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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Do urinary tract infections affect morale among very old women?2010Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 8, s. 73-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As UTI seems to be independently associated with low morale or poor subjective wellbeing, there needs to be more focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of UTI in old women.

  • 2.
    Geale, Kirk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi. PAREXEL Int, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Martin
    Linköping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Linköping, Sweden.
    Schmitt-Egenolf, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    How is disease severity associated with quality of life in psoriasis patients?: Evidence from a longitudinal population-based study in Sweden2017Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Assessing the impact of disease severity on generic quality of life (QOL) is a critical step in outcomes research and in the development of decision-analytic models structured around health states defined by clinical measures. While data from routine clinical practice found in healthcare registers are increasingly used for research, more attention should be paid to understanding the relationship between clinical measures of disease severity and QOL. The purpose of this work was therefore to investigate this relationship in psoriasis using a population-based dataset.

    METHODS: Severity was measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), which combines severity of erythema, induration, and desquamation into a single value ranging from 0 to 72. The generic EQ-5D-3L utility instrument, under the UK tariff, was used to measure QOL. The association between PASI and EQ-5D-3L was estimated using a population-based dataset of 2674 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis enrolled over ten years in the Swedish psoriasis register (PsoReg). Given the repeated measurement of patients in the register data, a longitudinal fixed-effects model was employed to control for unobserved patient-level heterogeneity.

    RESULTS: Marginal changes in PASI are associated with a non-linear response in EQ-5D-3L: Moving from PASI 10 to 9 (1 to 0) is associated with an increase of 0.0135 (0.0174) in EQ-5D-3L. Furthermore, unobserved patient-level heterogeneity appears to be an important source of confounding when estimating the relationship between QOL and PASI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Using register data to estimate the impact of disease severity on QOL while controlling for unobserved patient-level heterogeneity shows that PASI appears to have a larger impact on QOL than previously estimated. Routine collection of generic QOL data in registers should be encouraged to enable similar applications in other disease areas.

  • 3.
    Ghatnekar, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Mapping health outcome measures from a stroke registry to EQ-5D weights2013Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 11, nr 34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To map health outcome related variables from a national register, not part of any validated instrument, with EQ-5D weights among stroke patients.

    Methods: We used two cross-sectional data sets including patient characteristics, outcome variables and EQ-5D weights from the national Swedish stroke register. Three regression techniques were used on the estimation set (n = 272): ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD). The regression coefficients for “dressing“, “toileting“, “mobility”, “mood”, “general health” and “proxy-responders” were applied to the validation set (n = 272), and the performance was analysed with mean absolute error (MAE) and mean square error (MSE).

    Results: The number of statistically significant coefficients varied by model, but all models generated consistent coefficients in terms of sign. Mean utility was underestimated in all models (least in OLS) and with lower variation (least in OLS) compared to the observed. The maximum attainable EQ-5D weight ranged from 0.90 (OLS) to 1.00 (Tobit and CLAD). Health states with utility weights <0.5 had greater errors than those with weights ≥0.5 (P < 0.01).

    Conclusion: This study indicates that it is possible to map non-validated health outcome measures from a stroke register into preference-based utilities to study the development of stroke care over time, and to compare with other conditions in terms of utility.

  • 4.
    Henje Blom, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bech, Per
    Högberg, Göran
    Larsson, Jan Olov
    Serlachius, Eva
    Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales--testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses.2012Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 10, artikel-id 149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6).

    METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys, aged 14-18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validity was tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses.

    RESULTS: The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was -0.49 (p=0.0001). Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD. The BDI-6 may be recommended as a second step in the screening procedure, since it is statistically valid and has the ability to unidimensionally capture the severity of depressed mood.

  • 5.
    Henje Blom, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, University of California San Francsisco.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    Theorell, Töres
    Ingvar, Martin
    Low Sense of Coherence (SOC) is a mirror of general anxiety and persistent depressive symptoms in adolescent girls - a cross-sectional study of a clinical and a non-clinical cohort.2010Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 8, artikel-id 58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale is assumed to measure a distinct salutogenic construct separated from measures of anxiety and depression. Our aim was to challenge this concept.

    METHODS: The SOC-scale, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) , the emotional subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-em) and self-assessed health-related and physiological parameters were collected from a sample of non-clinical adolescent females (n = 66, mean age 16.5 years with a range of 15.9-17.7 years) and from female psychiatric patients (n = 73), mean age 16.8 years with a range of 14.5-18.4 years), with diagnoses of major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders.

    RESULTS: The SOC scores showed high inverse correlations to BDI, BAI and SDQ-em. In the non-clinical sample the correlation coefficient was -0.86 to -0.73 and in the clinical samples -0.74 to -0.53 (p < 0.001). Multiple regression models showed that BDI was the strongest predictor of SOC in the non-clinical (beta coefficient -0.47) and clinical sample (beta coefficient -0.52). The total degree of explanation of self assessed anxiety and depression on the SOC variance estimated by multiple R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.73 in the non-clinical sample and multiple R2 = 0.66, adjusted R2 = 0.65 in the clinical sample.Multivariate analyses failed to isolate SOC as a separate construct and the SOC-scale, BDI, BAI and SDQ-em showed similar patterns of correlations to self-reported and physiological health parameters in both samples. The SOC-scale was the most stable measure over six months.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SOC-scale did not appear to be a measure of a distinct salutogenic construct, but an inverse measure of persistent depressive symptoms and generalized social anxiety similar to the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to DSM-IV. These symptoms were better captured with SOC than by the specialized scales for anxiety and depression. Self-assessment scales that adequately identify MDD, dysthymic disorder, GAD and SAD need to be implemented. Comorbidity of these disorders is common in adolescent females and corresponds to a more severe symptomatology and impaired global function.

  • 6.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Feldman, Inna
    Assessing outcomes for cost-utility analysis in mental health interventions: mapping mental health specific outcome measure GHQ-12 onto EQ-5D-3L2016Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 14, artikel-id 134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many intervention-based studies aiming to improve mental health do not include a multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI) that produces quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and it limits the applicability of the health economic analyses. This study aims to develop 'crosswalk' transformation algorithm between a measure for psychological distress General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and MAUI EuroQoL (EQ-5D-3L). Methods: The study is based on a survey questionnaire sent to a random sample in four counties in Sweden in 2012. The survey included GHQ-12 and EQ-5D instruments, as well as a question about self-rated health. The EQ-5D index was calculated using the UK and the Swedish tariff values. Two OLS models were used to estimate the EQ-5D health state values using the GHQ-12 as exposure, based on the respondents (n = 17, 101) of two counties. The algorithms were applied to the data from two other counties, (n = 15, 447) to check the predictive capacity of the models. Results: The final models included gender, age, self-rated health and GHQ-12 scores as a quantitative variable. The regression equations explained 40 % (UK tariff) and 46 % (Swedish tariff) of the variances. The model showed a satisfying predictive capacity between the observed and the predicted EQ-5D index score, with Pearson correlation = 0.65 and 0.69 for the UK and Swedish models, respectively. Conclusion: The algorithms developed in this study can be used to determine cost-effectiveness of services or interventions that use GHQ-12 as a primary outcome where the utility measures are not collected.

  • 7. Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Gadler, Fredrik
    Karlsson, Jan
    Health-related quality of life in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with implantable defibrillators2016Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 14, artikel-id 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) is largely unknown. The aim was to assess HRQL, including comparisons between groups, using the questionnaire SF-36, and compare it to a Swedish age-and sex-matched population. Methods and Results: Validated data on adult HCM patients with ICDs were used. The SF-36 response rate was 82.5 % and 245 patients (mean age 55.9 years, 70.2 % men) were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, t-test, Spearman correlation and effect size calculations. In all SF-36 domains the patients' score was lower (p-value of <0.0001) than norms except for bodily pain. The general health domain showed the highest effect size (0.77) and the impact was more pronounced in the SF-36 physical component summary score (0.62) than the mental component summary score (0.46). Older age was correlated with lower scores on the physical component and higher scores on the mental component. Atrial fibrillation and/or systolic heart failure were associated with worse physical health. HRQL was similar in primary vs secondary prevention cases. Inappropriate ICD shock was associated with worse mental health while appropriate therapy trended toward better mental health. Conclusion: HCM patients with ICDs suffer from poor HRQL regardless of age, sex, or primary vs secondary prevention indication. Atrial fibrillation and systolic heart failure are determinants of poor physical health. Inappropriate shocks, but not appropriate therapies, are associated with poorer mental health.

  • 8.
    Neumann, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital.
    Schoffer, Olaf
    Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Klug, Stefanie J
    Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center, University Hospital.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Health-related quality of life for pre-diabetic states and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study in Västerbotten Sweden2014Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) decreases health-related quality of life, but there is a lack of information about the health status of people in pre-diabetic states. However, information on health utility weights (HUWs) for pre-diabetic states and T2D are essential to estimate the effect of prevention initiatives. We estimated and compared HUWs for healthy individuals, those with pre-diabetes and those with T2D in a Swedish population and evaluated the influence of age, sex, education and body mass index on HUWs.

    Methods: Participants of the Västerbotten Intervention Program, Sweden, between 2002 and 2012, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test or indicated they had T2D and who filled in the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36) were included. Individuals were categorized as healthy, being in any of three different pre-diabetic states, or as T2D. The pre-diabetic states are impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or a combination of both (IFG&IGT). The SF-6D index was used to convert SF-36 responses to HUWs. HUWswere stratified by age, sex, education and body mass index. Beta regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of multiple risk factors on the HUWs.

    Results: In total, 55 882 individuals were included in the analysis. The overall mean HUW was 0.764. The mean HUW of healthy individuals was 0.768, 0.759 for those with IFG, 0.746 for those with IGT, 0.745 for those with IFG&IGT, and 0.738 for those with T2D. In the overall model, all variables except underweight vs. normal weight were significantly associated with HUW. Younger age, male sex, and higher education were associated with increased HUW. Normal weight, or being overweight was associated with elevated HUW, while obesity was associated with lower HUW.

    Conclusions: Healthy individuals had higher HUWs than participants with T2D, while individuals with IFG, IGT or IFG&IGT had HUWs that ranged between those for NGT and T2D. Therefore, preventing the development of pre-diabetic states would improve health-related quality of life in addition to lowering the risk of developing T2D.

  • 9.
    Nordyke, Katrina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Rosén, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Lund University.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Internalizing the threat of risk: a qualitative study about adolescents' experience living with screening-detected celiac disease 5 years after diagnosis2014Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 12, artikel-id 91Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mass screening could identify those with unrecognized celiac disease (CD), but the experience of being detected through screening and living with screening-detected CD should be explored before considering this as acceptable intervention. For this study we invited screening-detected adolescents to describe their experience living with screening-detected CD five years after diagnosis with the aim to explore how their perceptions, practices, and beliefs evolved.

    METHODS: Adolescents who were diagnosed through a population-based CD screening were invited to write narratives after being diagnosed. Of 153 adolescents who were eventually diagnosed through the screening, 91 wrote narratives one year after diagnosis and 72 five years after diagnosis. A qualitative content analysis resulted in a theme and categories that describe the experience living with screening-detected CD five years after diagnosis.

    RESULTS: The overall theme - "Internalizing the threat of risk" - illustrates that being detected through screening and the internalized threat of future health complications have impacted how these adolescents felt about the diagnosis, coped with the gluten-free diet (GFD), and thought about CD screening. This theme is supported by four categories: maintaining an imposed disease identity describes how they continued to define their diagnosis in relation to the screening. They also expressed moving from forced food changes to adapted diet routines by describing habits, routines, coping strategies, and the financial burden of the GFD. They had enduring beliefs of being spared negative consequences, however, even after five years, some doubted they had CD and worried that being detected and eating a GFD might not be beneficial, i.e. "continuing to fear it is "all in vain".

    CONCLUSIONS: There was maintenance and evolution in the perceptions, practices, and beliefs of the adolescents after five years. Some have adjusted to the disease and adapted new habits and coping strategies to deal with the GFD, while others still doubt they have CD or that being detected was beneficial. The transition to adapting to the disease and GFD is ongoing, illustrating the importance of providing ongoing support for those with screening-detected CD as they adjust to this chronic disease and the GFD.

  • 10.
    Zashikhina, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study.2014Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 12-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group.

    METHODS: Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients' clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease.

    RESULTS: A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors.

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