, Federico
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Nieters, Alexandra
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Jeurnink, Suzanne
    Chajes, Veronique
    Matejcic, Marco
    Gunter, Marc
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Riboli, Elio
    Agudo, Antoni
    Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Duell, Eric J.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Porta, Miquel
    Methodological issues in a prospective study on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk within the EPIC cohort2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 169, p. 417-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases.

    OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles.

    METHODS: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls matched by study centre, sex, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status) enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Plasma concentrations of 22 POPs were measured by gas chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To estimate the magnitude of the associations we calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression, and adjusted geometric means by General Linear Regression Models.

    RESULTS: There were differences among countries in subjects' characteristics (as age, gender, smoking, lipid and POP concentrations), and in study characteristics (as time from blood collection to index date, year of last follow-up, length of follow-up, basis of cancer diagnosis, and fasting status). Adjusting for centre and time of blood collection, no factors were significantly associated with fasting status. Plasma concentrations of lipids were related to age, body mass index, fasting, country, and smoking. We detected and quantified 16 of the 22 POPs in more than 90% of individuals. All 22 POPs were detected in some participants, and the smallest number of POPs detected in one person was 15 (median, 19) with few differences by country. The highest concentrations were found for p,p'-DDE, PCBs 153 and 180 (median concentration: 3371, 1023, and 810 pg/mL, respectively). We assessed the possible occurrence of disease progression bias (DPB) in eight situations defined by lipid and POP measurements, on one hand, and by four factors: interval from blood draw to index date, tumour subsite, tumour stage, and grade of differentiation, on the other. In seven of the eight situations results supported the absence of DPB.

    CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of differences across study centres in some design features and participant characteristics is of relevance to other multicentre studies. Relationships among subjects' characteristics and among such characteristics and design features may play important roles in the forthcoming analyses on the association between plasma concentrations of POPs and pancreatic cancer risk.

  • 17.
    Grundeken, Marijke
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustin, Klara
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delaval, Mathilde
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Cooperation Group Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Barman, Malin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Institute of Biomedicine, Dept, Of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Broberg, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toxic metals and essential trace elements in placenta and their relation to placental function2024In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 248, article id 118355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Placental function is essential for fetal development, but it may be susceptible to malnutrition and environmental stressors.

    Objective: To assess the impact of toxic and essential trace elements in placenta on placental function.

    Methods: Toxic metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, cobalt) and essential elements (copper, manganese, zinc, selenium) were measured in placenta of 406 pregnant women in northern Sweden using ICP-MS. Placental weight and birth weight were obtained from hospital records and fetoplacental weight ratio was used to estimate placental efficiency. Placental relative telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) were determined by quantitative PCR (n = 285). Single exposure-outcome associations were evaluated using linear or spline regression, and joint associations and interactions with Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), all adjusted for sex, maternal smoking, and age or BMI.

    Results: Median cadmium, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc, and selenium concentrations in placenta were 3.2, 1.8, 4.3, 2.3, 1058, 66, 10626, and 166 μg/kg, respectively. In the adjusted regression, selenium (>147 μg/kg) was inversely associated with placental weight (B: −158; 95 % CI: −246, −71, per doubling), as was lead at low selenium (B: −23.6; 95 % CI: −43.2, −4.0, per doubling). Manganese was positively associated with placental weight (B: 41; 95 % CI: 5.9, 77, per doubling) and inversely associated with placental efficiency (B: −0.01; 95 % CI: −0.019, −0.004, per doubling). Cobalt was inversely associated with mtDNAcn (B: −11; 95 % CI: −20, −0.018, per doubling), whereas all essential elements were positively associated with mtDNAcn, individually and joint.

    Conclusion: Among the toxic metals, lead appeared to negatively impact placental weight and cobalt decreased placental mtDNAcn. Joint essential element concentrations increased placental mtDNAcn. Manganese also appeared to increase placental weight, but not birth weight. The inverse association of selenium with placental weight may reflect increased transport of selenium to the fetus in late gestation.

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  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Asa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, SE-151 36 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Krais, Annette M.
    Gorzsás, András
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Gerde, Per
    Isolation and characterization of a respirable particle fraction from residential house-dust2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern in recent years. As we spend most of our lives indoors, it is crucial to understand the health effects caused by indoor air pollution. Household dust serve as good proxy for accessing indoor air pollution, especially smaller dust particles that can pass into the lungs are of interest. In this study we present an efficient method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. The respirable fraction was recovered from vacuum cleaner bags, separated by stepwise sieving, followed by characterization for size, morphology, surface area, organic content and elemental composition. The respirable fraction was obtained in a yield of 0.6% with a specific surface area of 2.5 m(2)/g and a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of 3.73 +/- 0.15 mu m. Aluminum and zink were the dominating metals measured in the dust, whereas the major mineral components were found to be silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. The fraction of organic matter in the dust was measured to be 69 +/- 1%. The organic matrix contained bacterial and fungi and a presence of skin fragments. We present here an efficient and fast method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. That is of considerable value due to the need for large quantities of respirable particle fractions to conduct toxicological studies and risk assessment work.

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  • 19. Johanson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Gyllenhammar, Irina
    Ekstrand, Carl
    Pyko, Andrei
    Xu, Yiyi
    Li, Ying
    Norström, Karin
    Lilja, Karl
    Lindh, Christian
    Benskin, Jonathan P
    Georgelis, Antonios
    Forsell, Karl
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Glynn, Anders
    Vogs, Carolina
    Quantitative relationships of perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking water associated with serum concentrations above background in adults living near contamination hotspots in Sweden2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 219, article id 115024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated drinking water (DW) is a major source of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) at locations around PFAS production/use facilities and military airports. This study aimed to investigate quantitative relationships between concentrations in DW and serum of nine perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Swedish adult populations living near contamination hotspots. Short-chained (PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, and PFBS) and long-chained PFAAs (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS and PFOS) were measured in DW and serum. We matched DW and serum concentrations for a total of 398 subjects living or working in areas receiving contaminated DW and in one non-contaminated area. Thereafter, linear regression analysis with and without adjustments for co-variates was conducted. This enabled to derive (i) serum concentrations at background exposure (CB) from sources other than local DW exposure (i.e. food, dust and textiles) at 0 ng/L DW concentration, (ii) population-mean PFAA serum:water ratios (SWR) and (iii) PFAA concentrations in DW causing observable elevated serum PFAA concentrations above background variability. Median concentrations of the sum of nine PFAAs ranged between 2.8 and 1790 ng/L in DW and between 7.6 and 96.9 ng/mL in serum. DW concentration was the strongest predictor, resulting in similar unadjusted and adjusted regression coefficients. Mean CB ranged from <0.1 (PFPeA, PFHpA, PFBS) to 5.1 ng/mL (PFOS). Serum concentrations increased significantly with increasing DW concentrations for all PFAAs except for PFPeA with SWRs ranging from <10 (PFHxA, PFHpA and PFBS) to 111 (PFHxS). Observed elevated serum concentrations above background variability were reached at DW concentrations between 24 (PFOA) and 357 ng/L (PFHxA). The unadjusted linear regression predictions agreed well with serum concentrations previously reported in various populations exposed to low and high DW levels of PFOA, PFHxS and PFOS. The quantitative relationships derived herein should be helpful to translate PFAA concentrations in DW to concentrations in serum at the population level.

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  • 20.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Climate vulnerability of Swedish newborns: Gender differences and time trends of temperature-related neonatal mortality, 1880–19502021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 192, article id 110400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In resource-poor societies, neonatal mortality (death in the first 28 days of life) is usually very high.Young infants are particularly vulnerable to environmental health risks, which are modified by socioeconomicfactors that change over time. We investigated the association between ambient temperature and neonatalmortality in northern Sweden during the demographic transition.

    Methods: Parish register data and temperature data in coastal Vasterbotten, ¨ Sweden, between 1880 and 1950were used. Total and sex-specific neonatal mortality was modelled as a function of mean temperature, adjustingfor age, seasonality and calendar time, using discrete-time survival analysis. A linear threshold function wasapplied with a cut point at 14.5 ◦C (the minimum mortality temperature). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Further analyses were stratified by study period (1800–1899, 1900–1929,and 1930–1950).

    Results: Neonatal mortality was 32.1 deaths/1000 live births, higher in boys than in girls, and decreased between1880 and 1950, with high inter-annual variability. Mean daily temperature was +2.5 ◦C, ranging from − 40.9 ◦Cto +28.8 ◦C. At − 20 ◦C, the OR of neonatal death was 1.56 (CI 1.30–1.87) compared to the reference at +14.5 ◦C.Among girls, the OR of mortality at − 20 ◦C was 1.17 (0.88–1.54), and among boys, it was 1.94 (1.53–2.45). Atemperature increase from +14.5 to +20 ◦C was associated with a 25% increase of neonatal mortality (OR 1.25,CI 1.04–1.50). Heat- and cold-related risks were lowest between 1900 and 1929.

    Conclusions: In this remote sub-Arctic region undergoing socio-economic changes, we found an increased mortality risk in neonates related to low but also to high temperature. Climate vulnerability varied across time andwas particularly high among boys. This demonstrates that environmental impacts on human health are complexand highly dependent on the specific local context, with many, often unknown, contributing determinants ofvulnerability. 

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  • 21.
    Kampouri, Mariza
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustin, Klara
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stråvik, Mia
    Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barman, Malin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Levi, Michael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Daraki, Vasiliki
    Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association of maternal urinary fluoride concentrations during pregnancy with size at birth and the potential mediation effect by maternal thyroid hormones: The Swedish NICE birth cohort2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 214, article id 114129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Observational studies have indicated that elevated maternal fluoride exposure during pregnancy may impair child neurodevelopment but a potential impact on birth outcomes is understudied.

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of gestational fluoride exposure on birth outcomes (birth size and gestational age at birth) and to assess the potential mediating role of maternal thyroid hormones.

    Methods: We studied 583 mother-child dyads in the NICE cohort in northern Sweden. Maternal fluoride exposure was assessed by measuring urinary concentrations at late pregnancy (median: 29th gestational week) using an ion selective electrode. Plasma levels of free and total thyroxine (fT4, tT4) and triiodothyronine (fT3, tT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. The infant's weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age at birth were extracted from hospital records.

    Results: Median urinary fluoride concentration was 0.71 mg/L (5th-95th percentile 0.31–1.9 mg/L; specific gravity adjusted). In multivariable-adjusted regression models, every 1 mg/L increase of maternal urinary fluoride was associated with a mean increase in birth weight by 84 g (95%CI: 30, 138), length by 0.41 cm (95%CI: 0.18, 0.65), head circumference by 0.3 cm (95%CI: 0.1, 0.4), and with increased odds of being born large for gestational age (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.89). Every 1 mg/L increase of maternal urinary fluoride was also associated with a mean increase of the plasma fT3:fT4 ratio (B = 0.007, 95%CI: 0.000, 0.014), but not with the hormones or TSH. In mediation analyses, the maternal fT3:fT4 ratio did not explain the urinary fluoride-birth size relationships. Discussion: Gestational urinary fluoride concentrations were associated with increased size at birth and even with increased odds of being born large for gestational age. The fluoride-related associations with increased size at birth were not explained by changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels.

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  • 22. Karvala, Kirsi
    et al.
    Sainio, Markku
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prevalence of various environmental intolerances in a Swedish and Finnish general population2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine. Methods: In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Osterbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds. The respondents were asked whether they react with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms or have a physician-diagnosed EI attributed to the corresponding exposures. Prevalence rates were determined for different age and sex groups and the Swedish and Finnish samples in general. Results: In the Swedish sample (n = 3406), 12.2% had self-reported intolerance to chemicals, 4.8% to certain buildings, 2.7% to EMFs, and 9.2% to sounds. The prevalence rates for the Finnish sample (n = 1535) were 15.2%, 7.2%, 1.6%, and 5.4%, respectively, differing statistically significantly from the Swedish. EI to chemicals and certain buildings was more prevalent in Finland, while EI to EMFs and sounds more prevalent in Sweden. The prevalence rates for EI with CNS-symptoms were lower and physician-diagnosed EIs considerably lower than self-reported EIs. Women reported EI more often than men and the young (18-39 years) to a lesser degree than middle-aged and elderly. Conclusions: The findings reflect the heterogeneous nature of EI. The differences in EI prevalence between the countries might reflect disparities concerning which exposures people perceive harmful and focus their attention to.

  • 23.
    Kriit, Hedi Katre
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Health Economics and Health Financing Group, Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Climate-Sensitive Infectious Disease Lab, Interdisciplinary Centre of Scientific Computing, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Climate-smart Health Systems, Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Increase in sick leave episodes from short-term fine particulate matter exposure: a case-crossover study in Stockholm, Sweden2024In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 244, article id 117950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution's short-term effects on a wide range of health outcomes have been studied extensively, primarily focused on vulnerable groups (e.g., children and the elderly). However, the air pollution effects on the adult working population through sick leave have received little attention. This study aims to 1) estimate the associations between particulate matter ≤2.5 μm3 (PM2.5) and sick leave episodes and 2) calculate the attributable number of sick leave days and the consequential productivity loss in the City of Stockholm, Sweden. Individual level daily sick leave data was obtained from Statistics Sweden for the years 2011–2019. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5 were obtained from the main urban background monitoring station in Stockholm. A case-crossover study design was applied to estimate the association between short-term PM2.5 and onset of sick leave episodes. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative increase in odds of onset per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5, adjusting for temperature, season, and pollen. A human capital method was applied to estimate the PM2.5 attributable productivity loss. In total, 1.5 million (M) individual sick leave occurrences were studied. The measured daily mean PM2.5 concentration was 4.2 μg/m3 (IQR 3.7 μg/m3). The odds of a sick leave episode was estimated to increase by 8.5% (95% CI: 7.8–9.3) per 10 μg/m3 average exposure 2–4 days before. Sub-group analysis showed that private sector and individuals 15–24 years old had a lower increase in odds of sick leave episodes in relation to PM2.5 exposure. In Stockholm, 4% of the sick leave episodes were attributable to PM2.5 exposure, corresponding to €17 M per year in productivity loss. Our study suggests a positive association between PM2.5 and sick leave episodes in a low exposure area.

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  • 24.
    Li, Shenpan
    et al.
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Wu, LuYin
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Zeng, HuiXian
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Zhang, Jing
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Qin, ShuangJian
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liang, Li-Xia
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Andersson, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meng, Wen-Jie
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Chen, Xing-Yu
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Wu, Qi-Zhen
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Lin, Li-Zi
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Chou, Wei-Chun
    Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, FL, Gainesville, United States.
    Dong, Guang-Hui
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Zeng, Xiao-Wen
    Joint International Research Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Hepatic injury and ileitis associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice upon F–53B exposure2024In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 248, article id 118305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F–53B), a substitute of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), has attracted significant attention for its link to hepatotoxicity and enterotoxicity. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of F–53B-induced enterohepatic toxicity remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to explore the role of F–53B exposure on enterohepatic injury based on the gut microbiota, pathological and molecular analysis in mice. Here, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to F–53B (0, 4, 40, and 400 μg/L) for 28 days. Our findings revealed a significant accumulation of F–53B in the liver, followed by small intestines, and feces. In addition, F–53B induced pathological collagen fiber deposition and lipoid degeneration, up-regulated the expression of fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes (PPARα and PPARγ, etc), while simultaneously down-regulating pro-inflammatory genes (Nlrp3, IL-1β, and Mcp1) in the liver. Meanwhile, F–53B induced ileal mucosal barrier damage, and an up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes and mucosal barrier-related genes (Muc1, Muc2, Claudin1, Occludin, Mct1, and ZO-1) in the ileum. Importantly, F–53B distinctly altered gut microbiota compositions by increasing the abundance of Akkermansia and decreasing the abundance of Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group in the feces. F–53B-altered microbiota compositions were significantly associated with genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation, inflammation, and mucosal barrier. In summary, our results demonstrate that F–53B is capable of inducing hepatic injury, ileitis, and gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice, and the gut microbiota dysbiosis may play an important role in the F–53B-induced enterohepatic toxicity.

  • 25.
    Lidman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berglund, Åsa. M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The effect of aquatic and terrestrial prey availability on metal accumulation in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 209, article id 112779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ingestion of contaminated prey is a major route for metal exposure in terrestrial insectivores. In terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to lakes and streams, emerging aquatic insects can transport metals, accumulated during their larval stage, from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. However, contaminant exposure via aquatic insects has often been ignored in terrestrial environments, despite such insects representing a substantial part of the diet for terrestrial insectivores living close to lakes and streams. In this study, we investigated how dietary lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) exposure from different aquatic and terrestrial prey types affects Pb accumulation in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings living close to a former Pb/zinc (Zn) mine in northern Sweden, which closed in 2001. Stable isotope analysis (δ 13C and δ15N) of nestling blood and different prey types was used to estimate nestlings' diet. Ants, Lepidoptera larvae and Trichoptera were the most common prey types in the nestlings’ diet, in which aquatic prey types (Trichoptera included) accounted for 2.0–96.4%. Ingestion of specific prey groups, such as aquatic insects and ants, were important for Pb accumulation in nestlings, and when access to aquatic prey was low, ants were the predominant source of Pb. The influence of dietary Ca on Pb accumulation was less consistent, but Ca availability was relatively high and often co-occurred with high Pb concentrations in invertebrates. The study shows that both the proportion of different prey and their individual metal concentrations need to be considered when estimating exposure risks for insectivores. Further, it highlights the need to account for metal exposure from emerging aquatic insects for terrestrial insectivores living close to lakes and streams.

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  • 26.
    Liu, Ying
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. School of International Business, Xiamen University Tan Kah Kee College, Zhangzhou, 363105, China..
    Lillepold, Kate
    Semenza, Jan C.
    Tozan, Yesim
    Quam, Mikkel B. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Reviewing estimates of the basic reproduction number for dengue, Zika and chikungunya across global climate zones2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 182, article id 109114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Globally, dengue, Zika virus, and chikungunya are important viral mosquito-borne diseases that infect millions of people annually. Their geographic range includes not only tropical areas but also sub-tropical and temperate zones such as Japan and Italy. The relative severity of these arboviral disease outbreaks can vary depending on the setting. In this study we explore variation in the epidemiologic potential of outbreaks amongst these climatic zones and arboviruses in order to elucidate potential reasons behind such differences.

    METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature (PubMed) to obtain basic reproduction number (R0) estimates for dengue, Zika virus, and chikungunya from tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. We also computed R0 estimates for temperate and sub-tropical climate zones, based on the outbreak curves in the initial outbreak phase. Lastly we compared these estimates across climate zones, defined by latitude.

    RESULTS: Of 2115 studies, we reviewed the full text of 128 studies and included 65 studies in our analysis. Our results suggest that the R0 of an arboviral outbreak depends on climate zone, with lower R0 estimates, on average, in temperate zones (R0 = 2.03) compared to tropical (R0 = 3.44) and sub-tropical zones (R0 = 10.29). The variation in R0 was considerable, ranging from 0.16 to 65. The largest R0 was for dengue (65) and was estimated by the Ross-Macdonald model in the tropical zone, whereas the smallest R0 (0.16) was for Zika virus and was estimated statistically from an outbreak curve in the sub-tropical zone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate climate zone to be an important determinant of the basic reproduction number, R0, for dengue, Zika virus, and chikungunya. The role of other factors as determinants of R0, such as methods, environmental and social conditions, and disease control, should be further investigated. The results suggest that R0 may increase in temperate regions in response to global warming, and highlight the increasing need for strengthening preparedness and control activities.

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  • 27.
    Liu-Helmersson, Jing
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Heidelberg University Medical School, Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sewe, Maquins
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Climate change may enable Aedes aegypti infestation in major European cities by 21002019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 172, p. 693-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate change allows Aedes aegyptito infest new areas. Consequently, it enables the arboviruses the mosquito transmits - e.g., dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever – to emerge in previously uninfected areas. An example is the Portuguese island of Madeira during 2012–13.

    Objective: We aim to understand how climate change will affect the future spread of this potent vector, as an aidin assessing the risk of disease outbreaks and effectively allocating resources for vector control.

    Methods: We used an empirically-informed, process-based mathematical model to study the feasibility of Aedes aegypti infestation into continental Europe. Based on established global climate-change scenario data, we assess the potential of Aedes aegypti to establish in Europe over the 21st century by estimating the vector population growth rate for five climate models (GCM5).

    Results: In a low carbon emission future (RCP2.6), we find minimal change to the current situation throughout the whole of the 21st century. In a high carbon future (RCP8.5), a large parts of southern Europe risks being invaded by Aedes aegypti.

    Conclusion: Our results show that successfully enforcing the Paris Agreement by limiting global warming to below 2 °C significantly lowers the risk for infestation of Aedes aegypti and consequently of potential large-scale arboviral disease outbreaks in Europe within the 21st century.

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  • 28.
    Mahawar, Lovely
    et al.
    Institute of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia.
    Ramasamy, Kesava Priyan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Suhel, Mohammad
    Ranjan Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, India.
    Prasad, Sheo Mohan
    Ranjan Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, India.
    Živčák, Marek
    Institute of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia.
    Brestic, Marian
    Institute of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia; Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Rastogi, Anshu
    Laboratory of Bioclimatology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94, Poznań, Poland.
    Skalický, Milan
    Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Silicon nanoparticles: comprehensive review on biogenic synthesis and applications in agriculture2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 232, article id 116292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have opened new advances in agriculture. Among other nanoparticles, silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), due to their unique physiological characteristics and structural properties, offer a significant advantage as nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, nanozeolite and targeted delivery systems in agriculture. Silicon nanoparticles are well known to improve plant growth under normal and stressful environments. Nanosilicon has been reported to enhance plant stress tolerance against various environmental stress and is considered a non-toxic and proficient alternative to control plant diseases. However, a few studies depicted the phytotoxic effects of SiNPs on specific plants. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive research, mainly on the interaction mechanism between NPs and host plants to unravel the hidden facts about silicon nanoparticles in agriculture. The present review illustrates the potential role of silicon nanoparticles in improving plant resistance to combat different environmental (abiotic and biotic) stresses and the underlying mechanisms involved.

    Furthermore, our review focuses on providing the overview of various methods exploited in the biogenic synthesis of silicon nanoparticles. However, certain limitations exist in synthesizing the well-characterized SiNPs on a laboratory scale. To bridge this gap, in the last section of the review, we discussed the possible use of the machine learning approach in future as an effective, less labour-intensive and time-consuming method for silicon nanoparticle synthesis. The existing research gaps from our perspective and future research directions for utilizing SiNPs in sustainable agriculture development have also been highlighted.

  • 29. Morelli, Xavier
    et al.
    Rieux, Camille
    Cyrys, Josef
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Slama, Rémy
    Air pollution, health and social deprivation: a fine-scale risk assessment2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 147, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk.

  • 30.
    Muhsin, Huda Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steingrimsson, Steinn
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Psykiatri Affektiva, Department of Psychiatry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dept. for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dept. for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Air pollution and increased number of psychiatric emergency room visits: A case-crossover study for identifying susceptible groups2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 204, article id 112001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ambient particulate matter is a leading risk factor for disease globally. Particulate matter 10 (PM10) and particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) are derived from different sources, including operating motor vehicles as well as from industrial activities. In this study we investigate the association between increased concentrations of PM and total daily visits to the psychiatric emergency unit (PEV). Further, the aim is to identify specific risk groups who are more susceptible to the effects of air pollution exposure by studying sex, age, ongoing psychiatric follow-up and diagnoses of depression/anxiety or substance use.

    Material and methods: The sample was comprised of data from 2740 days to 81 548 PEVs at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg and daily mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyse associations between air pollution and PEVs.

    Results: Mean number of daily PEVs were 35 and sex distribution was even. PM exposure was associated with total PEV at lag 0 (the same day), by RR 1.016 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.004–1.028) and RR 1.020 (95%CI 1.003–1.038) per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. In females, PEV were increased at lag 0 and lag 1, and in males at lag 1 and lag 2. In the age-stratified analysis, PEVs significantly increased following PM exposure amongst individuals aged 35–65 years by lag 0–2 and in individuals who had contact with outpatient care at lag 0 to lag 1. There were no associations between air pollution and PEVs for any specific diagnostic group evaluated (amongst depression, anxiety and substance use disorder).

    Conclusions: The results indicate that acute exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 may trigger acute worsening in mental health in both males and females, especially among 35–65 year old individuals. However, in subgroups of the most common psychiatric diagnoses, we did not observe statistically significant associations with PM exposure.

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  • 31.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Segersson, David
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and presence and progression of carotid artery plaques: A northern Sweden VIPVIZA cohort study2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 211, article id 113061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To estimate the association between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and sub-clinical atherosclerosis based on the existence of plaque and the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT).

    METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a randomised controlled trial integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional CVD risk factors in Umeå municipality were eligible to participate. The 1425 participants underwent an ultrasound assessment of cIMT and plaque formation during the period 2013-2016 and at 3-year follow-up. Source-specific annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) at the individual's residential address were modelled for the calendar years 1990, 2001 and 2011. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for presence of carotid artery plaques, and linear regression for cIMT.

    RESULTS: The plaque prevalence was 43% at baseline and 47% at follow-up. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (range in year 2011: 7.1-13.5 μg/m3) was associated with a prevalence ratio at baseline ultrasound of 1.11 (95% CI 0.99-1.25), 1.08 (95% CI 0.99-1.17), and 1.00 (95% CI 0.93-1.08) for lag 23, 12 and 2 years, and at follow-up 1.04 (95% CI 0.95-1.14), 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.16), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.95-1.08). Similar prevalence ratios per IQR were found for PM2.5 and BC, but with somewhat lower precision for the later. Particle concentrations were however not associated with the progression of plaque. No cross-sectional or longitudinal associations of change were found for cIMT.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study of individuals with low/moderate risk for CVD give some additional support for an effect of long-term air pollution in early subclinical atherosclerosis.

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  • 32.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Segersson, David
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Flanagan, Erin
    Division for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Long-term residential exposure to source-specific particulate matter and incidence of diabetes mellitus: A cohort study in northern Sweden2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 217, article id 114833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) incidence have been assessed in connection with air pollution exposure in several studies; however, few have investigated associations with source-specific local emissions. This study aims to estimate the risk of DM incidence associated with source-specific air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Individuals in the Västerbotten intervention programme cohort were followed until either a DM diagnosis or initiation of treatment with glucose-lowering medication occurred. Dispersion models with high spatial resolution were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) at individual addresses. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression models in relation to moving averages 1-5 years preceding the outcome. During the study period, 1479 incident cases of DM were observed during 261,703 person-years of follow-up. Increased incidence of DM was observed in association with PM10 (4% [95% CI: -54-137%] per 10 μg/m3), PM10-traffic (2% [95% CI: -6-11%] per 1 μg/m3) and PM2.5-exhaust (11% [95% CI: -39-103%] per 1 μg/m3). A negative association was found for both PM2.5 (-18% [95% CI: -99-66%] per 5 μg/m3), but only in the 2nd exposure tertile (-10% [95% CI: -25-9%] compared to the first tertile), and PM2.5-woodburning (-30% [95% CI: -49-4%] per 1 μg/m3). In two-pollutant models including PM2.5-woodburning, there was an 11% [95% CI: -11-38%], 6% [95% CI: -16-34%], 13% [95% CI: -7-36%] and 17% [95% CI: 4-41%] higher risk in the 3rd tertile of PM10, PM2.5, PM10-traffic and PM2.5-exhaust, respectively, compared to the 1st. Although the results lacked in precision they are generally in line with the current evidence detailing particulate matter air pollution from traffic as an environmental risk factor for DM.

  • 33.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Köteles, Ferenc
    Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary, Budapest, Hungary.
    Witthöft, Michael
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, And Experimental Psychopathology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Van den Bergh, Omer
    Health Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    Sainio, Markku
    Outpatient Clinic for Functional Disorders, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Impact of comorbidity on symptomatology in various types of environmental intolerance in a general Swedish and Finnish adult population2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 229, article id 115945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comorbidity with various health conditions is common in environmental intolerances (EIs), which restricts understanding for what symptoms that are associated with the intolerance per se. The present objectives were to study (i) prevalence of a broad range of specific symptoms in chemical, building-related, electromagnetic field- (EMF) related, and sound EI, irrespective of comorbidity, (ii) prevalence of symptoms in body systems in exclusive EIs, and (iii) increased risk of symptoms in body systems in exclusive EIs that cannot be referred to functional somatic syndromes, inflammatory diseases or mental disorders. Cross-sectional data (n = 4941) were used from two combined population-based surveys, the Västerbotten (Sweden) and Österbotten (Finland) Environmental Health Studies. Categorization of EI cases and controls were based on self-reports. Symptoms were assessed with the Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory, and these were converted to 27 symptoms of the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd edition, in eight chapters of body systems. The results showed, with few exceptions, that all assessed specific symptoms were significantly more prevalent in all four EIs than in referents. Although a large overlap between EIs, characteristic body system symptoms were eye and respiratory symptoms in chemical and building-related intolerance, skin symptoms in EMF-related intolerance, and general and unspecified, digestive, eye, cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological symptoms in sound intolerance. After controlling for various comorbidities, all studied body system symptoms were positively associated with chemical intolerance, fewer with sound intolerance, only one with building-related intolerance, and none with EMF-related EI. In conclusion, a broad range of symptoms are reported in all four EIs implying common mechanisms, but symptoms of certain body systems are more likely to be reported in a certain EI that cannot be explained by comorbidity.

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  • 34.
    Pitron, Victor
    et al.
    Université Paris Cité, VIFASOM (Vigilance Fatigue Sommeil et Santé Publique), Paris, France; Centre du Sommeil et de la Vigilance-Pathologie professionnelle, APHP, Paris, France.
    Haanes, Jan Vilis
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hillert, Lena
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Köteles, Ferenc Gàbor
    Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary, Budapest, Hungary.
    Léger, Damien
    Université Paris Cité, VIFASOM (Vigilance Fatigue Sommeil et Santé Publique), Paris, France; Centre du Sommeil et de la Vigilance-Pathologie professionnelle, APHP, Paris, France.
    Lemogne, Cédric
    Université Paris Cité, INSERM U1266, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neuroscience de Paris, Paris, France; Service de Psychiatrie de l'adulte, AP-HP, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Szemerszky, Renáta
    Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary, Budapest, Hungary.
    van Kamp, Irene
    Centre for Sustainability, Environment and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    van Thriel, Christoph
    Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Witthöft, Michael
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Experimental Psychopathology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.
    Van den Bergh, Omer
    Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Electrohypersensitivity is always real2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 218, article id 114840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highlights:

    • Electrohypersensitivty (EHS) represents a severely disabling condition.
    • Symptom reports in EHS are unrelated to actual electromagnetic field exposure.
    • A reductionist bio-electromagnetic approach fails to explain EHS.
    • Empirical evidence suggests that nocebo effects strongly contribute to EHS.
    • Spreading the myth about a (non-existing) EHS epidemic causes harm.
  • 35.
    Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan
    et al.
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Centre of Bioengineering, NatProLab, Plant Innovation Lab, School of Engineering and Sciences, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Sharma, Ashutosh
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Centre of Bioengineering, NatProLab, Plant Innovation Lab, School of Engineering and Sciences, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Shan Ahamed, Tharifkhan
    Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Bioinformatics, National College, Trichy, India.
    Ramasamy, Kesava Priyan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sabour, Amal Abdullah A.
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box -2455, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    A. Alshiekheid, Maha
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box -2455, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Thuy, TGL
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam; School of Engineering and Technology, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam.
    Mathimani, Thangavel
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam; School of Engineering and Technology, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam.
    Sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate (SBH) as a lucrative carbon supplement to upgrade the lipid and fatty acid production in Chlorococcum sp. for biodiesel through an optimized binary solvent system2024In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 241, article id 117626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost is the crucial impediment in commercializing microalgal biodiesel. Therefore, cultivating microalgae in cost-effective nutrients reduces the upstream process cost remarkably. Thus, in this study, sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate (SBH) as a lucrative carbon supplement for Chlorococcum sp. and subsequent lipid extraction via an optimized solvent system for biodiesel production was investigated. Characterization of SBH revealed the presence of various monosaccharides and other sugar derivatives such as glucose, fructose, xylose, arabinose, etc. The maximum dry cell weight of 1.7 g/L was estimated in cultures grown in 10 mL SBH. Different solvents such as diethyl ether (DEE), chloroform (CHL), ethyl acetate (ETA), hexane (HEX), methanol (MET), ethanol (ETOH), acetone (ACE) and also combination of solvents (2:1 ratio) such as DEE: MET, CHL: MET, HEX: MET, HEX: ETOH was tested for lipid extraction efficacy. Among solvents used, 12.3% and 18.4% of lipids were extracted using CHL and CHL: MET, respectively, from 10 mL SBH amended cultures. However, the biodiesel yield was found to be similar at about 70.16 % in both SBH and no SBH-added cultures. The fatty acid profile of the biodiesel shows palmitic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid as principal fatty acids. Further, the levels of SFAs, MUFAs, and PUFAs in 10 mL SBH-added cells were 24.67, 12.89, and 34.24%, respectively. Eventually, the fuel properties of Chlorococcum sp. biodiesel, satisfying international biodiesel standards, make the biodiesel a viable diesel substitute in the future.

  • 36.
    Ramasamy, Kesava Priyan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Eriksson, Karolina Ida Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pseudomonas ability to utilize different carbon substrates and adaptation influenced by protozoan grazing2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 232, article id 116419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria are major utilizers of dissolved organic matter in aquatic systems. In coastal areas bacteria are supplied with a mixture of food sources, spanning from refractory terrestrial dissolved organic matter to labile marine autochthonous organic matter. Climate scenarios indicate that in northern coastal areas, the inflow of terrestrial organic matter will increase, and autochthonous production will decrease, thus bacteria will experience a change in the food source composition. How bacteria will cope with such changes is not known. Here, we tested the ability of an isolated bacterium from the northern Baltic Sea coast, Pseudomonas sp., to adapt to varying substrates.

    We performed a 7-months chemostat experiment, where three different substrates were provided: glucose, representing labile autochthonous organic carbon, sodium benzoate representing refractory organic matter, and acetate – a labile but low energy food source. Growth rate has been pointed out as a key factor for fast adaptation, and since protozoan grazers speed-up the growth rate we added a ciliate to half of the incubations. The results show that the isolated Pseudomonas is adapted to utilize both labile and ring-structured refractive substrates. The growth rate was the highest on the benzoate substrate, and the production increased over time indicating that adaptation did occur. Further, our findings indicate that predation can cause Pseudomonas to change their phenotype to resist and promote survival in various carbon substrates. Genome sequencing reveals different mutations in the genome of adapted populations compared to the native populations, suggesting the adaptation of Pseudomonas sp. to changing environment.

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  • 37.
    Roswall, Nina
    et al.
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Thacher, Jesse D.
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pyko, Andrei
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Department of Medicine Geriatrics and Emergency Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Östra Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Poulsen, Aslak H.
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Charlotta
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Segersson, David
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Aging Research Centre, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Gerontology Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helte, Emilie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Department of Air Quality and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Gudjonsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Khan, Jibran
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark; Danish Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Selander, Jenny
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Christensen, Jesper H.
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Leander, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Kristoffer
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stucki, Lara
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barregard, Lars
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albin, Maria
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simonsen, Mette K.
    Department of Neurology and the Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environment Department, City of Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tiittanen, Pekka
    Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
    Molnàr, Peter
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljungman, Petter L.S.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
    Cole-Hunter, Thomas
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lanki, Timo
    Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland; School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Lim, Youn-Hee
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sørensen, Mette
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Long-term exposure to traffic noise and risk of incident colon cancer: A pooled study of eleven Nordic cohorts2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 224, article id 115454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colon cancer incidence is rising globally, and factors pertaining to urbanization have been proposed involved in this development. Traffic noise may increase colon cancer risk by causing sleep disturbance and stress, thereby inducing known colon cancer risk-factors, e.g. obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption, but few studies have examined this.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between traffic noise and colon cancer (all, proximal, distal) in a pooled population of 11 Nordic cohorts, totaling 155,203 persons.

    Methods: We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise, as well as air pollution, for all addresses, using similar exposure models across cohorts. Colon cancer cases were identified through national registries. We analyzed data using Cox Proportional Hazards Models, adjusting main models for harmonized sociodemographic and lifestyle data.

    Results: During follow-up (median 18.8 years), 2757 colon cancer cases developed. We found a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.10) per 10-dB higher 5-year mean time-weighted road traffic noise. In sub-type analyses, the association seemed confined to distal colon cancer: HR 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98–1.14). Railway and aircraft noise was not associated with colon cancer, albeit there was some indication in sub-type analyses that railway noise may also be associated with distal colon cancer. In interaction-analyses, the association between road traffic noise and colon cancer was strongest among obese persons and those with high NO2-exposure.

    Discussion: A prominent study strength is the large population with harmonized data across eleven cohorts, and the complete address-history during follow-up. However, each cohort estimated noise independently, and only at the most exposed façade, which may introduce exposure misclassification. Despite this, the results of this pooled study suggest that traffic noise may be a risk factor for colon cancer, especially of distal origin.

  • 38.
    Schillemans, T.
    et al.
    Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Hanhineva, K.
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Shi, L.
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’ an, China.
    Donat-Vargas, C.
    Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, CEI UAM+CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Koponen, J.
    Department for Health Security, Environmental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kiviranta, H.
    Department for Health Security, Environmental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brunius, C.
    Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations of PFAS-related plasma metabolites with cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 216, article id 114570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide-spread environmental pollutants per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have repeatedly been associated with elevated serum cholesterol in humans. However, underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, we have previously observed inverse associations with plasma triglycerides. To better understand PFAS-induced effects on lipid pathways we investigated associations of PFAS-related metabolite features with plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. We used 290 PFAS-related metabolite features that we previously discovered from untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectometry metabolomics in a case-control study within the Swedish Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Herein, we studied associations of these PFAS-related metabolite features with plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in plasma samples from 187 healthy control subjects collected on two occasions between 1991 and 2013. The PFAS-related features did not associate with cholesterol, but 50 features were associated with triglycerides. Principal component analysis on these features indicated that one metabolite pattern, dominated by glycerophospholipids, correlated with longer chain PFAS and associated inversely with triglycerides (both cross-sectionally and prospectively), after adjustment for confounders. The observed time-trend of the metabolite pattern resembled that of the longer chain PFAS, with higher levels during the years 2004-2010. Mechanisms linking PFAS exposures to triglycerides may thus occur via longer chain PFAS affecting glycerophospholipid metabolism. If the results reflect a cause-effect association, as implied by the time-trend and prospective analyses, this may affect the general adult population.

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  • 39.
    Stråvik, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustin, Klara
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barman, Malin
    Department of Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Levi, Michael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Department of Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biomarkers of seafood intake during pregnancy: pollutants versus fatty acids and micronutrients2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 225, article id 115576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intake of fish and seafood during pregnancy may have certain beneficial effects on fetal development, but measurement of intake using questionnaires is unreliable. Here, we assessed several candidate biomarkers of seafood intake, including long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), selenium, iodine, methylmercury, and different arsenic compounds, in 549 pregnant women (gestational week 29) in the prospective birth cohort NICE (Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment). Proportions of the fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes were measured using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Selenium was measured in blood plasma and erythrocytes, mercury and arsenic in erythrocytes, and iodine and several arsenic compounds in urine, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, arsenic compounds after first being separated by ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each biomarker was related to intake of total seafood and to intake of fatty and lean fish, and shellfish in third trimester, estimated from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire filled out in gestational week 34. The pregnant women reported a median total seafood intake of 184 g/week (5th-95th percentiles: 34–465 g/week). This intake correlated most strongly with erythrocyte mercury concentrations (rho = 0.49, p < 0.001), consisting essentially of methylmercury, followed by total arsenic in erythrocytes (rho = 0.34, p < 0.001), and arsenobetaine in urine (rho = 0.33, p < 0.001), the main form of urinary arsenic. These biomarkers correlated well with intake of both fatty fish, lean fish, and shellfish. Erythrocyte DHA and plasma selenium correlated, although weakly, mainly with fatty fish (rho = 0.25 and 0.22, respectively, both p < 0.001). In conclusion, elevated concentrations of erythrocyte mercury and urinary arsenobetaine can be useful indicators of seafood intake, more so than the n-3 LCPUFAs. However, the relative importance of the biomarkers may differ depending on the type and amount of seafood consumed.

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  • 40.
    Sudhakar, Muthiyal Prabakaran
    et al.
    Marine Biopolymers & Advanced Bioactive Materials Research Lab, Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India; Marine Biotechnology Division, Ocean Science and Technology for Islands, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, Pallikaranai, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India.
    Maurya, Rahulkumar
    Coastal Algae Cultivation, Microbial Biofuels & Biochemicals, Advanced Biofuels Division, The Energy and Resources Institute, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Mehariya, Sanjeet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba
    Department of Engineering Technology, College of Technology, University of Houston, TX, Houston, United States; Institute of Bioresource and Agriculture, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, SD, Rapid City, United States.
    Dharani, Gopal
    Marine Biotechnology Division, Ocean Science and Technology for Islands, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, Pallikaranai, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India.
    Arunkumar, Kulanthiyesu
    Microalgae Group-Phycoscience Laboratory, Department of Plant Science, School of Biological Sciences, Central University of Kerala, Periye, Kerala, Kasaragod, India.
    Pereda, Sandra V.
    Centro i-mar, CeBiB and Núcleo Milenio MASH, Universidad de Los Lagos, Región de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile.
    Hernández-González, María C.
    Centro i-mar, CeBiB and Núcleo Milenio MASH, Universidad de Los Lagos, Región de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile.
    Buschmann, Alejandro H.
    Centro i-mar, CeBiB and Núcleo Milenio MASH, Universidad de Los Lagos, Región de Los Lagos, Puerto Montt, Chile.
    Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan
    School of Engineering, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon; Centre for Herbal Pharmacology and Environmental Sustainability, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kelambakkam, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Feasibility of bioplastic production using micro- and macroalgae: a review2024In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 240, article id 117465Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic disposal and their degraded products in the environment are global concern due to its adverse effects and persistence in nature. To overcome plastic pollution and its impacts on environment, a sustainable bioplastic production using renewable feedstock's, such as algae, are envisioned. In this review, the production of polymer precursors such as polylactic acid, polyhydroxybutyrates, polyhydroxyalkanoates, agar, carrageenan and alginate from microalgae and macroalgae through direct conversion and fermentation routes are summarized and discussed. The direct conversion of algal biopolymers without any bioprocess (whole algal biomass used emphasizing zero waste discharge concept) favours economic feasibility. Whereas indirect method uses conversion of algal polymers to monomers after pretreatment followed by bioplastic precursor production by fermentation are emphasized. This review paper also outlines the current state of technological developments in the field of algae-based bioplastic, both in industry and in research, and highlights the creation of novel solutions for green bioplastic production employing algal polymers. Finally, the cost economics of the bioplastic production using algal biopolymers are clearly mentioned with future directions of next level bioplastic production. In this review study, the cost estimation was given at laboratory level bioplastic production using casting methods. Further development of bioplastics at pilot scale level may give clear economic feasibility of production at industry. Here, in this review, we emphasized the overview of algal biopolymers for different bioplastic product development and its economic value and also current industries involved in bioplastic production.

  • 41.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Rylander, Lars
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes - A population-based study with pre- and post- diagnostic plasma samples2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 174, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but causality is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: Within longitudinal population-based data from northern Sweden, we assessed how POPs associated with T2D prospectively and cross-sectionally, and further investigated factors related to individual changes in POP concentrations.

    METHODS: For 129 case-controls pairs matched by age, sex and date of sampling, plasma concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB-118 and PCB-156), and non-dioxin like (NDL-PCB: PCB-74, -99, -138 -153, -170, -180, -183 and PCB-187) were analyzed twice (baseline and follow-up, 9-20 years apart). The cases received their T2D diagnose between baseline and follow-up. Prospective (using baseline data) and cross-sectional (using follow-up data) odds ratios (ORs) for T2D on lipid standardized POPs (HCB, p,p'-DDE, ∑DL-PCBs, ∑NDL-PCBs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipids. The influence of BMI, weight-change, and plasma lipids on longitudinal changes in POP concentrations were evaluated among non-diabetic individuals (n = 306).

    RESULTS: POPs were associated with T2D in both the prospective and cross-sectional assessments. Of a standard deviation increase in POPs, prospective ORs ranged 1.42 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.06) for ∑NDL-PCBs to 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.38) for HCB (p < 0.05 only for HCB), and cross-sectional ORs ranged 1.62 (95% CI: 1.13; 2.32) for p,p'-DDE to 2.06 (95% CI: 1.29, 3.28) for ∑DL-PCBs (p < 0.05 for all POPs). In analyses of non-diabetic individuals, higher baseline BMI, decreased weight and decreased plasma lipid concentrations were associated with a slower decrease of POPs. Cases had, besides a higher BMI, reduced cholesterol and weight gain at follow-up compared to controls, which can explain the higher ORs in the cross-sectional assessments.

    DISCUSSION: The association between POPs and T2D was confirmed, but an indication that individuals body fat history might influence POP-T2D associations weakens the epidemiological support for a causal association. It also warrants studies based on other exposure metrics than biomonitoring. In addition, we note that a cross-sectional design overestimates the ORs if T2D cases have successfully intervened on weight and/or blood lipids, as changes in these factors cause changes in POPs.

  • 42.
    Veber, Triin
    et al.
    Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Tamm, Tanel
    Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ründva, Marko
    Kajaja Acoustics, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Kriit, Hedi Katre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Pyko, Anderi
    Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Health impact assessment of transportation noise in two Estonian cities2021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 204, no Part C, article id 112319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation noise is a growing public health concern worldwide, especially in urban areas, causing annoyance, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular diseases and other health effects. Recently, European Commission (EC) has developed a mutual methodology for assessing health impacts of transportation noise in European Union using strategic noise mapping. Applying this methodology, our aim was to quantify the health effects of road, rail and aircraft noise in two Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. We also aimed to assess sensitivity of this methodology, while implementing lower threshold values and employing additional health outcomes.

    The proportion of highly annoyed residents due to road traffic noise was 11.6% in Tallinn, and 9.2% in Tartu; around 2.5% residents in both cities could have high sleeping disturbances. As exposure to railway and aircraft noise was relatively low in both cities, people with high annoyance and high sleep disturbance caused by railway and aircraft noise was below 1%. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) cases attributable to road traffic noise was estimated to be 122.6 in Tallinn and 21.5 in Tartu. Altogether transportation noise was estimated to cause 1807 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in Tallinn and 370 DALYs in Tartu. The health costs were calculated as €126.5 and €25.9 million annually, respectively in the two cities.

    When we included higher number of health outcomes (stroke incidence, IHD deaths) and lowered exposure threshold by 5 dB, the annual burden of disease was doubled. As the latest epidemiological studies showed transportation noise having larger number of effects on lower noise levels, the results with the currently applied European Commission health impact assessment (HIA) methodology were rather conservative. Despite of uncertainties associated to applied methodology, transportation noise, especially road traffic noise, is an important environmental risk factor, that leads to considerable loss of healthy life years and causes large health costs in urban areas.

  • 43. Wang, Juan
    et al.
    Janson, Christer
    Jogi, Rain
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Holm, Mathias
    Torén, Kjell
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Johannessen, Ane
    Jacobsen Bertelsen, Randi
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Norbäck, Dan
    A prospective study on the role of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, indoor painting and living in old or new buildings on asthma, rhinitis and respiratory symptoms2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 192, article id 110269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied associations between tobacco smoke, home environment and respiratory health in a 10 year follow up of a cohort of 11,506 adults in Northern Europe. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to estimate onset and remission of symptoms. Current smokers at baseline developed more respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.39-4.43) and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 1.35). Starting smoking during follow up increased the risk of new respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.54-1.97) and quitting smoking decreased the risk (OR = 0.34-0.60). ETS at baseline increased the risk of wheeze (OR = 1.26). Combined ETS at baseline or follow up increased the risk of wheeze (OR = 1.27) and nocturnal cough (OR = 1.22). Wood painting at baseline reduced remission of asthma (OR 95%CI: 0.61, 0.38-0.99). Floor painting at home increased productive cough (OR 95%CI: 1.64, 1.15-2.34) and decreased remission of wheeze (OR 95%CI: 0.63, 0.40-0.996). Indoor painting (OR 95%CI: 1.43, 1.16-1.75) and floor painting (OR 95%CI: 1.77, 1.11-2.82) increased remission of allergic rhinitis. Living in the oldest buildings (constructed before 1960) was associated with higher onset of nocturnal cough and doctor diagnosed asthma. Living in the newest buildings (constructed 1986-2001) was associated with higher onset of nocturnal breathlessness (OR = 1.39) and rhinitis (OR = 1.34). In conclusion, smoking, ETS and painting indoor can be risk factors for respiratory symptoms. Wood painting and floor painting can reduce remission of respiratory symptoms. Smoking can increase rhinitis. Living in older buildings can be a risk factor for nocturnal cough and doctor diagnosed asthma. Living in new buildings can increase nocturnal dyspnoea and rhinitis.

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  • 44.
    Watrin, Luc
    et al.
    Institute for Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Germany.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Szemerszky, Renáta
    Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Wilhelm, Oliver
    Institute for Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Germany.
    Witthöft, Michael
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy and Experimental Psychopathology, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Germany.
    Köteles, Ferenc
    Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Psychological models of development of idiopathic environmental intolerances: Evidence from longitudinal population-based data2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 204, article id 111774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEIs) is an open question. According to the psychological approaches, various top-down factors play a dominant role in the development of IEIs. The general psychopathology model assumes a propensity towards mental ill-health (negative affectivity) increases the probability of developing IEIs. The attribution model emphasizes the importance of mistaken attribution of experienced somatic symptoms; thus, more symptoms should lead to more IEIs. Finally, the nocebo model highlights the role of expectations in the development of IEIs. In this case, worries about the harmful effects of environmental factors are assumed to evoke IEIs.

    We estimated cross-lagged panel models with latent variables based on longitudinal data obtained at two time points (six years apart) from a large near-representative community sample to test the hypothesized associations. Indicators of chemical intolerance, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and sound sensitivity fit well under a common latent factor of IEIs. This factor, in turn, showed considerable temporal stability. However, whereas a positive association was found between IEIs and increased somatic symptoms and modern health worries six years later, the changes therein could not be predicted as hypothesized by the three psychological models. We discuss the implications of these results, as well as methodological aspects in the measurement and prediction of change in IEIs.

  • 45.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Medicin.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Medicin.
    Custodio, Hipolito M
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden2006In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Time trends and exposure determinants of lead and cadmium in the adult population of northern Sweden 1990-20142017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study follows cadmium and lead concentrations in blood in the adult population in northern Sweden over 24 years.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in single whole blood samples (B-Pb and B-Cd) from 619 men and 926 women participating in the Northern Sweden WHO MONICA Study on one occasion 1990-2014. Associations with smoking and dietary factors were investigated. Consumption of moose meat was asked for in 2014.

    RESULTS: In the adult population in northern Sweden, the median B-Pb in 2014 was 11.0µg/L in young (25-35 years) men and 9.69µg/L in young women. In an older age-group (50-60 years), the median B-Pb was 15.1µg/L in men and 13.1µg/L in women. B-Pb decreased from 1990 to 2009, after which time no further decrease was observed. B-Pb was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In never-smokers, positive associations were found between B-Pb and consumption of wine and brewed coffee (women only) in 2004-2014. Higher B-Pb with consumption of moose meat was demonstrated in men, but not in women. B-Cd was essentially stable over the whole period, but an increase in B-Cd, of 3% per year, was detected in never-smoking women between 2009 and 2014. In 2014, median B-Cd in never-smokers in the four groups was; 0.11µg/L in younger men, 0.15µg/L in younger women, 0.14µg/L in older men, and 0.21µg/L in older women. B-Cd was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The only positive association between B-Cd and food items in 2004-2014 was with consumption of brewed coffee (men only).

    CONCLUSIONS: The lack of a decrease in B-Cd from 1990 to 2014 and the absence of a further decrease in B-Pb after 2009 are unsatisfactory considering the health risks these metals pose in the general population at current concentrations.

  • 47.
    Xu, Shanshan
    et al.
    Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali – the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; University of Iceland, Medical Faculty, Iceland.
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Frohn, Lise Marie
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Geels, Camilla
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali – the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; University of Iceland, Medical Faculty, Iceland.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Holm, Mathias
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janson, Christer
    Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Markevych, Iana
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; Health and Quality of Life in a Green and Sustainable Environment”, Strategic Research and Innovation Program for the Development of MU – Plovdiv, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria; Environmental Health Division, Research Institute at Medical University of Plovdiv, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Orru, Hans
    Department of Public Health, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Department of Public Health, Research unit for Environment Occupation and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Department of Public Health, Research unit for Environment Occupation and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and greenness with incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Northern Europe: The Life-GAP project2024In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 257, article id 119240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prolonged exposure to air pollution has been linked to adverse respiratory health, yet the evidence concerning its association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is inconsistent. The evidence of a greenness effect on chronic respiratory diseases is limited.

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and greenness (as measured by the normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI) and incidence of self-reported chronic bronchitis or COPD (CB/COPD).

    Methods: We analyzed data from 5355 adults from 7 centers participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) study. Mean exposures to air pollution and greenness were assessed at available residential addresses in 1990, 2000 and 2010 using air dispersion models and satellite data, respectively. Poisson regression with log person-time as an offset was employed to analyze the association between air pollution, greenness, and CB/COPD incidence, adjusting for confounders.

    Results: Overall, there were 328 incident cases of CB/COPD during 2010–2023. Despite wide statistical uncertainty, we found a trend for a positive association between NO2 exposure and CB/COPD incidence, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 10 μg/m³ difference ranging between 1.13 (95% CI: 0.90–1.41) in 1990 and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.96–1.45) in 2000. O3 showed a tendency for inverse association with CB/COPD incidence (IRR from 0.84 (95% CI: 0.66–1.07) in 2000 to 0.88 (95% CI: 0.69–1.14) in 2010. No consistent association was found between PM, BC and greenness with CB/COPD incidence across different exposure time windows.

    Conclusion: Consistent with prior research, our study suggests that individuals exposed to higher concentrations of NO2 may face an elevated risk of developing COPD, although evidence remains inconclusive. Greenness was not associated with CB/COPD incidence, while O3 showed a tendency for an inverse association with the outcome.

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  • 48. Zeng, Xiangbin
    et al.
    Jin, Taiyi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Environmental Medicine. Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
    Buchet, Jean P
    Jiang, Xuezi
    Kong, Qinghu
    Ye, Tingting
    Bernard, Alfred
    Nordberg, Gunnar F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Environmental Medicine.
    Impact of cadmium exposure on male sex hormones: a population-based study in China2004In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 338-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on the levels of serumsex hormones in a Chinese population group. A total of 263 male volunteers were included. Blood samples were collected for thedetermination of serum testosterone (T), measured by radioimmunoassay, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizinghormone (LH), both measured by enzyme immunoassays. Urinary and blood Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy(AAS). We found a dose–response relationship between urinary Cd excretion and the prevalence of abnormally high serum T levels,but, through multiple regression analysis, we could not trace exposure to Cd as a significant determinant of serum T levels. Exposureto Cd also failed to influence the levels of FSH and LH in serum. In contrast, we found that age, body mass index (BMI), andsmoking habits are significant determinants of FSH and LH and of T and LH, respectively. We conclude that oral Cd exposure isnot a critical determinant of hormone homeostasis in males, but lifestyle and some biological factors, such as age and BMI, areimportant. The relationship found between urinary Cd and high T levels may be of importance for male reproductive morbidity andshould be investigated further.

  • 49. Zhao, Wenhao
    et al.
    Ma, Jin
    Liu, Qiyuan
    Song, Jing
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Liu, Chengshuai
    Wang, Dong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Qu, Yajing
    Wu, Yihang
    Wu, Fengchang
    Comparison and application of SOFM, fuzzy c-means and k-means clustering algorithms for natural soil environment regionalization in China2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 216, article id 114519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil attributes and their environmental drivers exhibit different patterns in different geographical directions, along with distinct regional characteristics, which may have important effects on substance migration and transformation such as organic matter and soil elements or the environmental impacts of pollutants. Therefore, regional soil characteristics should be considered in the process of regionalization for environmental management. However, no comprehensive evaluation or systematic classification of the natural soil environment has been established for China. Here, we established an index system for natural soil environmental regionalization (NSER) by combining literature data obtained based on bibliometrics with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Based on the index system, we collected spatial distribution data for 14 indexes at the national scale. In addition, three clustering algorithms—self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM), fuzzy c-means (FCM) and k-means (KM)—were used to classify and define the natural soil environment. We imported four cluster validity indexes (CVI) to evaluate different models: Davies-Bouldin index (DB), Silhouette index (Sil) and Calinski-Harabasz index (CH) for FCM and KM, clustering quality index (CQI) for SOFM. Analysis and comparison of the results showed that when the number of clusters was 13, the FCM clustering algorithm achieved the optimal clustering results (DB = 1.16, Sil = 0.78, CH = 6.77 × 106), allowing the natural soil environment of China to be divided into 12 regions with distinct characteristics. Our study provides a set of comprehensive scientific research methods for regionalization research based on spatial data, it has important reference value for improving soil environmental management based on local conditions in China.

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