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  • 1. Ameh, Soter
    et al.
    Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
    D'ambruoso, Lucia
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits University Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; The International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Accra, Ghana.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits University Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; The International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Accra, Ghana.
    Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    Quality of integrated chronic disease care in rural South Africa: user and provider perspectives2017In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integrated chronic disease management (ICDM) model was introduced as a response to the dual burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa, one of the first of such efforts by an African Ministry of Health. The aim of the ICDM model is to leverage HIV programme innovations to improve the quality of chronic disease care. There is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of healthcare providers and users on the quality of care in the novel ICDM model. This paper describes the viewpoints of operational managers and patients regarding quality of care in the ICDM model. In 2013, we conducted a case study of the seven PHC facilities in the rural Agincourt sub-district in northeast South Africa. Focus group discussions (n = 8) were used to obtain data from 56 purposively selected patients >= 18 years. In-depth interviews were conducted with operational managers of each facility and the sub-district health manager. Donabedian's structure, process and outcome theory for service quality evaluation underpinned the conceptual framework in this study. Qualitative data were analysed, with MAXQDA 2 software, to identify 17 a priori dimensions of care and unanticipated themes that emerged during the analysis. The manager and patient narratives showed the inadequacies in structure (malfunctioning blood pressure machines and staff shortage); process (irregular prepacking of drugs); and outcome (long waiting times). There was discordance between managers and patients regarding reasons for long patient waiting time which managers attributed to staff shortage and missed appointments, while patients ascribed it to late arrival of managers to the clinics. Patients reported anti-hypertension drug stock-outs (structure); sub-optimal defaulter-tracing (process); rigid clinic appointment system (process). Emerging themes showed that patients reported HIV stigmatisation in the community due to defaulter-tracing activities of home-based carers, while managers reported treatment of chronic diseases by traditional healers and reduced facility-related HIV stigma because HIV and NCD patients attended the same clinic. Leveraging elements of HIV programmes for NCDs, specifically hypertension management, is yet to be achieved in the study setting in part because of malfunctioning blood pressure machines and anti-hypertension drug stock-outs. This has implications for the nationwide scale up of the ICDM model in South Africa and planning of an integrated chronic disease care in other low-and middle-income countries.

  • 2. Batura, Neha
    et al.
    Hill, Zelee
    Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan
    Lingam, Raghu
    Colbourn, Timothy
    Kim, Sungwook
    Sikander, Siham
    Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Institute for Global Health, University College London.
    Rahman, Atif
    Kirkwood, Betty
    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
    Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?2015In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 813-821Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost-effectiveness for combined programmes. This too would be facilitated by the use of a common outcome measure able to pool the impact of both nutrition and stimulation activities.

  • 3.
    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Trade liberalization and tuberculosis incidence: a longitudinal multi-level analysis in 22 high burden countries between 1990 and 20102014In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 328-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Trade liberalization is promoted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) through a complex architecture of binding trade agreements. This type of trade, however, has the potential to modify the upstream and proximate determinants of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We aimed to analyse the association between trade liberalization and TB incidence in 22 high-burden TB countries between 1990 and 2010. METHODS and findings A longitudinal multi-level linear regression analysis was performed using five different measures of trade liberalization as exposure [WTO membership, duration of membership, trade as % of gross domestic product, and components of both the Economic Freedom of the World Index (EFI4) and the KOF Index of Globalization (KOF1)]. We adjusted for a wide range of factors, including differences in human development index (HDI), income inequality, debts, polity patterns, conflict, overcrowding, population stage transition, health system financing, case detection rates and HIV prevalence.None of the five trade indicators was significantly associated with TB incidence in the crude analysis. Any positive effect of EFI4 on (Log-) TB incidence over time was confounded by differences in socio-economic development (HDI), HIV prevalence and health financing indicators. The adjusted TB incidence rate ratio of WTO member countries was significantly higher [RR: 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-2.29] when compared with non-member countries. CONCLUSION We found no association between specific aggregate indicators of trade liberalization and TB incidence. Our analyses provide evidence of a significant association between WTO membership and higher TB incidence, which suggests a possible conflict between the architecture of WTO agreements and TB-related Millennium Development Goals. Further research is needed, particularly on the relation between the aggregate trade indices used in this study and the hypothesized mediators and also on sector-specific indices, specific trade agreements and other (non-TB) health outcomes.

  • 4.
    Byskov, Jens
    et al.
    University of Zambia.
    Maluka, Stephen A.
    University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Shayo, Elizabeth H.
    National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Blystad, Astrid
    Department of Global Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Bukachi, Salome
    Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Zulu, Joseph M.
    School of Public Health, Ridgeway Campus, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Michelo, Charles
    School of Public Health, Ridgeway Campus, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Bloch, Paul
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Niels Steensens Vej 6, Gentofte, Denmark.
    A systems perspective on the importance of global health strategy developments for accomplishing today’s Sustainable Development Goals2019In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Priority setting within health systems has not led to accountable, fair and sustainable solutions to improving population health. Providers, users and other stakeholders each have their own health and service priorities based on selected evidence, own values, expertise and preferences. Based on a historical account, this article analyses if contemporary health systems are appropriate to optimize population health within the framework of cross cutting targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied a scoping review approach to identify and review literature of scientific databases and other programmatic web and library-based documents on historical and contemporary health systems policies and strategies at the global level. Early literature supported the 1977 launching of the global target of Health for All by the year 2000. Reviewed literature was used to provide a historical overview of systems components of global health strategies through describing the conceptualizations of health determinants, user involvement and mechanisms of priority setting over time, and analysing the importance of historical developments on barriers and opportunities to accomplish the SDGs. Definitions, scope and application of health systems-associated priority setting fluctuated and main health determinants and user influence on global health systems and priority setting remained limited. In exploring reasons for the identified lack of SDG-associated health systems and priority setting processes, we discuss issues of accountability, vested interests, ethics and democratic legitimacy as conditional for future sustainability of population health. To accomplish the SDGs health systems must engage beyond their own sector boundary. New approaches to Health in All Policies and One Health may be conducive for scaling up more democratic and inclusive priority setting processes based on proper process guidelines from successful pilots. Sustainable development depends on population preferences supported by technical and managerial expertise.

  • 5. Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier
    et al.
    Mosquera, Paola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pablo Alzate, Juan
    Pottie, Kevin
    Welch, Vivian
    Akl, Elie A.
    Jull, Janet
    Lang, Eddy
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Morton, Rachel
    Thabane, Lehana
    Shea, Bev
    Stein, Airton T.
    Singh, Jasvinder
    Florez, Ivan D.
    Guyatt, Gordon
    Schunemann, Holger
    Tugwell, Peter
    Considering health equity when moving from evidence-based guideline recommendations to implementation: a case study from an upper-middle income country on the GRADE approach2017In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 1484-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of evidence-based guidelines does not ensure their implementation and use in clinical practice or policy making. Inequities in health have been defined as those inequalities within or between populations that are avoidable, unnecessary and also unjust and unfair. Evidence-based clinical practice and public health guidelines ('guidelines') can be used to target health inequities experienced by disadvantaged populations, although guidelines may unintentionally increase health inequities. For this reason, there is a need for evidence-based clinical practice and public health guidelines to intentionally target health inequities experienced by disadvantaged populations. Current guideline development processes do not include steps for planned implementation of equity-focused guidelines. This article describes nine steps that provide guidance for consideration of equity during guideline implementation. A critical appraisal of the literature followed by a process to build expert consensus was undertaken to define how to include consideration of equity issues during the specific GRADE guideline development process. Using a case study from Colombia we describe nine steps that were used to implement equity-focused GRADE recommendations: (1) identification of disadvantaged groups, (2) quantification of current health inequities, (3) development of equity-sensitive recommendations, (4) identification of key actors for implementation of equity-focused recommendations, (5) identification of barriers and facilitators to the implementation of equity-focused recommendations, (6) development of an equity strategy to be included in the implementation plan, (7) assessment of resources and incentives, (8) development of a communication strategy to support an equity focus and (9) development of monitoring and evaluation strategies. This case study can be used as model for implementing clinical practice guidelines, taking into account equity issues during guideline development and implementation.

  • 6.
    Hurtig, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pande, Shanta B
    Baral, Sushil C
    Newell, James
    Porter, John D H
    Bam, Dirga Sing
    Linking private and public sectors in tuberculosis treatment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.2002In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 78-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem and the world's foremost cause of death from a single infectious agent. Despite the increasing number of TB patients who seek help in the private sector, there are few practical examples of how to create a public/private linkage of TB services. The paper presents a pilot service-linkage project between the public and private sector in TB control in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The study documents and examines the process of the service-linkage project through the undertaking of a longitudinal analytical case study. A detailed description of the project from formulation to a short-term evaluation is given. The analysis relates the activities and early outcomes of the service-linkage project to the context, characteristics and interactions of the organizations involved. The study reveals that although the involved organizations initially agreed on the objective of the service-linkage project, differences in capacity, motivation, environment and needs had implications for the implementation and short-term success of the project. The public sector, despite the will, did not have the structure or resources to engage with the private sector. The private sector lacked interest in public health aspects of TB treatment and trust in the public sector. The study points to two different organizations that have the potential capacities to act as mediators between the public and private sectors: international research institutions and non-governmental organizations.

  • 7. Morgan, Rosemary
    et al.
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza
    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth
    George, A. S.
    Gender dynamics affecting maternal health and health care access and use in Uganda2017In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 32, p. V13-V21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its reduction over the last decade, the maternal mortality rate in Uganda remains high, due to in part a lack of access to maternal health care. In an effort to increase access to care, a quasi-experimental trial using vouchers was implemented in Eastern Uganda between 2009 and 2011. Findings from the trial reported a dramatic increase in pregnant women's access to institutional delivery. Sustainability of such interventions, however, is an important challenge. While such interventions are able to successfully address immediate access barriers, such as lack of financial resources and transportation, they are reliant on external resources to sustain them and are not designed to address the underlying causes contributing to women's lack of access, including those related to gender. In an effort to examine ways to sustain the intervention beyond external financial resources, project implementers conducted a follow-up qualitative study to explore the root causes of women's lack of maternal health care access and utilization. Based on emergent findings, a gender analysis of the data was conducted to identify key gender dynamics affecting maternal health and maternal health care. This paper reports the key gender dynamics identified during the analysis, by detailing how gender power relations affect maternal health care access and utilization in relation to: access to resources; division of labour, including women's workload during and after pregnancy and lack of male involvement at health facilities; social norms, including perceptions of women's attitudes and behaviour during pregnancy, men's attitudes towards fatherhood, attitudes towards domestic violence, and health worker attitudes and behaviour; and decision-making. It concludes by discussing the need for integrating gender into maternal health care interventions if they are to address the root causes of barriers to maternal health access and utilization and improve access to and use of maternal health care in the long term.

  • 8. Robyn, Paul Jacob
    et al.
    Hill, Allan
    Liu, Yuanli
    Souares, Aurélia
    Savadogo, Germain
    Sié, Ali
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Econometric analysis to evaluate the effect of community-based health insurance on reducing informal self-care in Burkina Faso2012In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE This study examines the role of community-based health insurance (CBHI) in influencing health-seeking behaviour in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Community-based health insurance was introduced in Nouna district, Burkina Faso, in 2004 with the goal to improve access to contracted providers based at primary- and secondary-level facilities. The paper specifically examines the effect of CBHI enrolment on reducing the prevalence of seeking modern and traditional methods of self-treatment as the first choice in care among the insured population. METHODS Three stages of analysis were adopted to measure this effect. First, propensity score matching was used to minimize the observed baseline differences between the insured and uninsured populations. Second, through matching the average treatment effect on the treated, the effect of insurance enrolment on health-seeking behaviour was estimated. Finally, multinomial logistic regression was applied to model demand for available health care options, including no treatment, traditional self-treatment, modern self-treatment, traditional healers and facility-based care. RESULTS For the first choice in care sought, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of self-treatment among the insured and uninsured populations, reaching over 55% for each group. When comparing the alternative option of no treatment, CBHI played no significant role in reducing the demand for self-care (either traditional or modern) or utilization of traditional healers, while it did significantly increase consumption of facility-based care. The average treatment effect on the treated was insignificant for traditional self-care, modern self-care and traditional healer, but was significant with a positive effect for use of facility care. Discussion While CBHI does have a positive impact on facility care utilization, its effect on reducing the prevalence of self-care is limited. The policy recommendations for improving the CBHI scheme's responsiveness to population health care demand should incorporate community-based initiatives that offer attractive and appropriate alternatives to self-care.

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