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  • 1. Amroussia, Nada
    et al.
    Pearson, Jennifer L.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    What drives us apart?: Decomposing intersectional inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and sexual orientation among U.S. adults2019Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socio-economic and sexual orientation inequalities in cigarette smoking are well-documented; however, there is a lack of research examining the social processes driving these complex inequalities. Using an intersectional framework, the current study examines key processes contributing to inequalities in smoking between four intersectional groups by education and sexual orientation.

    Methods: The sample (28,362 adults) was obtained from Wave 2 (2014–2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Four intersectional positions were created by education (high- and low-education) and sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ). The joint inequality, the referent socio-economic inequality, and the referent sexual orientation inequality in smoking were decomposed by demographic, material, tobacco marketing-related, and psychosocial factors using non-linear Oaxaca decomposition.

    Results: Material conditions made the largest contribution to the joint inequality (9.8 percentage points (p.p.), 140.9%), referent socio-economic inequality (10.01 p.p., 128.4%), and referent sexual orientation inequality (4.91 p.p., 59.8%), driven by annual household income. Psychosocial factors made the second largest contributions to the joint inequality (2.12 p.p., 30.3%), referent socio-economic inequality (2.23 p.p., 28.9%), and referent sexual orientation inequality (1.68 p.p., 20.5%). Referent sexual orientation inequality was also explained by marital status (20.3%) and targeted tobacco marketing (11.3%).

    Conclusion: The study highlights the pervasive role of material conditions in inequalities in cigarette smoking across multiple dimensions of advantage and disadvantage. This points to the importance of addressing material disadvantage to reduce combined socioeconomic and sexual orientation inequalities in cigarette smoking.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Brandstetter-Hiltunen, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Knutsson, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Is it possible to identify patient´s sex when reading blinded illness narratives? An experimental study about gender bias2008Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 7, nr 21, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many diseases men and women, for no apparent medical reason, are not offered the same investigations and treatment in health care. This may be due to staff's stereotypical preconceptions about men and women, i.e., gender bias. In the clinical situation it is difficult to know whether gender differences in management reflect physicians' gender bias or male and female patients' different needs or different ways of expressing their needs. To shed some light on these possibilities this study investigated to what extent it was possible to identify patients' sex when reading their blinded illness narratives, i.e., do male and female patients express themselves differently enough to be recognised as men and women without being categorised on beforehand?

    Methods: Eighty-one authentic letters about being diseased by cancer were blinded regarding sex and read by 130 students of medicine and psychology. For each letter the participants were asked to give the author's sex and to explain their choice. The success rates were analysed statistically. To illuminate the participants' reasoning the explanations of four letters were analysed qualitatively.

    Results: The patient's sex was correctly identified in 62% of the cases, with significantly higher rates in male narratives. There were no differences between male and female participants. In the qualitative analysis the choice of a male writer was explained by: a short letter; formal language; a focus on facts and a lack of emotions. In contrast the reasons for the choice of a woman were: a long letter; vivid language; mention of emotions and interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, the same expressions were interpreted differently depending on whether the participant believed the writer to be male or female.

    Conclusion: It was possible to detect gender differences in the blinded illness narratives. The students' explanations for their choice of sex agreed with common gender stereotypes implying that such stereotypes correspond, at least on a group level, to differences in male and female patients' illness descriptions. However, it was also obvious that preconceptions about gender obstructed and biased the interpretations, a finding with implications for the understanding of gender bias in clinical practice.

  • 3.
    Boldis, Beáta Vivien
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Unsafe and unequal: a decomposition analysis of income inequalities in fear of crime in northern Sweden2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is not solely an individual concern, but as a social determinant of health structured by gender it also poses a threat to public health. Social inequalities are thought to represent a breeding ground for fear of crime, which subsequently may contribute to social inequalities in health. However, little research has focused on social inequalities in fear of crime, particularly in Sweden where the level of fear of crime and income and gender inequalities are comparatively low. With a conceptual model as a point of departure, the present study aimed to estimate and decompose income-related inequalities and explore gender differences in fear of crime in northern Sweden.

    METHODS: Participants (N = 22,140; 10,220 men and 11,920 women aged 16 to 84 years) came from the Health on Equal Terms cross-sectional survey with linked register data, carried out in the four northernmost counties of Sweden in 2014. Disposable income was used as the socio-economic indicator, fear of crime as the binary outcome variable, and sociodemographic characteristics, residential context, socio-economic and material conditions and psychosocial conditions as explanatory factors. Concentration curve and concentration index were used to estimate the income inequality in fear of crime, and decomposition analysis to identify the key determinants of the inequalities, in collapsed and gender-stratified analyses.

    RESULTS: Substantial gender differences were found in the prevalence of fear of crime (20.8% in women and 3.5% and men) and among the contributing factors to fear of crime. Additionally, the analyses revealed considerable income inequalities in fear of crime in the northern Swedish context (C = - 0.219). Gender, socio-economic and material, and psychosocial conditions explained the most in income inequalities of fear of crime in the total population.

    CONCLUSIONS: The existing gender and socio-economic inequities need to be approached as a greater structural problem to mitigate inequalities in fear of crime. Further research is needed to reveal more aspects of income inequalities in fear of crime and to develop efforts to create safe environments for all.

  • 4. Bozorgmehr, Kayvan
    et al.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Brenner, Hermann
    Razum, Oliver
    Maier, Werner
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    Holleczek, Bernd
    Miksch, Antje
    Szecsenyi, Joachim
    Analysing horizontal equity in enrolment in Disease Management Programmes for coronary heart disease in Germany 2008-20102015Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disease Management Programmes (DMPs) have been introduced in Germany ten years ago with the aim to improve effectiveness and equity of care, but little is known about the degree to which enrolment in the programme meets the principles of equity in health care. We aimed to analyse horizontal equity in DMP enrolment among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of horizontal inequities in physician-reported enrolment in the DMP for CHD in a large population-based cohort-study in Germany (2008-2010). We calculated horizontal inequity indices (HII) and their 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] for predicted need-standardised DMP enrolment across two measures of socio-economic status (SES) (educational attainment, regional deprivation) stratified by sex. Need-standardised DMP enrolment was predicted in multi-level logistic regression models. Results: Among N = 1,280 individuals aged 55-84 years and diagnosed with CHD, DMP enrolment rates were 22.2% (women) and 35.0% (men). Education-related inequities in need-standardised DMP enrolment favoured groups with lower education, but HII estimates were not significant. Deprivation-related inequities among women significantly favoured groups with higher SES (HII = 0.086 [0.007; 0.165]. No such deprivation-related inequities were seen among men (HII = 0.014 [-0.048; 0.077]). Deprivation-related inequities across the whole population favoured groups with higher SES (HII estimates not significant). Conclusion: Need-standardised DMP enrolment was fairly equitable across educational levels. Deprivation-related inequities in DMP enrolment favoured women living in less deprived areas relative to those living in areas with higher deprivation. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to deprivation-related horizontal inequities in DMP enrolment among women.

  • 5.
    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante Public Health Research Group, San Vicente del Raspeig RoadAlicante, Spain.
    Agudelo-Suarez, Andres A
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Antioquia, Street 67Medellín, Colombia.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante Public Health Research Group, San Vicente del Raspeig RoadAlicante, Spain; CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Carlos III Institute of Health, Street Melchor Fernández AlmagroMadrid, Spain.
    Economic crisis, immigrant women and changing availability of intimate partner violence services: a qualitative study of professionals' perceptions in Spain2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Since 2008, Spain has been in the throes of an economic crisis. This recession particularly affects the living conditions of vulnerable populations, and has also led to a reversal in social policies and a reduction in resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to explore intimate partner violence (IPV) service providers' perceptions of the impact of the current economic crisis on these resources in Spain and on their capacity to respond to immigrant women's needs experiencing IPV. Methods: A qualitative study was performed based on 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews to social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, police officers and health professionals from different services dealing with IPV (both, public and NGO's) and cities in Spain (Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia and Alicante) in 2011. Transcripts were imported into qualitative analysis software (Atlas.ti), and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: We identified four categories related to the perceived impact of the current economic crisis: a) "Immigrant women have it harder now", b) "IPV and immigration resources are the first in line for cuts", c) " Fewer staff means a less effective service" and d) "Equality and IPV policies are no longer a government priority". A cross-cutting theme emerged from these categories: immigrant women are triply affected; by IPV, by the crisis, and by structural violence. Conclusion: The professionals interviewed felt that present resources in Spain are insufficient to meet the needs of immigrant women, and that the situation might worsen in the future.

  • 6.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Health inequalities between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis of social determinants for mental health2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, nr 59, artikkel-id 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden.

    Methods: The Health on Equal Terms survey of 2014 was used, with self-reported employment (unemployed or employed) as exposure and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as mental health outcome. The social determinants of health inequalities were grouped into four dimensions: socioeconomic status, economic resources, social network and trust in institutional systems. The non-linear Oaxaca decomposition analysis was applied, stratified by gender and age groups.

    Results: Mental health inequality was found in all age groups among women and men (difference in GHQ varying between 0.12 and 0.20). The decomposition analysis showed 43–51% of the total inequality among youths, 42–98% among adults and 60–65% among middle-aged. The main contributing factors were shown to vary between age groups: cash margin (among youths and middle-aged men), financial strain (among adults and middle-aged women), income (among men in adulthood), along with trust in others (all age groups), practical support (young women) and social support (middle-aged men); stressing how the social determinants of health inequalities vary across the life course.

    Conclusions: The health gap between employments was explained by the difference in access to economic and social resources, and to a smaller extent in the trust in the institutional systems. Findings from this study corroborate that much of the mental health inequality in the Swedish labour market is socially and politically produced and potentially avoidable. Greater attention from researchers, policy makers on unemployment and public health should be devoted to the social and economic deprivation of unemployment from a life course perspective to prevent mental health inequality.

  • 7.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Science, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, SE-105 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mikael, Mikael
    Department of Public Health Science, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, SE-105 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Department of Public Health Science, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, SE-105 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social integration and mental health - a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between the foreign-born and native-born in Sweden2019Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The increasing mental health inequalities between native- and foreign-born persons in Sweden is an important public health issue. Improving social integration has been stressed as a key strategy to combat this development. While a vast amount of studies have confirmed the importance of social integration for good mental health, less is known about the role of different types of social integration, and how they relate to mental health inequalities. This study aimed to examine the extent to which indicators of social integration explained mental health inequalities between the native- and foreign-born.

    METHODS: Based on the Health on Equal Terms survey from 2011/2015 in Västra Götaland, Sweden (n = 71,643), a non-linear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis was performed comparing native- and foreign-born individuals from Nordic-, European- and non-European countries. The General Health Questionnaire was used to assess psychological distress, while 11 items assessed employment conditions and economic disparities, social relations, and experiences of discrimination to measure different aspects of social integration.

    RESULTS: Differences in social integration explained large proportions of observed mental health differences between the native- and foreign-born. Important indicators included low levels of social activity (20%), trust in others (17%) and social support (16%), but also labour market disadvantages, such as being outside the labour market (15%), unemployment (10%) and experiencing financial strain (16%). In analyses stratified by region of origin, low trust in others and discrimination contributed to the mental health gap between the native-born and European-born (17 and 9%, respectively), and the native-born and non-European-born (19 and 10%, respectively). Precarious labour market position was a particularly important factor in the mental health gap between the native-born and Nordic-origin (22%), and non-European origin (36%) populations.

    CONCLUSION: Social integration factors play a central role in explaining the mental health inequality between natives and migrants in Sweden. Our findings suggest that public health actions targeting mental health gaps could benefit from focusing on inequalities in social and economic recourses between natives and migrants in Sweden. Areas of priority include improving migrants' financial strain, as well as increasing trust in others and social support and opportunities for civic engagement.

  • 8.
    Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Delegación Territorial de Igualdad, Salud y Políticas Sociales de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio
    Delegación Territorial de Igualdad, Salud y Políticas Sociales de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.
    Martínez-Faure, Jesús Enrique
    Empresa Pública de Emergencias Sanitarias, Cádiz, Spain.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex.

    METHODS: The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003-2007) and five years after its onset (2008-2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed.

    RESULTS: A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the association of unemployment with growing suicidal behaviour in men. Research on the suicide effects of the economic crisis may need to take into account earlier stages of the suicidal process, and that this effect may differ by age and sex.

  • 9. Daniels, Karen
    et al.
    Loewenson, Rene
    George, Asha
    Howard, Natasha
    Koleva, Gergana
    Lewin, Simon
    Marchal, Bruno
    Nambiar, Devaki
    Paina, Ligia
    Sacks, Emma
    Sheikh, Kabir
    Tetui, Moses
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Makerere University School of Public Health, Makerere, Uganda.
    Theobald, Sally
    Topp, Stephanie M.
    Zwi, Anthony B.
    Fair publication of qualitative research in health systems: a call by health policy and systems researchers2016Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10. Dei, Vincent
    et al.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Is healthcare really equal for all?: Assessing the horizontal and vertical equity in healthcare utilisation among older Ghanaians2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a lack of focused research on the older population in Ghana and about issues pertaining to their access to healthcare services. Furthermore, information is lacking regarding the fairness in the access to these services. This study aimed to ascertain whether horizontal and vertical equity requirements were being met in the healthcare utilisation among older adults aged 50 years and above. Methods: This study was based on a secondary cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing (SAGE) and adult health wave 1 conducted from 2007 to 2008 in Ghana. Data on 4304 older adults aged 50 years-plus were analysed. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were carried out to analyse the association between outpatient/inpatient utilisation and (1) socioeconomic status (SES), controlling for need variables (horizontal equity) and (2) need variables, controlling for SES (vertical equity). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to analyse the association between relevant variables. Results: Horizontal and vertical inequities were found in the utilisation of outpatient services. Inpatient healthcare utilisation was both horizontally and vertically equitable. Women were found to be more likely to use outpatient services than men but had reduced odds of using inpatient services. Possessing a health insurance was also significantly associated with the use of both inpatient and outpatient services. Conclusion: Whilst equity exists in inpatient care utilisation, more needs to be done to achieve equity in the access to outpatient services. The study reaffirms the need to evaluate both the horizontal and vertical dimensions in the assessment of equity in healthcare access. It provides the basis for further research in bridging the healthcare access inequity gap among older adults in Ghana.

  • 11.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Oyolola, Maharouf
    Mutua, Martin Kavao
    Elung'ata, Patricia
    Determinants of immunization inequality among urban poor children: evidence from Nairobi's informal settlements2015Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Despite the relentless efforts to reduce infant and child mortality with the introduction of the National Expanded Programmes on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, major disparities still exist in immunizations coverage across different population sub-groups. In Kenya, for instance, while the proportion of fully immunized children increased from 57% in 2003 to 77% in 2008-9 at national level and 73% in Nairobi, only 58% of children living in informal settlement areas are fully immunized. The study aims to determine the degree and determinants of immunization inequality among the urban poor of Nairobi.

    Method: We used data from the Nairobi Cross-Sectional Slum Survey of 2012 and the health outcome was full immunization status among children aged 12-23 months. The wealth index was used as a measure of social economic position for inequality analysis. The potential determinants considered included sex of the child and mother's education, their occupation, age at birth of the child, and marital status. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality and decomposition approach to assess determinants of inequality in immunization.

    Results: The CI for not fully immunized was -0.08 indicating that immunization inequality is mainly concentrated among children from poor families. Decomposition of the results suggests that 78% of this inequality is largely explained by the mother's level of education.

    Conclusion: There exists immunization inequality among urban poor children in Nairobi and efforts to reduce this inequality should aim at targeting mothers with low level of education during immunization campaigns.

  • 12.
    Elwer, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Alex, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health2012Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in) equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences.

    Methods: All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups.

    Results: We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in) equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender.

    Conclusion: The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in) equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  • 13. Escolar Pujolar, Antonio
    et al.
    Bacigalupe, Amaia
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Looking beyond the veil of the European crisis: the need to uncover the structural causes of health inequalities2016Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio
    et al.
    Delegación Territorial de Igualdad, Salud y Políticas Sociales, Junta de Andalucía, Cádiz, Spain.
    Bacigalupe, Amaia
    Department of Sociology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    European economic crisis and health inequities: research challenges in an uncertain scenario2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, s. 59-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Carson, Dean
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Demography and Growth Planning, Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Centre for Rural Medicine, Storuman, Sweden.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Health care access for rural youth on equal terms?: A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population.

    METHODS: The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care.

    DISCUSSION: The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

  • 16.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Unintended pregnancy in the amazon basin of Ecuador: a multilevel analysis2010Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 9, s. 14-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study showed the significance of individual factors in increasing the risk of unintended pregnancy, while the role of community factors was found to be negligible. In order for all women to be able to realize their right to reproductive autonomy, there needs to be a diverse range of solutions, with particular attention paid to cultural issues.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Linander, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Mosquera, Paola A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Embodying pervasive discrimination: a decomposition of sexual orientation inequalities in health in a population-based cross-sectional study in Northern Sweden.2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies from Sweden and abroad have established health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual people. Few studies have examined the underpinnings of such sexual orientation inequalities in health. To expand this literature, the present study aimed to employ decomposition analysis to explain health inequalities between people with heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation in Sweden, a country with an international reputation for heeding the human rights of non-heterosexual people.

    METHODS: Participants (N = 23,446) came from a population-based cross-sectional survey in the four northernmost counties in Sweden in 2014. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires, covering sexual orientation, mental and general physical health, social conditions and unmet health care needs, and sociodemographic data was retrieved from total population registers. Sexual orientation inequalities in health were decomposed by Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    RESULTS: Results showed noticeable mental and general health inequalities between heterosexual and non-heterosexual orientation groups. Health inequalities were partly explained (total explained fraction 64-74%) by inequalities in degrading treatment (24-26% of the explained fraction), but to a considerable degree also by material conditions (38-45%) and unmet care needs (25-43%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial experiences may be insufficient to explain and understand health inequalities by sexual orientation in a reputedly 'gay-friendly' setting. Less overt forms of structural discrimination may need to be considered to capture the pervasive material discrimination that seems to underpin the embodiment of sexual minority inequalities. This ought to be taken into consideration in research, policy-making and monitoring aiming to work towards equity in health across sexual orientations.

  • 18. Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan
    et al.
    Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Lafort, Yves
    Beksinska, Mags
    Rambally, Letitia
    Roy, Anuradha
    Reza-Paul, Sushena
    Ombidi, Wilkister
    Gichangi, Peter
    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
    Inequity in costs of seeking sexual and reproductive health services in India and Kenya2015Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aims to assess inequity in expenditure on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in India and Kenya. In addition, this analysis aims to measure the extent to which payments are catastrophic and to explore coping mechanisms used to finance health spending. Methods: Data for this study were collected as a part of the situational analysis for the "Diagonal Interventions to Fast Forward Enhanced Reproductive Health" (DIFFER) project, a multi-country project with fieldwork sites in three African sites; Mombasa (Kenya), Durban (South Africa) and Tete (Mozambique), and Mysore in India. Information on access to SRH services, the direct costs of seeking care and a range of socio-economic variables were obtained through structured exit interviews with female SRH service users in Mysore (India) and Mombasa (Kenya) (n = 250). The costs of seeking care were analysed by household income quintile (as a measure of socio-economic status). The Kakwani index and quintile ratios are used as measures of inequitable spending. Catastrophic spending on SRH services was calculated using the threshold of 10 % of total household income. Results: The results showed that spending on SRH services was highly regressive in both sites, with lower income households spending a higher percentage of their income on seeking care, compared to households with a higher income. Spending on SRH as a percentage of household income ranged from 0.02 to 6.2 % and 0.03-7.5 % in India and Kenya, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of spending on SRH services across income quintiles in both settings. In India, the poorest households spent two times, and in Kenya ten times, more on seeking care than the least poor households. The most common coping mechanisms in India and Kenya were "receiving [money] from partner or household members" (69 %) and "using own savings or regular income" (44 %), respectively. Conclusion: Highly regressive spending on SRH services highlights the heavier burden borne by the poorest when seeking care in resource-constrained settings such as India and Kenya. The large proportion of service users, particularly in India, relying on money received from family members to finance care seeking suggests that access would be more difficult for those with weak social ties, small social networks or weak bargaining positions within the family - although this requires further study.

  • 19. Hernandez, Alison
    et al.
    Ruano, Ana Lorena
    Marchal, Bruno
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Flores, Walter
    Engaging with complexity to improve the health of indigenous people: a call for the use of systems thinking to tackle health inequity2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 400 million indigenous people worldwide represent a wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity, as well as traditional knowledge and sustainable practices that are invaluable resources for human development. However, indigenous people remain on the margins of society in high, middle and low-income countries, and they bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and mortality compared to the general population. These inequalities have persisted, and in some countries have even worsened, despite the overall improvements in health indicators in relation to the 15-year push to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As we enter the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing consensus that efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and promote sustainable development should be guided by the moral imperative to improve equity. To achieve this, we need to move beyond the reductionist tendency to frame indigenous health as a problem of poor health indicators to be solved through targeted service delivery tactics and move towards holistic, integrated approaches that address the causes of inequalities both inside and outside the health sector. To meet the challenge of engaging with the conditions underlying inequalities and promoting transformational change, equity-oriented research and practice in the field of indigenous health requires: engaging power, context-adapted strategies to improve service delivery, and mobilizing networks of collective action. The application of systems thinking approaches offers a pathway for the evolution of equity-oriented research and practice in collaborative, politically informed and mutually enhancing efforts to understand and transform the systems that generate and reproduce inequities in indigenous health. These approaches hold the potential to strengthen practice through the development of more nuanced, context-sensitive strategies for redressing power imbalances, reshaping the service delivery environment and fostering the dynamics of collective action for political reform.

  • 20.
    Hernández, Alison R
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Dahlblom, Kjerstin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Integrating views on support for mid-level health worker performance: a concept mapping study with regional health system actors in rural Guatemala2015Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Mid-level health workers are on the front-lines in underserved areas in many LMICs, and their performance is critical for improving the health of vulnerable populations. However, improving performance in low-resource settings is complex and highly dependent on the organizational context of local health systems. This study aims to examine the views of actors from different levels of a regional health system in Guatemala on actions to support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of mid-level health workers with a prominent role in public sector service delivery. A concept mapping study was carried out to develop an integrated view on organizational support and identify locally relevant strategies for strengthening performance.

    METHODS: A total of 93 regional and district managers, and primary and secondary care health workers participated in generating ideas on actions needed to support auxiliary nurses' performance. Ideas were consolidated into 30 action items, which were structured through sorting and rating exercises, involving a total of 135 of managers and health workers. Maps depicting participants' integrated views on domains of action and dynamics in sub-groups' interests were generated using a sequence of multivariate statistical analyses, and interpreted by regional managers.

    RESULTS: The combined input of health system actors provided a multi-faceted view of actions needed to support performance, which were organized in six domains, including: Communication and coordination, Tools to orient work, Organizational climate of support, Motivation through recognition, Professional development and Skills development. The nature of relationships across hierarchical levels was identified as a cross-cutting theme. Pattern matching and go-zone maps indicated directions for action based on areas of consensus and difference across sub-groups of actors.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that auxiliary nurses' performance is interconnected with the performance of other health system actors who require support, including managers and community-level collaborators. Organizational climate is critical for making auxiliary nurses feel supported, and greater attention to improving the quality of hierarchical relationships is needed in LMIC settings. The participatory nature of the concept-mapping process enabled health system actors to collaborate in co-production of context-specific knowledge needed to guide efforts to strengthen performance in a vulnerable region.

  • 21.
    Jat, Tej Ram
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Factors affecting the use of maternal health services in Madhya Pradesh state of India: a multilevel analysis2011Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 59-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Improving maternal health is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. It is widely accepted that the use of maternal health services helps in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The utilization of maternal health services is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors. Therefore, the factors at different levels affecting the use of these services need to be clearly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of individual, community and district level characteristics on the utilisation of maternal health services with special reference to antenatal care (ANC), skilled attendance at delivery and postnatal care (PNC).

    Methods This study was designed as a cross sectional study. Data from 15,782 ever married women aged 15-49 years residing in Madhya Pradesh state of India who participated in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) 2007-08 were used for this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed accounting for individual, community and district level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. Type of residence at community level and ratio of primary health center to population and percent of tribal population in the district were included as district level variables in this study.

    Results The results of this study showed that 61.7% of the respondents used ANC at least once during their most recent pregnancy whereas only 37.4% women received PNC within two weeks of delivery. In the last delivery, 49.8% mothers were assisted by skilled personnel. There was considerable amount of variation in the use of maternal health services at community and district levels. About 40% and 14% of the total variance in the use of ANC, 29% and 8% of the total variance in the use of skilled attendance at delivery and 28% and 8.5% of the total variance in the use of PNC was attributable to differences across communities and districts, respectively. When controlled for individual, community and district level factors, the variances in the use of skilled attendance at delivery attributed to the differences across communities and districts were reduced to 15% and 4.3% respectively. There were only marginal reductions observed in the variance at community and district level for ANC and PNC use. The household socio-economic status and mother's education were the most important factors associated with the use of ANC and skilled attendance at delivery. The community level variable was only significant for ANC and skilled attendance at delivery but not for PNC. None of the district level variables used in this study were found to be influential factors for the use of maternal health services.

    Conclusions We found sufficient amount of variations at community and district of residence on each of the three indicators of the use of maternal health services. For increasing the utilisation of these services in the state, in addition to individual-level, there is a strong need to identify and focus on community and district-level interventions.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Intragenerational social mobility and functional somatic symptoms in a northern Swedish context: analyses of diagonal reference models2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research indicate that social class mobility could be potentially important for health, but whether this is due to the movement itself or a result of people having been integrated in different class contexts is, to date, difficult to infer. In addition, although several theories suggest that transitions between classes in the social hierarchy can be stressful experiences, few studies have empirically examined whether such movements may have health effects, over and above the implications of "being" in these classes. In an attempt to investigate whether intragenerational social mobility is associated with functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood, the current study tests three partially contrasting theories.

    METHOD: The dissociative theory suggests that mobility in general and upward mobility in particular may be linked to psychological distress, while the falling from grace theory indicates that downward mobility is especially stressful. In contrast, the acculturation theory holds that the health implications of social mobility is not due to the movement itself but attributed to the class contexts in which people find themselves. Diagonal Reference Models were used on a sample of 924 individuals who in 1981 graduated from 9(th) grade in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden. Social mobility was operationalized as change in occupational class between age 30 and 42 (measured in 1995 and 2007). The health outcome was functional somatic symptoms at age 42, defined as a clustering self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties during the last 12 months.

    RESULTS: Overall mobility was not associated with higher levels of functional somatic symptoms compared to being immobile (p = 0.653). After controlling for prior and current class, sex, parental social position, general health, civil status, education and unemployment, the association between downward mobility was borderline significant (p = 0.055) while upward mobility was associated with lower levels of functional somatic symptoms (p = 0.03).

    CONCLUSION: The current study did not find unanimous support for any of the theories. Nevertheless, it sheds light on the possibility that upward mobility may be beneficial to reduce stress-related health problems in mid-life over and above the exposure to prior and current class, while downward mobility can be of less importance for middle-age health complaints.

  • 23. Kailembo, Alexander
    et al.
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, Australia.
    Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that oral conditions affect 3.5 billion people worldwide with a higher burden among older adults and those who are socially and economically disadvantaged. Studies of inequalities in the use of oral health services by those in need have been conducted in high-income countries but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. This study measures and describes socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over, in China, Ghana and India.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of national survey data from the WHO SAGE Wave 1 (2007-2010) was conducted. Study samples in China (n = 1591), Ghana (n = 425) and India (n = 1307) were conditioned on self-reported need for oral health services in the previous 12 months. The binary dependent variable, unmet need for oral health services, was derived from questions about self-reported need and service use. Prevalence was estimated by country. Unmet need was measured and compared in terms of relative levels of education and household wealth. The methods were logistic regression and the relative index of inequality (RII). Models were adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, marital status, work status and self-rated health.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of unmet need was 60, 80, and 62% in China, Ghana and India respectively. The adjusted RII for education was statistically significant for China (1.5, 95% CI:1.2-1.9), Ghana (1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), and India (1.5, 95% CI:1.2-2.0), whereas the adjusted RII for wealth was significant only in Ghana (1.3, 95% CI:1.1-1.6). Male sex was significantly associated with self-reported unmet need for oral health services in India.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given rapid population ageing, further evidence of socioeconomic inequalities in unmet need for oral health services by older adults in LMICs is needed to inform policies to mitigate inequalities in the availability of oral health services. Oral health is a universal public health issue requiring attention and action on multiple levels and across the public private divide.

  • 24.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Minh, HV
    Giang, KB
    Dao, A
    Tuan, LT
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam2016Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment indices offer guidance for developing appropriate health policies and intervention programs to decrease financial inequity. This study assesses socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in relation to self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCD) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2013 in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. We estimated catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment using information from 492 slum household and 528 non-slum households. We calculated concentration indexes to assess socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. Factors associated with catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment were modelled using logistic regression analysis. Results: The poor households in both slum and non-slum areas were at higher risk of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure, while only the poor households in slum areas were at higher risk of impoverishment because of healthcare spending. Households with at least one member reporting an NCD were significantly more likely to face catastrophic health expenditure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.8-4.0) and impoverishment (OR = 2.3; 95 % CI, 1.1-6.3) compared to households without NCDs. In addition, households in slum areas, with people age 60 years and above, and belonging to the poorest socioeconomic group were significantly associated with increased catastrophic health expenditure, while only households that lived in slum areas, and belonging to the poor or poorest socioeconomic groups were significantly associated with increased impoverishment because of healthcare spending. Conclusion: Financial interventions to prevent catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment should target poor households, especially those with family members suffering from NCDs, with older members and those located in slum areas in Hanoi Vietnam. Potential interventions derived from this study include targeting and monitoring of health insurance enrolment, and developing a specialized NCD service package for Vietnam's social health insurance program.

  • 25.
    Krishnan, Anand
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Amarchand, Ritvik
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Pandav, Chandrakant
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    "No one says 'No' to money": a mixed methods approach for evaluating conditional cash transfer schemes to improve girl children's status in Haryana, India.2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 11-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Haryana was the first state in India to launch a conditional cash transfer (CCT) scheme in 1994. Initially it targeted all disadvantaged girls but was revised in 2005 to restrict it to second girl children of all groups. The benefit which accrued at girl attaining 18 years and subject to conditionalities of being fully immunized, studying till class 10 and remaining unmarried, was increased from about US$ 500 to US$ 2000. Using a mixed methods approach, we evaluated the implementation and possible impact of these two schemes.

    METHODS: A survey was conducted among 200 randomly selected respondents of Ballabgarh Block in Haryana to assess their perceptions of girl children and related schemes. A cohort of births during this period was assembled from population database of 28 villages in this block and changes in sex ratio at birth and in immunization coverage at one year of age among boys and girls was measured. Education levels and mean age at marriage of daughters were compared with daughters-in-law from outside Haryana. In-depth interviews were conducted among district level implementers of these schemes to assess their perceptions of programs' implementation and impact. These were analyzed using a thematic approach.

    RESULTS: The perceptions of girls as a liability and poor (9% to 15%) awareness of the schemes was noted. The cohort analysis showed that while there has been an improvement in the indicators studied, these were similar to those seen among the control groups. Qualitative analysis identified a "conspiracy of silence" - an underplaying of the pervasiveness of the problem coupled with a passive implementation of the program and a clash between political culture of giving subsidies and a bureaucratic approach that imposed many conditionalities and documentary needs for availing of benefits.

    CONCLUSION: The apparent lack of impact on the societal mindset calls for a revision in the current approach of addressing a social issue by a purely conditional cash transfer program.

  • 26.
    Kunna, Rasha
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle.
    Measurement and decomposition of socioeconomic inequality in single and multimorbidity in older adults in China and Ghana: results from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikkel-id 79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Globally people are living longer and enduring non-communicable diseases (NCDs) many of which co-occur as multimorbidity. Demographic and socioeconomic factors are determinants of inequalities and inequities in health. There is a need for country-specific evidence of NCD inequalities in developing countries where populations are ageing rapidly amid economic and social change. The study measures and decomposes socioeconomic inequality in single and multiple NCD morbidity in adults aged 50 and over in China and Ghana.

    METHODS: The data source is the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010). Nationally representative cross-sectional data collected from adults in China (n = 11,814) and Ghana (n = 4,050) are analysed. Country populations are ranked by a socioeconomic index based on ownership of household assets. The study uses a decomposed concentration index (CI) of single and multiple NCD morbidity (multimorbidity) covering arthritis, diabetes, angina, stroke, asthma, depression, chronic lung disease and hypertension. The CI quantifies the extent of overall inequality on each morbidity measure. The decomposition utilises a regression-based approach to examine individual contributions of demographic and socioeconomic factors, or determinants, to the overall inequality.

    RESULTS: In China, the prevalence of single and multiple NCD morbidity was 64.7% and 53.4%, compared with 65.9% and 55.5% respectively in Ghana. Inequalities were significant and more highly concentrated among the poor in China (single morbidity CI = -0.0365: 95% CI = -0.0689,-0.0040; multimorbidity CI = -0.0801: 95% CI = -0.1233,-0.0368;). In Ghana inequalities were significant and more highly concentrated among the rich (single morbidity CI = 0.1182; 95% CI = 0.0697, 0.1668; multimorbidity CI = 0.1453: 95% CI = 0.0794, 0.2083). In China, rural residence contributed most to inequality in single morbidity (36.4%) and the wealth quintiles contributed most to inequality in multimorbidity (39.0%). In Ghana, the wealth quintiles contributed 24.5% to inequality in single morbidity and body mass index contributed 16.2% to the inequality in multimorbidity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The country comparison reflects different stages of economic development and social change in China and Ghana. More studies of this type are needed to inform policy-makers about the patterning of socioeconomic inequalities in health, particularly in developing countries undergoing rapid epidemiological and demographic transitions.

  • 27. Lorena Ruano, Ana
    et al.
    Shadmi, Efrat
    Furler, John
    Rao, Krishna
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Uribe, Manuela Villar
    Shi, Leiyu
    Looking forward to the next 15 years: innovation and new pathways for research in health equity2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since our launch in 2002, the International Journal for Equity in Health (IJEqH) has furthered our collective understanding of equity in health and health services by providing a platform on which academics and practitioners can share their work. Today, we celebrate our fifteenth anniversary with an article collection that presents a call for new and novel research in equity in health and we invite our authors to use new approaches and methods, and to focus on emerging areas of research related to health equity in order to set the stage for the next fifteen years of health equity research. Our anniversary issue provides a platform for expanding the conceptualization, diversity of populations and study designs, and for increasing the use of novel methodologies in the field. The IJEqH has helped to support the wider group of researchers, policymakers and practitioners with a commitment to social justice and equity but there is still more to do. With the help of the highly committed editorial team and editorial board, the innovative work of researchers worldwide, and the countless of hours dedicated by hundreds of reviewers, we are confident in the IJEqH's ability to continue supporting the dissemination of health equity research for years to come.

  • 28.
    Lusey, Hendrew
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. World Council of Churches, Central Africa Regional Coordinator of the Ecumenical HIV and AIDS Initiative in Africa (EHAIA), Kinshasa Gombe, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Edin, Kerstin E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Factors associated with gender equality among church-going young men in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While women and girls are made vulnerable by inequitable and violent versions of masculinities, there is increasing evidence that gender equality will not be achieved without partnering with men. The aim of this study was to assess gender-equitable norms and their determinants among church-going young men in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 289 church-going young men, aged 18-24 years, residing in three disadvantaged communes of Kinshasa. Variables included sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards gender equality and responses to issues related to the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) scale. Logistic regression was applied to identify the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes and the GEM scale.

    Results: The findings provide evidence of attitudes and beliefs that act as barriers to gender equality. For instance, the majority of church-going young men (83.74%) agreed that a man is the only decision maker in the home and about half (50.87%) of the respondents supported the statement "There are times a woman deserves to be beaten". Similarly, around half of the participants agreed with the idea of men's uncontrollable sex drive (50.87%) and men's toughness (50.17%). Close to half of the participants (44.29%) agreed that it is women's responsibility to prevent pregnancy. These attitudes co-existed with a few gender-equitable norms as 82.70% agreed on the importance of joint decisions concerning family planning. An association between education, certain places of residence, being single or separated, and supportive attitudes towards gender equality was found with higher scores for the GEM.

    Conclusion: Our study findings indicate that a high proportion of church-going young men do not endorse gender-equitable norms. Therefore, churches urgently need comprehensive gender equality and masculinity policies and programmes to influence young men's attitudes and behaviours. The promotion of gender equality in schools and the wider community also need to be encouraged.

  • 29.
    Mamani-Ortiz, Yercin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Biomedical and Social Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastián Chasco, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Armaza Céspedes, Ada Ximena
    Luizaga López, Jenny Marcela
    Illanes Velarde, Daniel Elving
    Mosquera Méndez, Paola A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Underpinnings of entangled ethnical and gender inequalities in obesity in Cochabamba-Bolivia: an intersectional approach2019Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in obesity have been observed not only by gender but also between ethnic groups. Evidence on combined dimensions of inequality in health, and specifically including indigenous populations, is however scarce, and presents a particularly daunting challenge for successful prevention and control of obesity in Bolivia, as well as worldwide.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were i) to examine intersectional inequalities in obesity and ii) to identify the factors underlying the observed intersectional inequalities.

    METHODS: An intersectional approach study was employed, using the information collected in a cross-sectional community-based survey. The sample consisted of youth and adults with permanent residence in Cochabamba department (N = 5758), selected through a multistage sampling technique. An adapted version of the WHO-STEPS survey was used to collect information about Abdominal obesity and risk factors associated. Four intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and ethnic group (indigenous vs. mestizo). Joint and excess intersectional disparities in obesity were estimated as absolute prevalence differences between binary groups, using binomial regression models. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was applied to estimate the contributions of explanatory factors underlying the observed intersectional disparities, using Oaxaca command in Stata software v15.1.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of abdominal obesity had a higher prevalence in mestizos (men 35.01% and women 30.71%) as compared to indigenous (men 25.38% and women 27.75%). The joint disparity was estimated at 7.26 percentage points higher prevalence in the doubly advantaged mestizo men than in the doubly disadvantaged indigenous women. The gender referent disparity showed that mestizo-women had a higher prevalence than indigenous-women. The ethnic referent disparity showed that mestizo-men had a higher prevalence than indigenous men. The behavioural risk factors were the most important to explain the observed inequalities, while differences in socioeconomic and demographic factors played a less important role.

    CONCLUSION: Our study illustrates that abdominal obesity is not distributed according to expected patterns of structural disadvantage in the intersectional space of ethnicity and gender in Bolivia. In the Cochabamba case, a high social advantage was related to higher rates of abdominal obesity, as well as the behavioural risk factors associated with them.

  • 30.
    Mosquera Mendez, Paola A
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hernandez, Jinneth
    Postgraduate programs in Health Administration and Public Health, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia.
    Vega, Roman
    Postgraduate programs in Health Administration and Public Health, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia.
    Martinez, Jorge
    Postgraduate programs in Health Administration and Public Health, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia.
    Labonte, Ronald
    Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Sanders, David
    School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The impact of primary healthcare in reducing inequalities in child health outcomes, Bogota, Colombia: an ecological analysis2012Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colombia is one of the countries with the widest levels of socioeconomic and health inequalities. Bogota, its capital, faces serious problems of poverty, social disparities and access to health services. A Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy was implemented in 2004 to improve health care and to address the social determinants of such inequalities. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the PHC strategy to reducing inequalities in child health outcomes in Bogota.

    Methods: An ecological analysis with localities as the unit of analysis was carried out. The variable used to capture the socioeconomic status and living standards was the Quality of Life Index (QLI). Concentration curves and concentration indices for four child health outcomes (infant mortality rate (IMR), under-5 mortality rate, prevalence of acute malnutrition in children under-5, and vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) were calculated to measure socioeconomic inequality. Two periods were used to describe possible changes in the magnitude of the inequalities related with the PHC implementation (2003 year before - 2007 year after implementation). The contribution of the PHC intervention was computed by a decomposition analysis carried out on data from 2007.

    Results: In both 2003 and 2007, concentration curves and indexes of IMR, under-5 mortality rate and acute malnutrition showed inequalities to the disadvantage of localities with lower QLI. Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccinations were more prevalent among localities with higher QLI in 2003 but were higher in localities with lower QLI in 2007. The variation of the concentration index between 2003 and 2007 indicated reductions in inequality for all of the indicators in the period after the PHC implementation. In 2007, PHC was associated with a reduction in the effect of the inequality that affected disadvantaged localities in under-5 mortality (24%), IMR (19%) and acute malnutrition (7%). PHC also contributed approximately 20% to inequality in DPT coverage, favoring the poorer localities.

    Conclusion: The PHC strategy developed in Bogota appears to be contributing to reductions of the inequality associated with socioeconomic and living conditions in child health outcomes.

  • 31.
    Mosquera, Paola A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Decomposition of gendered income-related inequalities in multiple biological cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged population2018Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease seem to widen or endure in Sweden. However, research on inequalities in antecedent cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and particularly what underpins them, is scarce. The present study aimed 1) to estimate income-related inequalities in eight biological cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged women and men; and 2) to examine the contribution of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and psychosocial determinants to the observed inequalities.

    METHODS: Participants (N = 12,481) comprised all 40- and 50-years old women and men who participated in the regional Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Northern Sweden during 2008, 2009 and 2010. All participants completed a questionnaire on behavioural and psychosocial conditions, and underwent measurements with respect to eight CVRFs (body mass index; waist circumference; total cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; systolic/diastolic blood pressure; glucose tolerance). Data on cardiovascular risk, psychosocial and health behaviours were linked to national register data on income and other socioeconomic and demographic factors. To estimate income inequalities in each CVRF concentration indexes were calculated, and to examine the contribution of the underlying determinants to the observed inequalities a Wagstaff-type decomposition analysis was performed separately for women and men.

    RESULTS: Health inequalities ranged from small to substantial with generally greater magnitude in women. The highest inequalities among women were seen in BMI, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol (Concentration index = - 0.1850; - 0.1683 and - 0.1479 respectively). Among men the largest inequalities were seen in glucose regulation, BMI and abdominal obesity (Concentration index = - 0.1661; - 0.1259 and - 0.1172). The main explanatory factors were, for both women and men socioeconomic conditions (contributions ranging from 54.8 to 76.7% in women and 34.0-72.6% in men) and health behaviours (contributions ranging from 6.9 to 20.5% in women and 9.2 to 26.9% in men). However, the patterns of specific dominant explanatory factors differed between CVRFs and genders.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results suggest that the magnitude of income-related inequalities in CVRFs and their determinants differ importantly between the risk factors and genders, a variation that should be taken into consideration in population interventions aiming to prevent inequalities in manifest cardiovascular disease.

  • 32.
    Mosquera, Paola A
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Equitable health services for the young?: A decomposition of income-related inequalities in young adults' utilization of health care in Northern Sweden2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite the goal of the Swedish health system to offer health care according to the principle of horizontal equity, little is known about the equality in access to health care use among young people. To explore this issue, the present study aimed i) to assess horizontal inequity in health care utilization among young people in Northern Sweden; and ii) to explore the contribution of different factors to explain the observed inequalities.

    METHODS: Participants (N = 3016 youths aged 16-25 years) came from the "Health on Equal terms" survey conducted in 2014 in the four northernmost counties in Sweden. Concentration indices (C) and horizontal inequity indices (HI) were calculated to measure inequalities in the utilization of two health care services (general practitioners (GP) and youth clinics). The HI was calculated based on health care utilization and variables representing socioeconomic status (household income), health care needs factors and non-need factors affecting health care use. A decomposition analysis was carried out to explain the income-related inequalities.

    RESULTS: Results showed a significant positive income-related inequality for youth clinic utilization in women (C = 0.166) and total sample (C = 0.097), indicating that services were concentrated among the better-off. In contrast, general practitioner visits showed inequality pointing toward a higher utilization among less affluent individuals; significant in women (C = -0.079), men (C = -0.101) and pooled sample (C = -0.097). After taking health care needs into consideration, the utilization of youth clinics remained significantly pro-rich in women (HI = 0.121) and total sample (HI = 0.099); and consistently pro-poor for the GP visits in the pooled sample (HI = -0.058). The decomposition analyses suggest that socioeconomic inequalities explain a considerable portion of the pro-rich utilization of youth clinics services among young women. The corresponding analyses for GP visits showed that need factors and socioeconomic conditions accounted for the pro-poor concentration of GP visits.

    CONCLUSION: The distribution of GP visits among young people in Northern Sweden slightly favored the low-income group, and thus seems to meet the premises of horizontal equity. In contrast, the findings suggest substantial pro-rich horizontal inequity in the utilization of youth clinics among young women, which are largely rooted in socioeconomic inequalities.

  • 33.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Socioeconomic inequalities and body mass index in Västerbotten County, Sweden: a longitudinal study of life course influences over two decades2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, s. 35-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Life course socioeconomic inequalities in heart disease, stroke and all-cause mortality are well studied in Sweden. However, few studies have sought to explain the mechanism for such associations mainly due to lack of longitudinal data with multiple measures of socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course. Given the population health concern about how socioeconomic inequality is related to poorer health, we aim to tackle obesity as one of the prime suspects that could explain the association between SES inequality and cardiovascular disease and consequently premature death. The aim of this study is to test which life course model best describes the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity among 60 year old inhabitants of Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden.

    METHODS: A birth cohort consisting of 3340 individuals born between 1930 and 1932 was studied. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 60 and information on socioeconomic status at three stages of life (ages 40, 50, and 60 years) was collected. Independent samples t-test was used to compare BMI between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and one-way ANOVA was used to compare BMI among eight SES trajectories. We applied a structured modeling approach to examine three different hypothesized life course SES models (accumulation, critical period, and social mobility) in relation to BMI.

    RESULTS: We found sex differences in the way that late adulthood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with BMI among inhabitants of Northern Sweden. Our study suggests that social adversity in all stages of late adulthood is a particularly important indicator for addressing the social gradients in BMI among women in Northern Sweden and that unhealthy behaviors in terms of smoking and physical inactivity are insufficient to explain the relationships between social and lifestyle inequalities and BMI.

    CONCLUSION: In order for local authorities to develop informed preventive efforts, we suggest further research to identify modifiable risk factors across the life course which could explain this health inequality.

  • 34. Perez-Urdiales, Iratxe
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Irazusta, Amaia
    Linander, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Sub-Saharan African immigrant women's experiences of (lack of) access to appropriate healthcare in the public health system in the Basque Country, Spain2019Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundImmigrant populations face diverse barriers to accessing appropriate healthcare services on several levels. In the Basque Country, Sub-Saharan African women were identified as facing the largest barriers to access them. The aim of the study is to analyse Sub-Saharan African immigrant women's perceptions and experiences of access to appropriate healthcare in the public health system in the Basque Country, Spain.MethodsFourteen women from eight Sub-Saharan African countries who have used the Basque public healthcare services were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was applied: meaning that units were identified, coded and the resulting codes were then organized into three categories.ResultsThe first category, Fearing to enter a health system perceived as not friendly for immigrants, included factors, mainly those related to legal conditions for accessing healthcare services and lack of lawful documentation, that made women avoid or discontinue seeking out healthcare.The second category, Being attended on professionals' own communication terms, comprised how the lack of effective communication compromised not only the access of the immigrant women to healthcare services, but also their health.Lastly, the third category, Is mistreatment based on racism or merely on bad luck? described how being an immigrant and black influenced the way they were (mis)treated in the health system.ConclusionFor Sub-Saharan African immigrant women, accessing appropriate healthcare in the Basque Country was perceived to be subject to institutional barriers. At the legal level, barriers included lack of entitlement, difficulties in fulfilling legal access conditions and lack of documentation. The lack of communication with health centre staff and their attitudes, guided by a stereotyped social image of immigrants and black people, also hindered their possibilities of receiving appropriate healthcare. Facilitators for accessing healthcare included strategies from individual professionals, personal networks and social actors to help them to cope with the barriers. There is a need of reinforcing inclusion values and rights-based approach to attention among staff at the health centres to have more non-discriminatory and culturally appropriate health systems.

  • 35.
    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity among older people in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia: a decomposition analysis approach2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikkel-id 214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design public health policies in the latter contexts. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia and identified factors contributing to the inequalities.

    METHODS: We utilised data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-INDEPTH SAGE) conducted in the Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Purworejo District, Indonesia in 2010. The study included 14,235 individuals aged 50 years and older. Inequalities in abdominal obesity across wealth groups were assessed separately for men and women using concentration indexes. Decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity.

    RESULTS: Abdominal obesity was five-fold more prevalent among women than in men (30% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). The concentration index (CI) analysis showed that socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity were less prominent among women (CI = 0.26, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) compared to men (CI = 0.49, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001). Decomposition analysis showed that physical labour was the major determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among men, explaining 47% of the inequalities, followed by poor socioeconomic status (31%), ≤ 6 years of education (15%) and current smoking (11%). The three major determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among women were poor socio-economic status (48%), physical labour (17%) and no formal education (16%).

    CONCLUSION: Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among older women in a rural Indonesian setting. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity exists and concentrates more among the rich population in both sexes. The inequality gap is less prominent among women, indicating a trend towards obesity being more common in poor women. Policies to address social determinants of health need to be developed to address the socioeconomic inequality gaps in obesity, with particular focus on addressing the existing burden of obesity among the better-off population group, while preventing the imminent burden of obesity among the worst-off group, particularly among women.

  • 36.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    A theoretical model for analysing gender bias in medicine2009Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 8, s. 28-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.

  • 37.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Gender in medicine - an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes.2003Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades research has disclosed gender differences and gender bias in different fields of academic and clinical medicine. Consequently, a gender perspective has been asked for in medical curricula and medical education. However, in reports about implementation attempts, difficulties and reluctance have been described. Since teachers are key persons when introducing new issues we surveyed physician teachers' attitudes towards the importance of gender in professional relations. We also analyzed if gender of the physician is related to these attitudes. METHOD: Questionnaires were sent to all 468 senior physicians (29 % women), at the clinical departments and in family medicine, engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on five visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of physician and student gender in clinical tutoring, and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 65 %. The physicians rated gender more important in consultation than in clinical tutoring. There were significant differences between women and men in all investigated areas also when adjusting for speciality, age, academic degree and years in the profession. A higher proportion of women than men assessed gender as important in professional relationships. Those who assessed very low were all men while both men and women were represented among those with high ratings. CONCLUSIONS: To implement a gender perspective in medical education it is necessary that both male and female teachers participate and embrace gender aspects as important. To facilitate implementation and to convince those who are indifferent, this study indicates that special efforts are needed to motivate men. We suggest that men with an interest in gender issues should be involved in this work. Further research is needed to find out how such male-oriented endeavours should be outlined.

  • 38.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Who is using the morning-after pill?: Inequalities in emergency contraception use among ever partnered Nicaraguan women; findings from a national survey2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 61-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionFew studies have described the inequalities in hormonal emergency contraception (HEC) use in developing countries. Thus, the main aim of this manuscript is to study socio-demographic inequalities in HEC use among Nicaraguan women, and to study if inequalities in HEC use arise from exposure to different forms of intimate partner violence (IPV).MethodsData from a national cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 was used. This study included data from 8284 ever partnered, non-sterilized women. Separate multivariate logistic regressions with each form of IPV were conducted to study how different forms of IPV were associated with HEC. Women¿s age, residency, education, socioeconomic status, parity, and current use of reversible contraception were included in the multivariate logistic regressions to obtain adjusted odds ratios showing inequalities in HEC use.ResultsSix percent of the women had ever used HEC (95% CI 5.1-6.9). Multivariate analyses showed that urban residency, higher education, and higher socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher odds of ever using HEC, and age was associated with decreased odds of HEC use. A key finding of this study is that after controlling for socio-demographic factors, the odds of using HEC were higher for those women ever exposed to emotional IPV (AOR 1.58, 95%CI 1.16-2.00), physical IPV (AOR 1.82, 95%CI 1.30-2.55), sexual IPV (AOR 1.63, 95%CI 1.06-2.52), and controlling behavior by partner (AOR 1.51 95%CI 1.13-2.00) than those not exposed.ConclusionsThis study provides sound evidence supporting the hypothesis that there are inequalities in HEC use even in countries where inequalities in use to other forms of contraceptive technology has been reduced. HEC use among Nicaraguan women is strongly influenced by individual factors such as age, residency, educational level, socioeconomic status, and exposure to different forms of IPV. It is paramount that actions are taken to diminish these gaps.

  • 39. Sidney, Kristi
    et al.
    Salazar, Mariano
    Marrone, Gaetano
    Diwan, Vishal
    DeCosta, Ayesha
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Out-of-pocket expenditures for childbirth in the context of the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer program to promote facility births: who pays and how much? Studies from Madhya Pradesh, India2016Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High out-of-pocket expenditures (OOPE) make delivery care difficult to access for a large proportion of India’s population. Given that home deliveries increase the risk of maternal mortality, in 2005 the Indian Government implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program to incentivize poor women to deliver in public health facilities by providing a cash transfer upon discharge. We study the OOPE among JSY beneficiaries and women who deliver at home, and predictors of OOPE in two districts of Madhya Pradesh.

    Methods: September 2013 to April 2015 a cross-sectional community-based survey was performed. All recently delivered women were interviewed to elicit delivery costs, socio-demographic characteristics and delivery related information.

    Results: Most women (n = 1995, 84 %) delivered in JSY public health facility, the remaining 16 % (n = 386) delivered at home. Women who delivered under JSY program had a higher median, IQR OOPE ($8, 3–18) compared to home ($6, 2–13). Among JSY beneficiaries, poorest women had twice net gain ($20) versus wealthiest ($10) post cash transfer. Informal payments (64 %) and food/baby items (77 %) were the two most common sources of OOPE. OOPE made among JSY beneficiaries was pro-poor: poorer women made proportionally less expenditures compared to wealthier women. In an adjusted model, delivering in a JSY public facility increased odds of incurring expenditures (OR: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.11–2.25) but at the same time to a 16 % (95 % CI: 0.73–0.96) decrease in the amount paid compared to home deliveries.

    Conclusions: OOPE is prevalent among JSY beneficiaries as well in home deliveries. In JSY, OOPE varies by income quintile: wealthier quintiles pay more OOPE. However the cash incentive is adequate enough to provide a net gain for all quintiles. OOPE was largely due to indirect costs and not direct medical payments. The program seems to be effective in providing financial protection for the most vulnerable groups.

  • 40.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    et al.
    Research Centre for Gender Health & Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle.
    Cunich, Michelle
    Byles, Julie
    The impact of socioeconomic status on changes in the general and mental health of women over time: evidence from a longitudinal study of Australian women2013Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Generally, men and women of higher socioeconomic status (SES) have better health. Little is known about how socioeconomic factors are associated with changes in health as women progress through mid-life. This study uses data from six survey waves (1996 to 2010) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) to examine associations between SES and changes in the general health and mental health of a cohort of women progressing in years from 45-50 to 59-64.

    METHODS: Participants were 12,709 women (born 1946-51) in the ALSWH. Outcome measures were the general health and mental health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36). The measure of SES was derived from factor analysis of responses to questions in the ALSWH baseline survey (1996) on school leaving age, highest qualifications, and current or last occupation. Multi-level random coefficient models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health behaviors, were used to analyze repeated measures of general health and mental health. Survey year accounted for changes in factors across time. In the first set of analyses we investigated associations between the SES index, used as a "continuous" variable, and general health and mental health changes over time. To illuminate the impact of different levels of SES on health, a second analysis was conducted in which SES scores were grouped into three approximately equal sized categories or "tertiles" as reported in an earlier ALSWH study. The least square means of general and mental health scores from the longitudinal models were plotted for the three SES tertiles.

    RESULTS: The longitudinal analysis showed that, after adjusting for the effects of time and possible confounders, the general (mental) health of this cohort of mid-aged women declined (increased) over time. Higher SES women reported better health than lower SES women, and SES significantly modified the effects of time on both general and mental health in favor of higher SES women.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our current understanding of how socioeconomic and demographic factors, health behaviors and time impact on changes in the general and mental health of women progressing in years from 45-50 to 59-64.

  • 41.
    Sörlin, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Gender equality in couples and self-rated health: a survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health2011Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 10, nr Art.nr. 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health.

    Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used.

    Results: Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used.

    Conclusions: Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements used to quantify men's and women's opinions of gender equality, but also to be aware of the implications for health outcomes.

  • 42.
    Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh
    et al.
    Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan
    Institute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim
    Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The impact of economic growth on health care utilization: a longitudinal study in rural Vietnam2013Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 12, s. Article nr 19-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In many developing countries, including Vietnam, out-of-pocket payment is the principal source of health financing. The economic growth is widening the gap between rich and poor people in many aspects, including health care utilization. While inequities in health between high- and low-income groups have been well investigated, this study aims to investigate how the health care utilization changes when the economic condition is changing at a household level.

    METHOD: We analysed a panel data of 11,260 households in a rural district of Vietnam. Of the sample, 74.4% having an income increase between 2003 and 2007 were defined as households with economic growth. We used a double-differences propensity score matching technique to compare the changes in health care expenditure as percentage of total expenditure and health care utilization from 2003 to 2005, from 2003 to 2007, and from 2005 to 2007, between households with and without economic growth.

    RESULTS: Households with economic growth spent less percentage of their expenditure for health care, but used more provincial/central hospitals (higher quality health care services) than households without economic growth. The differences were statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that households with economic growth are better off also in terms of health services utilization. Efforts for reducing inequalities in health should therefore consider the inequality in income growth over time.

  • 43.
    Trygg, Nadja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Månsdotter, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Languishing in the crossroad?: A scoping review of intersectional inequalities in mental health2019Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 115Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of intersectionality has gradually been introduced to health inequality research, adding depth and breadth to the way inequalities in health are approached. We conducted a scoping review with the purpose to systematically map, describe and analyze the literature about intersectional inequalities in mental health. For eligibility, the study had to analyze and report inequality defined by combinations of socioeconomic position, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation or religion. The mental health outcome had to be measured as self-reported symptoms assessed through validated scales, or disorders assessed through diagnostic interviews. The search strategy was applied in two databases and the screening process yielded 20 studies. The interaction of intersectional positions showed no consistent patterns in mental health across studies, but both synergistic and antagonistic effects were observed. In most studies an absolute measure of inequality was used and few studies analyzed factors potentially explaining the intersectional inequalities. Taken together, the findings of this review highlight the value of assessing intersectional inequalities across population groups for priority setting and action on mental health inequalities.

  • 44. Tsegay, Yalem
    et al.
    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lemma, Hailemariam
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Determinants of antenatal and delivery care utilization in Tigray region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study2013Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 12, nr 30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the international emphasis in the last few years on the need to address the unmet health needs of pregnant women and children, progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow. This is particularly worrying in sub-Saharan Africa where over 162,000 women still die each year during pregnancy and childbirth, most of them because of the lack of access to skilled delivery attendance and emergency care. With a maternal mortality ratio of 673 per 100,000 live births and 19,000 maternal deaths annually, Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers. While some studies have looked at different risk factors for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery service utilisation in the country, information coming from community-based studies related to the Health Extension Programme (HEP) in rural areas is limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence of maternal health care utilisation and explore its determinants among rural women aged 15-49 years in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    METHODS: The study was a community-based cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. A cluster sampling technique was used to select women who had given birth at least once in the five years prior to the survey period. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to elicit the impact of each factor on ANC and institutional delivery service utilisation.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 99% (n=1113). The mean age of the participants was 30.4 years. The proportion of women who received ANC for their recent births was 54%; only 46 (4.1%) of women gave birth at a health facility. Factors associated with ANC utilisation were marital status, education, proximity of health facility to the village, and husband's occupation, while use of institutional delivery was mainly associated with parity, education, having received ANC advice, a history of difficult/prolonged labour, and husbands' occupation.

    CONCLUSIONS: A relatively acceptable utilisation of ANC services but extremely low institutional delivery was observed. Classical socio-demographic factors were associated with both ANC and institutional delivery attendance. ANC advice can contribute to increase institutional delivery use. Different aspects of HEP need to be strengthened to improve maternal health in Tigray.

  • 45.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Subramanian, S. V.
    Households, the omitted level in contextual analysis: disentangling the relative influence of households and districts on the variation of BMI about two decades in Indonesia2016Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most of the research investigating the effect of social context on individual health outcomes has interpreted context in terms of the residential environment. In these studies, individuals are nested within their neighbourhoods or communities, disregarding the intermediate household level that lies between individuals and their residential environment. Households are an important determinant of health yet they are rarely included at the contextual level in research examining association between body mass index (BMI) and the social determinants of health. In this study, our main aim was to provide a methodological demonstration of multilevel analysis, which disentangles the simultaneous effects of households and districts as well as their associated predictors on BMI over time.

    Methods: Using both two- and three-level multilevel analysis, we utilized data from all four cross-sections of the Indonesian Family life Survey (IFLS) 1993 to 2007-8.

    Results: We found that: (i) the variation in BMI attributable to districts decreased from 4.3 % in 1993 to 1.5 % in 1997-98, and remained constant until 2007-08, while there was an alarming increase in the variation of BMI attributable to households, from 10 % in 2000 to 15 % in 2007-08; (ii) ignoring the household level did not change the relative variance contribution of districts on BMI, but ignoring the district level resulted in overestimation of household effects, and (iii) households' characteristics (socioeconomic status, size, and place of residence) did not attenuate the variation of BMI at the household-level.

    Conclusions: Estimating the relative importance of multiple social settings allows us to better understand and unpack the variation in clustered or hieratical data in order to make valid and robust inferences. Our findings will help direct investment of limited public health resources to the appropriate context in order to reduce health risk (variation in BMI) and promote population health.

  • 46.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin. University of Tampere, School of Health Sciences, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Children of boom and recession and the scars to the mental health: a comparative study on the long term effects of youth unemployment2016Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Earlier research shows that there is an association between unemployment and poor mental health, and that recovery from the damages to mental health obtained during unemployment remains incomplete over a long period of time. The present study relates this 'mental health scarring' to the trade cycle, exploring if those exposed to youth unemployment during boom differ from those exposed during recession with respect to mental health in the middle age.

    METHODS: The sample consists of two cohorts from the same industrial town in Northern Sweden: the cohort born in 1965 and the cohort born in 1973 included all pupils attending the last grade of compulsory school, respectively, in 1981 and in 1989. Their depressiveness and anxiousness were assessed by questionnaires at age 21 and again at age 43/39. Mental health at follow-up was related to exposure to unemployment during age years 21-25. Statistical significance of the cohort*exposure interactions from binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the cohort differences in the mental health between Cohort65 and Cohort73, entering the labour market, respectively, during a boom and a recession.

    RESULTS: Compared to the unexposed, high exposure to unemployment at the age from 21 to 25 was associated to increased probability of poor mental health in the middle age in both in Cohort65 (odds ratio 2.19 [1.46-3.30] for anxiousness and 1.85 [1.25-2.74]for depressiveness) and in Cohort73 (odds ratio 2.13 [1.33-3.39] for anxiousness and 1.38 [0.89-2.14] for depressiveness). The differences between the cohorts also turned out as statistically non-significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The scars of unemployment exposure onto future health seem to be rather insensitive to economic trades. Thus, at the population level this would mean that the long-term health costs that can be attributed to youth unemployment are more widespread in the generation that suffers of recession around the entry to the work life.

  • 47. Vives-Cases, Carmen
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hernández, Alison
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Sanz-Barbero, Belen
    Davó-Blanes, MCarmen
    La Parra-Casado, Daniel
    Priorities and strategies for improving Roma women's access to primary health care services in cases on intimate partner violence: a concept mapping study2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With an explicit focus on Roma women in Spain (Kale/Spanish Gypsies), this study aims to integrate key informants' opinions about the main actions needed to improve primary health care services' and professionals' responses to Roma women in an Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) situation. Methods: Concept mapping study. A total of 50 (brainstorming phase), 36 (sorting and rating phase) and 16 (interpretation phase) participants from Roma civil society groups, primary health care professionals and other related stakeholders (social services, academic experts and other IPV NGOs representatives) from different cities in Spain were involved in the different study phases. Results: Among the 55 action proposals generated, ten priority actions were identified through consensus as most important for improving primary health care's response to Romani women in an IPV situation, and these included primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities. Conclusion: Results indicated that efforts to address this challenge should take an integrated approach that reinforces the primary health care response to IPV in general, while also promoting more specific actions to address barriers to access that affect all Roma women and those who experience IPV in particular.

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