umu.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 16 av 16
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, s. 334-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 2. Barnett, A. G.
    et al.
    Hajat, S.
    Gasparrini, A.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Cold and heat waves in the United States2012Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 112, s. 218-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme cold and heat waves, characterized by a number of cold or hot days in succession, place a strain on people's cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The increase in deaths due to these waves may be greater than that predicted by extreme temperatures alone. We examined cold and heat waves in 99 US cities for 14 years (1987-2000) and investigated how the risk of death depended on the temperature threshold used to define a wave, and a wave's timing, duration and intensity. We defined cold and heat waves using temperatures above and below cold and heat thresholds for two or more days. We tried five cold thresholds using the first to fifth percentiles of temperature, and five heat thresholds using the 95-99 percentiles. The extra wave effects were estimated using a two-stage model to ensure that their effects were estimated after removing the general effects of temperature. The increases in deaths associated with cold waves were generally small and not statistically significant, and there was even evidence of a decreased risk during the coldest waves. Heat waves generally increased the risk of death, particularly for the hottest heat threshold. Cold waves of a colder intensity or longer duration were not more dangerous. Cold waves earlier in the cool season were more dangerous, as were heat waves earlier in the warm season. In general there was no increased risk of death during cold waves above the known increased risk associated with cold temperatures. Cold or heat waves earlier in the cool or warm season may be more dangerous because of a build up in the susceptible pool or a lack of preparedness for extreme temperatures.

  • 3. Barnett, A. G.
    et al.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Commentary: What measure of temperature is the best predictor of mortality?2012Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 118, s. 149-151Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sturve, J
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Förlin, Lars
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden2007Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 105, nr 3, s. 330-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  • 5.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Centre of Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Zoëga, Helga
    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur
    Gíslason, Thórarinn
    Hrafnkelsson, Birgir
    Hydrogen sulfide and particle matter levels associated with increased dispensing of anti-asthma drugs in Iceland's capital2012Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 113, s. 33-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Air pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure.

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area.

    Methods The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables.

    Results The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3–5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10 μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively.

    Conclusion Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed.

  • 6. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Gulliver, John
    Donkelaar, Aaron van
    Martin, Randall V
    Marshall, Julian D
    Bechle, Matthew J
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Dedele, Audrius
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Korek, Michal
    Künzli, Nino
    Lindley, Sarah J
    Lepeule, Johanna
    Meleux, Frederik
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nystad, Wenche
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Peters, Annette
    Peuch, Vincent-Henri
    Rouil, Laurence
    Udvardy, Orsolya
    Slama, Rémy
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Stephanou, Euripides G
    Tsai, Ming Y
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Hoek, Gerard
    Development of West-European PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models incorporating satellite-derived and chemical transport modelling data2016Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models, all including local traffic and land use variables, were compared (LUR without SAT or CTM, with SAT only, with CTM only, and with both SAT and CTM). LUR models were developed using two monitoring data sets: PM2.5 and NO2 ground level measurements from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and from the European AIRBASE network. LUR PM2.5 models including SAT and SAT+CTM explained ~60% of spatial variation in measured PM2.5 concentrations, substantially more than the LUR model without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.33-0.38). For NO2 CTM improved prediction modestly (adjR(2): 0.58) compared to models without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.47-0.51). Both monitoring networks are capable of producing models explaining the spatial variance over a large study area. SAT and CTM estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 significantly improved the performance of high spatial resolution LUR models at the European scale for use in large epidemiological studies.

  • 7.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kyobutungi, C
    Gatari, M
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Measuring exposure levels of inhalable airborne particles (PM2.5) in two socially deprived areas of Nairobi, Kenya2016Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 148, s. 500-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ambient air pollution is a growing global health concern tightly connected to the rapid global urbanization. Health impacts from outdoor air pollution exposure amounts to high burdens of deaths and disease worldwide. However, the lack of systematic collection of air pollution and health data in many low-and middle-income countries remains a challenge for epidemiological studies in the local environment. This study aimed to provide a description of the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in the poorest urban residential areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Real-time measurements of (PM2.5) were conducted in two urban informal settlements of Nairobi City, Kenya"s Capital, from February 2013 to October 2013. The measurements were conducted using DustTrak II 8532 hand-held samplers at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level with a resolution of 1-min logging. Sampling took place from early morning to evenings according to a fixed route of measurement within areas including fixed geographical checkpoints. Results: The study period average concentration of PM2.5 was 166 mu g/m(3) in the Korogocho area and 67 mu g/m(3) in the Viwandani area. The PM2.5 levels in both areas reached bimodal daily peaks in the morning and evening. The average peak value of morning concentration in Korogocho was 214 mu g/m(3), and 164 mu g/m(3) in the evening and in Viwandani was 76 mu g/m(3) and 82 mu g/m(3) respectively. The daily midday average low observed during was 146 mu g/m(3) in Korogocho and 59 mu g/m(3) in Viwandani. Conclusion: The results show that residents in both slums are continuously exposed to PM2.5 levels exceeding hazardous levels according to World Health Organization guidelines. The study showed a marked disparity between the two slum areas situated only 7 km apart indicating the local situation and sources to be very important for exposure to PM2.5.

  • 8. Gasull, Magda
    et al.
    Pumarega, José
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Sandanger, Torkjel Manning
    Goñi, Fernando
    Cirera, Lluís
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Alguacil, Juan
    Iglesias, Mar
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Severi, Gianluca
    Johnson, Theron
    Kühn, Tilman
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Peppa, Eleni
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Verschuren, Monique
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Haugdahl Nøst, Therese
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Molinuevo, Amaia
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Key, Tim
    Ye, Weimin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Michaud, Dominique
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Canzian, Federico
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Nieters, Alexandra
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Jeurnink, Suzanne
    Chajes, Veronique
    Matejcic, Marco
    Gunter, Marc
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Riboli, Elio
    Agudo, Antoni
    Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Duell, Eric J.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Porta, Miquel
    Methodological issues in a prospective study on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk within the EPIC cohort2019Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 169, s. 417-433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases.

    OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles.

    METHODS: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls matched by study centre, sex, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status) enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Plasma concentrations of 22 POPs were measured by gas chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To estimate the magnitude of the associations we calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression, and adjusted geometric means by General Linear Regression Models.

    RESULTS: There were differences among countries in subjects' characteristics (as age, gender, smoking, lipid and POP concentrations), and in study characteristics (as time from blood collection to index date, year of last follow-up, length of follow-up, basis of cancer diagnosis, and fasting status). Adjusting for centre and time of blood collection, no factors were significantly associated with fasting status. Plasma concentrations of lipids were related to age, body mass index, fasting, country, and smoking. We detected and quantified 16 of the 22 POPs in more than 90% of individuals. All 22 POPs were detected in some participants, and the smallest number of POPs detected in one person was 15 (median, 19) with few differences by country. The highest concentrations were found for p,p'-DDE, PCBs 153 and 180 (median concentration: 3371, 1023, and 810 pg/mL, respectively). We assessed the possible occurrence of disease progression bias (DPB) in eight situations defined by lipid and POP measurements, on one hand, and by four factors: interval from blood draw to index date, tumour subsite, tumour stage, and grade of differentiation, on the other. In seven of the eight situations results supported the absence of DPB.

    CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of differences across study centres in some design features and participant characteristics is of relevance to other multicentre studies. Relationships among subjects' characteristics and among such characteristics and design features may play important roles in the forthcoming analyses on the association between plasma concentrations of POPs and pancreatic cancer risk.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Asa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, SE-151 36 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Krais, Annette M.
    Gorzsás, András
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Gerde, Per
    Isolation and characterization of a respirable particle fraction from residential house-dust2018Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, s. 284-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern in recent years. As we spend most of our lives indoors, it is crucial to understand the health effects caused by indoor air pollution. Household dust serve as good proxy for accessing indoor air pollution, especially smaller dust particles that can pass into the lungs are of interest. In this study we present an efficient method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. The respirable fraction was recovered from vacuum cleaner bags, separated by stepwise sieving, followed by characterization for size, morphology, surface area, organic content and elemental composition. The respirable fraction was obtained in a yield of 0.6% with a specific surface area of 2.5 m(2)/g and a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of 3.73 +/- 0.15 mu m. Aluminum and zink were the dominating metals measured in the dust, whereas the major mineral components were found to be silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. The fraction of organic matter in the dust was measured to be 69 +/- 1%. The organic matrix contained bacterial and fungi and a presence of skin fragments. We present here an efficient and fast method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. That is of considerable value due to the need for large quantities of respirable particle fractions to conduct toxicological studies and risk assessment work.

  • 10. Karvala, Kirsi
    et al.
    Sainio, Markku
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prevalence of various environmental intolerances in a Swedish and Finnish general population2018Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, s. 220-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine. Methods: In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Osterbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds. The respondents were asked whether they react with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms or have a physician-diagnosed EI attributed to the corresponding exposures. Prevalence rates were determined for different age and sex groups and the Swedish and Finnish samples in general. Results: In the Swedish sample (n = 3406), 12.2% had self-reported intolerance to chemicals, 4.8% to certain buildings, 2.7% to EMFs, and 9.2% to sounds. The prevalence rates for the Finnish sample (n = 1535) were 15.2%, 7.2%, 1.6%, and 5.4%, respectively, differing statistically significantly from the Swedish. EI to chemicals and certain buildings was more prevalent in Finland, while EI to EMFs and sounds more prevalent in Sweden. The prevalence rates for EI with CNS-symptoms were lower and physician-diagnosed EIs considerably lower than self-reported EIs. Women reported EI more often than men and the young (18-39 years) to a lesser degree than middle-aged and elderly. Conclusions: The findings reflect the heterogeneous nature of EI. The differences in EI prevalence between the countries might reflect disparities concerning which exposures people perceive harmful and focus their attention to.

  • 11.
    Liu-Helmersson, Jing
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Heidelberg University Medical School, Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sewe, Maquins
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Climate change may enable Aedes aegypti infestation in major European cities by 21002019Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 172, s. 693-699Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate change allows Aedes aegyptito infest new areas. Consequently, it enables the arboviruses the mosquito transmits - e.g., dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever – to emerge in previously uninfected areas. An example is the Portuguese island of Madeira during 2012–13.

    Objective: We aim to understand how climate change will affect the future spread of this potent vector, as an aidin assessing the risk of disease outbreaks and effectively allocating resources for vector control.

    Methods: We used an empirically-informed, process-based mathematical model to study the feasibility of Aedes aegypti infestation into continental Europe. Based on established global climate-change scenario data, we assess the potential of Aedes aegypti to establish in Europe over the 21st century by estimating the vector population growth rate for five climate models (GCM5).

    Results: In a low carbon emission future (RCP2.6), we find minimal change to the current situation throughout the whole of the 21st century. In a high carbon future (RCP8.5), a large parts of southern Europe risks being invaded by Aedes aegypti.

    Conclusion: Our results show that successfully enforcing the Paris Agreement by limiting global warming to below 2 °C significantly lowers the risk for infestation of Aedes aegypti and consequently of potential large-scale arboviral disease outbreaks in Europe within the 21st century.

  • 12. Morelli, Xavier
    et al.
    Rieux, Camille
    Cyrys, Josef
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Slama, Rémy
    Corrigendum to "Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment" [Environ. Res. 147 (2016) 59-70]2016Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 150, s. 664-664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 13. Morelli, Xavier
    et al.
    Rieux, Camille
    Cyrys, Josef
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Slama, Rémy
    Air pollution, health and social deprivation: a fine-scale risk assessment2016Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 147, s. 59-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment studies often ignore within-city variations of air pollutants. Our objective was to quantify the risk associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in 2 urban areas using fine-scale air pollution modeling and to characterize how this risk varied according to social deprivation. In Grenoble and Lyon areas (0.4 and 1.2 million inhabitants, respectively) in 2012, PM2.5 exposure was estimated on a 10×10m grid by coupling a dispersion model to population density. Outcomes were mortality, lung cancer and term low birth weight incidences. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated overall and stratifying areas according to the European Deprivation Index (EDI), taking 10µg/m(3) yearly average as reference (counterfactual) level. Estimations were repeated assuming spatial homogeneity of air pollutants within urban area. Median PM2.5 levels were 18.1 and 19.6μg/m(3) in Grenoble and Lyon urban areas, respectively, corresponding to 114 (5.1% of total, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.2-7.0%) and 491 non-accidental deaths (6.0% of total, 95% CI 3.7-8.3%) attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5, respectively. Attributable term low birth weight cases represented 23.6% of total cases (9.0-37.1%) in Grenoble and 27.6% of cases (10.7-42.6%) in Lyon. In Grenoble, 6.8% of incident lung cancer cases were attributable to air pollution (95% CI 3.1-10.1%). Risk was lower by 8 to 20% when estimating exposure through background stations. Risk was highest in neighborhoods with intermediate to higher social deprivation. Risk assessment studies relying on background stations to estimate air pollution levels may underestimate the attributable risk.

  • 14.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Rylander, Lars
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes - A population-based study with pre- and post- diagnostic plasma samples2019Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 174, s. 35-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but causality is uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: Within longitudinal population-based data from northern Sweden, we assessed how POPs associated with T2D prospectively and cross-sectionally, and further investigated factors related to individual changes in POP concentrations.

    METHODS: For 129 case-controls pairs matched by age, sex and date of sampling, plasma concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB-118 and PCB-156), and non-dioxin like (NDL-PCB: PCB-74, -99, -138 -153, -170, -180, -183 and PCB-187) were analyzed twice (baseline and follow-up, 9-20 years apart). The cases received their T2D diagnose between baseline and follow-up. Prospective (using baseline data) and cross-sectional (using follow-up data) odds ratios (ORs) for T2D on lipid standardized POPs (HCB, p,p'-DDE, ∑DL-PCBs, ∑NDL-PCBs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipids. The influence of BMI, weight-change, and plasma lipids on longitudinal changes in POP concentrations were evaluated among non-diabetic individuals (n = 306).

    RESULTS: POPs were associated with T2D in both the prospective and cross-sectional assessments. Of a standard deviation increase in POPs, prospective ORs ranged 1.42 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.06) for ∑NDL-PCBs to 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.38) for HCB (p < 0.05 only for HCB), and cross-sectional ORs ranged 1.62 (95% CI: 1.13; 2.32) for p,p'-DDE to 2.06 (95% CI: 1.29, 3.28) for ∑DL-PCBs (p < 0.05 for all POPs). In analyses of non-diabetic individuals, higher baseline BMI, decreased weight and decreased plasma lipid concentrations were associated with a slower decrease of POPs. Cases had, besides a higher BMI, reduced cholesterol and weight gain at follow-up compared to controls, which can explain the higher ORs in the cross-sectional assessments.

    DISCUSSION: The association between POPs and T2D was confirmed, but an indication that individuals body fat history might influence POP-T2D associations weakens the epidemiological support for a causal association. It also warrants studies based on other exposure metrics than biomonitoring. In addition, we note that a cross-sectional design overestimates the ORs if T2D cases have successfully intervened on weight and/or blood lipids, as changes in these factors cause changes in POPs.

  • 15.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Custodio, Hipolito M
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden2006Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 100, nr 3, s. 330-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Wennberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Time trends and exposure determinants of lead and cadmium in the adult population of northern Sweden 1990-20142017Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study follows cadmium and lead concentrations in blood in the adult population in northern Sweden over 24 years.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in single whole blood samples (B-Pb and B-Cd) from 619 men and 926 women participating in the Northern Sweden WHO MONICA Study on one occasion 1990-2014. Associations with smoking and dietary factors were investigated. Consumption of moose meat was asked for in 2014.

    RESULTS: In the adult population in northern Sweden, the median B-Pb in 2014 was 11.0µg/L in young (25-35 years) men and 9.69µg/L in young women. In an older age-group (50-60 years), the median B-Pb was 15.1µg/L in men and 13.1µg/L in women. B-Pb decreased from 1990 to 2009, after which time no further decrease was observed. B-Pb was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In never-smokers, positive associations were found between B-Pb and consumption of wine and brewed coffee (women only) in 2004-2014. Higher B-Pb with consumption of moose meat was demonstrated in men, but not in women. B-Cd was essentially stable over the whole period, but an increase in B-Cd, of 3% per year, was detected in never-smoking women between 2009 and 2014. In 2014, median B-Cd in never-smokers in the four groups was; 0.11µg/L in younger men, 0.15µg/L in younger women, 0.14µg/L in older men, and 0.21µg/L in older women. B-Cd was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The only positive association between B-Cd and food items in 2004-2014 was with consumption of brewed coffee (men only).

    CONCLUSIONS: The lack of a decrease in B-Cd from 1990 to 2014 and the absence of a further decrease in B-Pb after 2009 are unsatisfactory considering the health risks these metals pose in the general population at current concentrations.

1 - 16 av 16
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf