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  • 1.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Does contextual unemployment matter for health status across the life course? A longitudinal multilevel study exploring the link between neighbourhood unemployment and functional somatic symptoms2017Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 43, s. 113-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether neighbourhood unemployment is related to functional somatic symptoms, independently of the individual employment, across the life course and at four specific life course periods (age 16, 21, 30 and 42). Self-reported questioner data was used from a 26-year prospective Swedish cohort (n=1010) with complementary neighbourhood register data. A longitudinal and a set of age-specific cross-sectional hierarchal linear regressions was carried out. The results suggest that living in a neighbourhood with high unemployment has implications for residents' level of functional somatic symptoms, regardless of their own unemployment across time, particularly at age 30.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    What role does adolescent neighborhood play for adult health?: A cross-classified multilevel analysis of life course models in Northern Sweden2017Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 46, s. 137-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether, and by which life course models, adolescent neighborhood environment relate to health in mid-adulthood. Data came from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n=1001), surveyed at age 16, 21, 30 and 42 years including functional somatic symptoms at age 42, and individual disadvantage neighborhood disadvantage at all four ages. Results from cross-classified multilevel models showed that 12.7% of age 42 health variance was explained by an interaction of age 16 and age 42 neighborhood of residence. Our study thus suggests that health variation by neighborhood in mid-adulthood may partly depend on neighborhood of residence in adolescence.

  • 3.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Vounatsou, Penelope
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Self-rated health: small area large area comparisons amongst older adults at the state, district and sub-district level in India2014Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 26C, s. 31-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared prevalence estimates of self-rated health (SRH) derived indirectly using four different small area estimation methods for the Vadu (small) area from the national Study on Global AGEing (SAGE) survey with estimates derived directly from the Vadu SAGE survey. The indirect synthetic estimate for Vadu was 24% whereas the model based estimates were 45.6% and 45.7% with smaller prediction errors and comparable to the direct survey estimate of 50%. The model based techniques were better suited to estimate the prevalence of SRH than the indirect synthetic method. We conclude that a simplified mixed effects regression model can produce valid small area estimates of SRH.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Are neighbourhood inequalities in adult health explained by socio-economic and psychosocial determinants in adolescence and the subsequent life course in northern Sweden?: A decomposition analysis2018Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 52, s. 127-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains neighbourhood deprivation inequalities in adult health for a northern Swedish cohort by examining the contribution of socio-economic and psychosocial determinants from adolescence (age 16), young adulthood (age 21) and midlife (age 42) to the disparity. Self-reported information from 873 participants was drawn from questionnaires, with complementary neighbourhood register data. The concentration index was used to estimate the inequality while decomposition analyses were run to attribute the disparity to its underlying determinants. The results suggest that socio-economic and psychosocial factors in midlife explain a substantial part, but also that the inequality can originate from conditions in adolescence and young adulthood.

  • 5. Manyema, M.
    et al.
    Norris, S. A.
    Said-Mohamed, R.
    Tollman, Stephen T.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences,University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Twine, R.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences,University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Richter, L. M.
    The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa2018Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 51, s. 97-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women.

    Methods: Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 nonpregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress.

    Results: Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area.

    Conclusion: The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community (contextual) factors.

  • 6.
    Sellström, E.
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    O’Campo, P.
    Centre for Research on Inner City Health,The Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St.Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
    Muntaner, C.
    Faculty of Nursing, Department of Psychiatry and Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto,Toronto,Canada.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Hjern, A.
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hospital admissions of young persons for illicit drug use or abuse: does neighborhood of residence matter?2011Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 551-557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence constitutes a period of risk for drug use and drug use disorders. Previous research, largely focused on individual risk factors, has failed to include neighborhood structure in the study of determinants of youth drug use or abuse. A cohort of 76,693 adolescents ages 13–15 from 586 urban neighborhoods in Sweden were followed up for 12 years, from age 16 to age 28. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze neighborhood variations in hospital admissions due to illicit drug use or abuse. We found a variation of 8% by neighborhood economic status and the risk of being admitted to hospital increased 73% in low-compared to high-income neighborhoods. Our results suggest that neighborhood of residence in adolescence plays a significant role in predicting future health-related behaviors and that the need for drug abuse interventions at a neighborhood level is compelling.

  • 7.
    Sellström, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University.
    Hjern, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University.
    The neighbourhood they live in: Does it matter to women's smoking habits during pregnancy?2008Inngår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 155-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the health risk of socioeconomic disadvantage over the life-course is fairly established, the mechanisms are less studied. One candidate pathway is long-term dysregulation of cortisol. This study assesses whether socioeconomic trajectories from adolescence to adulthood influences the regulation of cortisol in mid-adulthood, and further investigates the importance of adolescence as a critical period and of accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants were drawn from a 27-year prospective cohort study (n = 732, 68% of the original cohort). Information on socioeconomic status (SES) was collected at the ages of 16 (based on parental occupation), 21, 30 and 43 (based on own occupation) years, and at 43 years participants collected one-day salivary cortisol samples at awakening, after 15 min, before lunch and at bedtime. We found that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) differed with respect to SES trajectory; those with stable low or early low/upwardly mobile SES tended to display higher CAR than those with early high/downwardly mobile, highly mobile or stable high trajectories. Further analyses revealed that early low SES was related to higher CAR, and in women low SES was related to lower bedtimecortisol, independently of later SES and potential confounders. We found no support for a linear effect of accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage. In conclusion, our study gives support for an independent effect of low socioeconomic status early in life, on the regulation of cortisol in adulthood.

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