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  • 1. Blain, H.
    et al.
    Masud, T.
    Dargent-Molina, P.
    Martin, F. C.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    van der Velde, N.
    Bousquet, J.
    Benetos, A.
    Cooper, C.
    Kanis, J. A.
    Reginster, J. Y.
    Rizzoli, R.
    Cortet, B.
    Barbagallo, M.
    Dreinhofer, K. E.
    Vellas, B.
    Maggi, S.
    Strandberg, T.
    A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement2016Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 647-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  • 2. Bousquet, J
    et al.
    Bewick, M
    Cano, A
    Eklund, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Four Computing Oy, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fico, G
    Goswami, N
    Guldemond, N A
    Henderson, D
    Hinkema, M J
    Liotta, G
    Mair, A
    Molloy, W
    Monaco, A
    Monsonis-Paya, I
    Nizinska, A
    Papadopoulos, H
    Pavlickova, A
    Pecorelli, S
    Prados-Torres, A
    Roller-Wirnsberger, R E
    Somekh, D
    Vera-Muñoz, C
    Visser, F
    Farrell, J
    Malva, J
    Andersen Ranberg, K
    Camuzat, T
    Carriazo, A M
    Crooks, G
    Gutter, Z
    Iaccarino, G
    Manuel de Keenoy, E
    Moda, G
    Rodriguez-Mañas, L
    Vontetsianos, T
    Abreu, C
    Alonso, J
    Alonso-Bouzon, C
    Ankri, J
    Arredondo, M T
    Avolio, F
    Bedbrook, A
    Białoszewski, A Z
    Blain, H
    Bourret, R
    Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F
    Catala, A
    O'Caoimh, R
    Cesari, M
    Chavannes, N H
    Correia-da-Sousa, J
    Dedeu, T
    Ferrando, M
    Ferri, M
    Fokkens, W J
    Garcia-Lizana, F
    Guérin, O
    Hellings, P W
    Haahtela, T
    Illario, M
    Inzerilli, M C
    Lodrup Carlsen, K C
    Kardas, P
    Keil, T
    Maggio, M
    Mendez-Zorrilla, A
    Menditto, E
    Mercier, J
    Michel, J P
    Murray, R
    Nogues, M
    O'Byrne-Maguire, I
    Pappa, D
    Parent, A S
    Pastorino, M
    Robalo-Cordeiro, C
    Samolinski, B
    Siciliano, P
    Teixeira, A M
    Tsartara, S I
    Valiulis, A
    Vandenplas, O
    Vasankari, T
    Vellas, B
    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M
    Wickman, M
    Yorgancioglu, A
    Zuberbier, T
    Barbagallo, M
    Canonica, G W
    Klimek, L
    Maggi, S
    Aberer, W
    Akdis, C
    Adcock, I M
    Agache, I
    Albera, C
    Alonso-Trujillo, F
    Angel Guarcia, M
    Annesi-Maesano, I
    Apostolo, J
    Arshad, S H
    Attalin, V
    Avignon, A
    Bachert, C
    Baroni, I
    Bel, E
    Benson, M
    Bescos, C
    Blasi, F
    Barbara, C
    Bergmann, K C
    Bernard, P L
    Bonini, S
    Bousquet, P J
    Branchini, B
    Brightling, C E
    Bruguière, V
    Bunu, C
    Bush, A
    Caimmi, D P
    Calderon, M A
    Canovas, G
    Cardona, V
    Carlsen, K H
    Cesario, A
    Chkhartishvili, E
    Chiron, R
    Chivato, T
    Chung, K F
    d'Angelantonio, M
    De Carlo, G
    Cholley, D
    Chorin, F
    Combe, B
    Compas, B
    Costa, D J
    Costa, E
    Coste, O
    Coupet, A-L
    Crepaldi, G
    Custovic, A
    Dahl, R
    Dahlen, S E
    Demoly, P
    Devillier, P
    Didier, A
    Dinh-Xuan, A T
    Djukanovic, R
    Dokic, D
    Du Toit, G
    Dubakiene, R
    Dupeyron, A
    Emuzyte, R
    Fiocchi, A
    Wagner, A
    Fletcher, M
    Fonseca, J
    Fougère, B
    Gamkrelidze, A
    Garces, G
    Garcia-Aymeric, J
    Garcia-Zapirain, B
    Gemicioğlu, B
    Gouder, C
    Hellquist-Dahl, B
    Hermosilla-Gimeno, I
    Héve, D
    Holland, C
    Humbert, M
    Hyland, M
    Johnston, S L
    Just, J
    Jutel, M
    Kaidashev, I P
    Khaitov, M
    Kalayci, O
    Kalyoncu, A F
    Keijser, W
    Kerstjens, H
    Knezović, J
    Kowalski, M
    Koppelman, G H
    Kotska, T
    Kovac, M
    Kull, I
    Kuna, P
    Kvedariene, V
    Lepore, V
    MacNee, W
    Maggio, M
    Magnan, A
    Majer, I
    Manning, P
    Marcucci, M
    Marti, T
    Masoli, M
    Melen, E
    Miculinic, N
    Mihaltan, F
    Milenkovic, B
    Millot-Keurinck, J
    Mlinarić, H
    Momas, I
    Montefort, S
    Morais-Almeida, M
    Moreno-Casbas, T
    Mösges, R
    Mullol, J
    Nadif, R
    Nalin, M
    Navarro-Pardo, E
    Nekam, K
    Ninot, G
    Paccard, D
    Pais, S
    Palummeri, E
    Panzner, P
    Papadopoulos, N K
    Papanikolaou, C
    Passalacqua, G
    Pastor, E
    Perrot, M
    Plavec, D
    Popov, T A
    Postma, D S
    Price, D
    Raffort, N
    Reuzeau, J C
    Robine, J M
    Rodenas, F
    Robusto, F
    Roche, N
    Romano, A
    Romano, V
    Rosado-Pinto, J
    Roubille, F
    Ruiz, F
    Ryan, D
    Salcedo, T
    Schmid-Grendelmeier, P
    Schulz, H
    Schunemann, H J
    Serrano, E
    Sheikh, A
    Shields, M
    Siafakas, N
    Scichilone, N
    Siciliano, P
    Skrindo, I
    Smit, H A
    Sourdet, S
    Sousa-Costa, E
    Spranger, O
    Sooronbaev, T
    Sruk, V
    Sterk, P J
    Todo-Bom, A
    Touchon, J
    Tramontano, D
    Triggiani, M
    Tsartara, S I
    Valero, A L
    Valovirta, E
    van Ganse, E
    van Hage, M
    van den Berge, M
    Vandenplas, O
    Ventura, M T
    Vergara, I
    Vezzani, G
    Vidal, D
    Viegi, G
    Wagemann, M
    Whalley, B
    Wickman, M
    Wilson, N
    Yiallouros, P K
    Žagar, M
    Zaidi, A
    Zidarn, M
    Hoogerwerf, E J
    Usero, J
    Zuffada, R
    Senn, A
    de Oliveira-Alves, B
    Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA2017Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 92-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  • 3.
    Burman, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Säätelä, S.
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Vasa, Finland.
    Carlsson, Maine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Body Mass Index, Mini Nutritional Assessment, and their Association with Five-Year Mortality in Very Old People2015Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 461-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition and the association between Body Mass Index (BMI), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and five-year mortality in a representative population of very old (>85 years) people.

    DESIGN: A prospective cohort study.

    SETTING: A population-based study of very old people in northern Sweden and western Finland, living in institutional care or in the community.

    PARTICIPANTS: Out of 1195 potential participants, 832 were included (mean age 90.2±4.6 years).

    MEASUREMENTS: Nutritional status was assessed using BMI and MNA and the association of those two variables with five-year mortality was analyzed.

    RESULTS: The mean BMI value for the whole population was 25.1±4.5 kg/m2, with no difference between genders (P=0.938). The mean MNA score was 22.5±4.6 for the whole sample, and it was lower for women than for men (P<0.001). Thirteen percent were malnourished (MNA<17) and 40.3% at risk of malnutrition (MNA 17-23.5) according to MNA. Also, 34.8% of those with a MNA score <17 still had a BMI value ≥22.2 kg/m2. A BMI value <22.2 kg/m2 and a MNA score<17 were associated with lower survival. The association with mortality seemed to be J-shaped for BMI, and linear for MNA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition according to MNA was common, but a substantial portion of those with a low MNA score still had a high BMI value, and vice versa. The association with mortality appeared to be J-shaped for BMI, and linear for MNA. The MNA seems to be a good measurement of malnutrition in very old people, and BMI might be misleading and could underestimate the prevalence of malnutrition, especially in women.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Maine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    The feasibility of serving liquid yoghurt supplemented with probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB 21, and Lactococcus lactis L1A: a pilot study among old people with dementia in a residential care facility2009Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 813-819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Constipation and body weight loss are prevalent among old people. Treatment with different species of lactic acid bacteria has been suggested for various forms of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Objective, participants and intervention: This pilot study was performed to assess the feasibility of administering and consuming a drinkable yoghurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB 21 and Lactococcus L1A, and to evaluate the influence on bowel movements and body weight in 15 people with dementia, aged 65–95 years in residential care facility.

    Design: A drinkable yoghurt (Verum Drickyoghurt©) with added bacteria was served daily for 6 months in conjunction with ordinary food intake. Body weight, bowel movement frequency and consistency, food and fluid intake and time spent in various activities were recorded for two weeks preintervention, and 3 times during the follow-up period.

    Result: This study showed that the yoghurt was easy to serve, with few side effects for the participants and that the various recording forms and diaries were easy for the staff to complete. The extra intake of yoghurt did not have any detectable beneficial effect on bowel movements. The overnight fast was almost 15 hours per day. Body weight decreased by 0.65 kg/month (95% confidence interval. 0.27–0.97).

    Conclusions: The present study design was feasible in this group of old people with dementia. The absence of any detectable effect of the supplement on constipation, but rather a considerable loss in body weight, indicate that further research is needed in a large randomised controlled trial, if associations between dementia, constipation and energy balance are to be understood.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Maine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Haglin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Poor nutritional status is associated with urinary tract infection among older people living in residential care facilities2013Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 186-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate factors associated with poor nutritional status in older people living in residential care facilities. Methods: 188 residents (136 women, 52 men) with physical and cognitive impairments participated. Mean age was 84.7 y (range 65-100). The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Barthel ADL Index, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale were used to evaluate nutritional status, activities of daily living, cognitive status and depressive symptoms. Medical conditions, clinical characteristics and prescribed drugs were recorded. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to investigate associations with MNA scores. Results: The mean MNA score was 20.5 +/- 3.7 (range 5.5-27) and the median was 21 (interquartile range (IQR) 18.8-23.0). Fifteen per cent of participants were classified as malnourished and 66% at risk of malnutrition. Lower MNA scores were independently associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) during the preceding year (beta = -0.21, P = 0.006), lower MMSE scores (beta = 0.16, P = 0.030), and dependent in feeding (beta = -0.14, P = 0.040). Conclusion: The majority of participants were at risk of or suffering from malnutrition. Urinary tract infection during the preceding year was independently associated with poor nutritional status. Dependence in feeding was also associated with poor nutritional status as were low MMSE scores for women. Prospective observations and randomized controlled trials are necessary to gain an understanding of a causal association between malnutrition and UTI.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Maine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Effects of high-intensity exercise and protein supplement on muscle mass in ADL dependent older people with and without malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial2011Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 554-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background  Loss of muscle mass is common among old people living in institutions but trials that evaluate interventions aimed at increasing the muscle mass are lacking.

    Objective, participants and intervention  This randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program and a timed protein-enriched drink on muscle mass in 177 people aged 65 to 99 with severe physical or cognitive impairments, and living in residential care facilities.

    Design  Three-month high-intensity exercise was compared with a control activity and a protein-enriched drink was compared with a placebo drink. A bioelectrical impedance spectrometer (BIS) was used in the evaluation. The amount of muscle mass and body weight (BW) were followed-up at three and six months and analyzed in a 2 × 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention to treat principle, and controlling for baseline values.

    Results  At 3-month follow-up there were no differences in muscle mass and BW between the exercise and the control group or between the protein and the placebo group. No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutritional intervention. Long-term negative effects on muscle mass and BW was seen in the exercise group at the 6-month follow-up.

    Conclusion  A three month high-intensity functional exercise program did not increase the amount of muscle mass and an intake of a protein-enriched drink immediately after the exercise did not induce any additional effect on muscle mass. There were negative long-term effects on muscle mass and BW, indicating that it is probably necessary to compensate for an increased energy demand when offering a high-intensity exercise program.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Assessment scales and consensus guidelines encoded in formal logic2009Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 558-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Eklund, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Immonen, M.
    Petäkoski-Hult, T.
    Similä, H.
    The logic of geriatrics2013Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 305-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Farooqi, Nighat
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin. Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med & Allergy, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Slinde, F.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Assessment of energy intake in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A doubly labeled water method study2015Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 518-524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain energy balance, reliable methods for assessing energy intake and expenditure should be used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to validate the diet history and 7-day food diary methods of assessing energy intake (EI) using total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (TEEDLW) as the criterion method in outpatient women with COPD. EI was assessed by diet history (EIDH) and a 7-day food diary (EIFD) in 19 women with COPD, using TEEDLW as the criterion method. The three methods were compared using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analyses. The participants were classified according to their reporting status (EI/TEE) as valid-reporters 0.79-1.21, under-reporters < 0.79 or over-reporters > 1.21. Diet history underestimated reported EI by 28%, and 7-day food diary underestimated EI by approximately 20% compared with TEEDLW. The ICC analysis showed weak agreement between TEEDLW and EIDH (ICC=-0.01; 95%CI-0.10 to 0.17) and between TEEDLW and EIFD (ICC=0.11; 95%CI -0.16 to 0.44). The Bland-Altman plots revealed a slight systematic bias for both methods. For diet history, six women (32%) were identified as valid-reporters, and for the 7-day food diary, twelve women (63%) were identified as valid-reporters. The accuracy of reported EI was only related to BMI. The diet history and 7-day food diary methods underestimated energy intake in women with COPD compared with the DLW method. Individuals with higher BMIs are prone to underreporting. Seven-day food diaries should be used with caution in assessing EI in women with COPD.

  • 10.
    Vikdahl, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Domellöf, Magdalena E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Olfactory function, eating ability, and visceral obesity associated with MMSE three years after Parkinson's disease diagnosis2015Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, nr 9, s. 894-900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether risk factors for poor nutrition are associated with global cognitive function three years after confirmed Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis. The follow-up investigations for this prospective community-based study were conducted three years after PD diagnosis. The study participants lived in Vasterbotten County, a region in northern Sweden with 142,000 inhabitants. This study population consisted of 118 PD outpatients from the study of Newly Diagnosed PD in UmeAyen (NYPUM). Global cognition was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and at follow-up. Anthropometry, nutrition (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA, 3-day food registration, 3-FDR), olfactory function (Brief Smell Identification Test, B-SIT), and swallowing, cutting food, and salivation (single questions from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS) were used as markers for nutritional status. The MMSE score decreased over three years (-1.06 +/- 3.38, p=0.001). Olfactory function at baseline was associated to MMSE at three years (B=0.365, p=0.004). Changes in waist/hip ratio (B=113.29, p=0.017), swallowing (B=1.18, P=0.033), and cutting food (B=-1.80, p=0.000) were associated with MMSE at follow-up. This study indicates that olfactory function, cutting food, swallowing, and visceral obesity are associated with MMSE three years after PD diagnosis.

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