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  • 1.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Illegal Beings. Human Cloning and the Law2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 6, 510-510 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Life extension, overpopulation and the right to life: against lethal ethics2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the objections to life-extension stem from a concern with overpopulation. I will show that whether or not the overpopulation threat is realistic, arguments from overpopulation cannot ethically demand halting the quest for, nor access to, life-extension. The reason for this is that we have a right to life, which entitles us not to have meaningful life denied to us against our will and which does not allow discrimination solely on the grounds of age. If the threat of overpopulation creates a rights conflict between the right to come into existence, the right to reproduce, the right to more opportunities and space (if, indeed, these rights can be successfully defended), and the right to life, the latter ought to be given precedence.

  • 3. Cutas, Daniela
    On triparenting. Is having three committed parents better than having only two?2011In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 37, no 12, 735-738 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research indicates that single parenting is not by itself worse for children than their being brought up by both their parents, there are reasons why it is better for children to have more than one committed parent. If having two committed parents is better, everything else being equal, than having just one, I argue that it might be even better for children to have three committed parents. There might, in addition, be further reasons why allowing triparenting would benefit children and adults, at least in some cases. Whether or not triparenting is on the whole preferable to bi- or monoparenting, it does have certain advantages (as well as shortcomings) which, at the very least, warrant its inclusion in debates over the sorts of family structures we should allow in our societies, and how many people should be accepted in them. This paper has the modest aim of scratching the surface of this wider topic by challenging the necessity of the max-two-parents framework.

  • 4.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Giordano, Simona
    CSEP/ISEI, School of Law, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Is it a boy or a girl?: Who should (not) know children’s sex and why?2012In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the case of a couple who refused to disclose the sex of their child to others, and some of the responses that this case prompted in the international media. We outline the ethical issues that this case raises, and we place it into the more general context of parental preferences regarding the gender (development) of their children and of the impact on children of parental choices in the matter. Based on current knowledge of gender identity development, we identify some of the potential pitfalls of such a course of action and we briefly present some alternative strategies that could be implemented in order to ensure more freedom of gender formation in children.

  • 5.
    Forssén, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Meland, Eivind
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hetlevik, Irene
    Research Unit for General Practice, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Strand, Roger
    Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Rethinking scientific responsibility2011In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 37, no 5, 299-302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers should be made co-responsible for the wider consequences of their research focus and the application of their findings. This paper describes a meta-reflection procedure that can be used as a tool to enhance scientific responsibility and reflective practice. The point of departure is that scientific practice is situated in power relations, has direction and, consequently, power implications. The contextual preconditions and implications of research should be stated and discussed openly. The reflection method aims at revealing both upstream elements, such as for instance preconceptions, and downstream elements, for example, public consequences of research. The validity of research might improve from such discussions. Validity should preferably be understood as a broader concept than the methodological concerns in science.

  • 6.
    Grill, Kalle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Incentives, equity and the able chooser problem2017In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 43, no 3, 157-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviors in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivized options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behavior if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those that fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasized by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, do not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates.

  • 7.
    Grill, Kalle
    et al.
    Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Division of Philosophy, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Epistemic paternalism in public health2005In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 31, 648-653 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Receiving information about threats to one’s health can contribute to anxiety and depression. In contemporary medical ethics there is considerable consensus that patient autonomy, or the patient’s right to know, in most cases outweighs these negative effects of information. Worry about the detrimental effects of information has, however, been voiced in relation to public health more generally. In particular, information about uncertain threats to public health, from e.g. chemicals, are said to entail social costs that have not been given due consideration. This criticism implies a consequentialist argument for withholding such information from the public in their own best interest. In evaluating the argument for this kind of epistemic paternalism, the consequences of making information available must be compared to the consequences of withholding it. Consequences that should be considered include epistemic effects, psychological effects, effects on private decisions, and effects on political decisions. After giving due consideration to the possible uses of uncertain information and rebutting the claims that uncertainties imply small risks and that they are especially prone to entail misunderstandings and anxiety, it is concluded that there is a strong case against withholding of information about uncertain threats to public health.

  • 8.
    Grill, Kalle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Voigt, Kristin
    University of Oxford.
    The case for banning cigarettes2016In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 42, no 5, 293-301 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelong smokers lose on average a decade of life vis-à-vis non-smokers. Globally, tobacco causes about 5–6 million deaths annually. One billion tobacco-related deaths are predicted for the 21st century, with about half occurring before the age of 70. In this paper, we consider a complete ban on the sale of cigarettes and find that such a ban, if effective, would be justified. As with many policy decisions, the argument for such a ban requires a weighing of the pros and cons and how they impact on different individuals, both current and future. The weightiest factor supporting a ban, we argue, is the often substantial well-being losses many individuals suffer because of smoking. These harms, moreover, disproportionally affect the disadvantaged. The potential gains in well-being and equality, we argue, outweigh the limits a ban places on individuals’ freedom, its failure to respect some individuals’ autonomous choice and the likelihood that it may, in individual cases, reduce well-being.

  • 9. Lynöe, N
    et al.
    Jacobsson, L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lundgren, E
    Fraud, misconduct or normal science in medical research--an empirical study of demarcation.1999In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 25, no 6, 501-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty of the senior researchers and 25 of the postgraduate students answered the questionnaire. In five cases out of 14 the senior researchers' median was found to be clearly within the interval of the grey zone, compared with three cases for the postgraduate students. Three examples of experienced misconduct were provided. Compared with postgraduate students, established researchers do not call for more research ethical guidelines and restrictions. CONCLUSION: Although the results indicate that consensus exists regarding certain obvious types of misconduct the response pattern also indicates that there is no general consensus on several procedures.

  • 10.
    Smajdor, Anna
    et al.
    Norwich School of Medicine, University of East Anglia.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Artificial gametes and the ethics of unwitting parenthood2014In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 40, no 11, 748-751 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the ethical and legal implications of a hypothetical use of artificial gametes (AGs): that of taking a person’s cells, converting them to artificial gametes and using them in reproduction – without that person’s knowledge or consent. We note the common reliance on genetic understandings of parenthood in the law, and suggest that injustices may arise if unwitting genetic parents are sued for child support. We draw parallels between the hypothetical use of AGs to facilitate unwitting parenthood, and real examples of unwitting parenthood following cases of sperm theft. We also look at the harm that might be caused by becoming a genetic parent, independently of financial obligations, and ask whether such harm should be understood in terms of theft of property. These examples help to highlight some of the current and prospective  difficulties for the regulation of genetic and legal parenthood, and show how existing regulatory assumptions are likely to be further challenged by the development of AGs. We conclude by suggesting that the reliance on genetic connections to generate parental responsibility (financial or otherwise) for offspring is flawed, and that alternative ways of establishing parental responsibility should be considered.

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