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  • 1. Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Birkarlar and Sámi - inter-cultural contacts beyond state control: reconsidering the standing of external tradesmen (birkarlar) in medieval Sámi societies2016Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 52-80Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not until the fourteenth century that written records offer a glimpse into the coastal societies of Northern Sweden. Records include references to a social stratum referred to as the birkarlar, who were tradesmen engaged in trading with the Sami. The origin of the birkarlar, their prominent status and the meaning of the term, is an enigma that has been much disputed among scholars although there is consensus about the economic and fiscal supremacy of birkarlar vis-a-vis the Sami. However, the paradox of tradesmen employing force against their most important circle of suppliers and customers remains a puzzle. The birkarla institution is analyzed by means of alternative reading of historical records from the perspective of the indigenous Sami and coastal farming communities. The postulated animosity between Sami and the birkarlar is critically examined in light of the social and economic context of interior and coastal communities during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval period, and in relation to historically known Sami kinship relationships and marriage traditions. Data are analyzed with regard to demography and social structure, and from a landscape perspective including the logistics and practicalities of inter-cultural contact. Analyses corroborate that birkarlar were deeply rooted in the coastal communities and fully involved in the regular subsistence activities. They were representatives given a commission of trust and contacts between the birkarlar and the Sami were characterized by mutuality and inter-dependence.

  • 2.
    Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Silvermuseet, Institute for Subarctic Landscape Research (INSARC), Arjeplog, Sweden.
    Ramqvist, Per H.
    Silvermuseet, Institute for Subarctic Landscape Research (INSARC), Arjeplog, Sweden.
    Farmer-fishermen: interior lake fishing and inter-cultural and intra-cultural relations among coastal and interior Sámi communities in northern Sweden AD 1200–16002017Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 134-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the productive fishing grounds had long attracted the Crown and the Church to northern Sweden, it was not until the sixteenth century that the judicial and fiscal powers of the Swedish Crown were exercised in full. Records show that the regular fishing in interior lakes formed a prominent enterprise among coastal farmer communities. This paper examines the social and economic context of farmers engaged in interior fishing with respect to the internal organization of village communities, principles of private and collective ownership, land-use strategies and inter-community relations. There are no a-priori assumptions about the coastal population being “Swedish”. Instead of applying ethnonyms, the terms “farmer” and “coastal” are used throughout the paper. The main area of investigation includes the coastal area of northernmost Sweden and the western parts of Finnish Lapland. The study shows that interior lakes fitted into village resource areas, long sanctioned by usage, and that usufruct belonged to village members collectively. A large part of the fishing lakes are situated in interior Sámi territory. Fishermen were internalizing Sámi place names, implying close relations between the groups. Archeological investigations point to subsistence strategies including systemic interior lake fishing being established before AD 1200. The authors propose that coastal and interior communities should be perceived as two economic strategies representing indigenous and pre-colonial land-use schemes.

  • 3.
    Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Silvermuseet Arjeplog.
    Ramqvist, Per H
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Hunters of forests and waters: Late Iron Age and Medieval subsistence and social processes in coastal northern Sweden2018Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 1-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the course of the 14th century the Swedish Crown and the Catholic Church made robust attempts to include the areas beside the Bothnian bay within their central fiscal and clerical organization. Salmon fishing in the productive river rapids became major targets for external commercial interests. Written records inform us about the situation from the perspective of the exploiters. However, there is a story running in parallel – that of the local population already occupying the lands and the fishing grounds. The study aims to analyse the significance of hunting and fishing to the overall subsistence of coastal communities in northern Sweden during the period AD 500–1600. The social context is of particular interest, specifically in relation to the successive conformation by the local communities to the Swedish fiscal system. The study draws on archaeological records and on historical records from the 14th to the 17th century, in addition to ethnographic accounts for hunting and fishing. We conclude that the legal cultures embraced by the indigenous population and that of the Swedish central powers were in essence incompatible. The acquisition of land and fishing rights was never settled between two equal parties, but one-sidedly enforced by the party holding the pen.

  • 4.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A place in the memory of nation: minority policy towards the Finnish speakers in Sweden and Norway2002Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, ISSN 0800-3831, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 103-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is devoted to an analysis of language policy towards the Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden and Norway from the end of the nineteenth century until ca. 1940. After the 1880s, the language policy in both countries turned into a nationalistic phase. The common underlying doctrine was to transmit the majority language and culture to the minorities, in order to make them melt into an imagined homogeneous national culture. The minority policy was relatively similar in character in the two countries up to the end of the First World War. After that time it started to diverge. While Norway continued with an assimilative policy without compromises, Sweden adopted a somewhat modified policy. This altered policy in Sweden was partly due to the long continuity and minority status of the Sami and Torne Valley people in the Swedish nation state, but also to elements of modernization and international political change.

  • 5.
    Elenius, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Veiviser i det mangfoldige nord: Utvalgte artikler av Einar Niemi [Pathfinder in the Diverse North : Selected Articles by Einar Niemi]2015Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 100-102Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Elenius, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Were the "Kainulaiset" in the Kalix River valley Finnish or Swedish-speakers?: A reinterpretation of ethnonyms in Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia area from the Viking Age and onwards2018Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 143-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian ethnonym Kven and the Finnish ethnonym Kainulainen occurred at latest in the first millennium AD. A tacit truth held today is that the ethnonyms represent the same ancient Finnish-speaking group, only named differently by Norwegians and Finns. The aim of the article is to find out whether the ethnonyms have been used to designate different groups of people. The Finnish-speakers in the nearby Tornedalen has called the lower part of the Kalix River in northernmost Sweden the Kainuu River and the upper part Kaalas River after the original Sámi name of the river. According to theories on ethnicity they called the lower part the Kainuu River [Fin. Kainuunväylä] because they wanted to mark out the Swedish speakers of different ethnicity, who they called Kainulaiset. The latter mainly settled the lower part of the river in the Middle Ages and Finnish-speakers the upper part. The article reveals that the Sámi variety Gainolâš was used by the Sámi for depicting dominant majority populations of different ethnicity, especially Scandinavians, but sometimes also Finns. It also argues that Finnish settlers in southern Finland and the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia used Kainulainen for depicting Swedish settlers when the two language groups first encountered.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-04-30 00:00
  • 7.
    Heith, Anne
    Universitetet i Tromsö.
    An Arctic Melting-Pot: The Byzantine Legacy and Bengt Pohjanen's Construction of a Tornedalian Aesthetic2010Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, nr 1, s. 24-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Heith, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Valkeapää's Use of Photographs in Beaivi áhčážan: Indigenous Counter-History versus Documentation in the Age of Photography 2014Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 41-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the photographic material of the Sami cultural mobilizer Nils-Aslak Valkeapaa's Beaivi ahcazan (The Sun, My Father), published in 1988, with theoretical perspectives from anti- and postcolonial studies. The analysis focuses on how Valkeapaa's use of photographs involves that the colonial past is examined from the vantage point of the anti-colonial present of the 1980s. Valkeapaa's re-contextualization of photographs from ethnographic collections assembled in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in a book he called a family album of the Sami is discussed as an example of Sami counter-history that is part of the decolonization process. When analysed with perspectives from anti- and postcolonial studies, the documentation of the way of life of the Sami people in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries exemplifies a practice which has constructed the Sami as the others of modern society. The article discusses how the construction of the Sami as the others of modernity is deconstructed and challenged in present-day indigenous identity politics.

  • 9.
    Leu, Traian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Tourism as a livelihood diversification strategy among Sámi indigenous people in northern Sweden2019Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 75-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism entrepreneurship is frequently promoted as a livelihood strategy for Sámi indigenous people living in northern Sweden. At the same time, tourism’s ability to fully take over struggling primary sectors has been brought into question, due perhaps to a mismatch of skills or to tourism’s seasonality and low pay. In spite of that, the role of tourism development might relate less to financial autonomy but could best be characterized as being supplementary and complementary to other occupations. Additionally, the motivations behind tourism involvement among Sámi tourist entrepreneurs remain largely unknown. This interview-based study therefore aims to uncover why Sámi indigenous tourist entrepreneurs living in northern Sweden get involved in tourism and to what extent tourism is part of a livelihood diversification strategy. The findings show that a combination of factors such as lifestyle choices, existing touristic demand and readily available forms of capital lead people to become tourist entrepreneurs. At the same time, for some respondents, tourism is part of a livelihood diversification strategy where its development is not sought for replacing a struggling traditional occupation, namely reindeer herding, but for complementing it.

  • 10.
    Lindmark, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Pietism and Colonialism: Swedish Schooling in Eighteenth-century Sápmi2006Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 116-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ethnicboundaries and boundary-making in handicrafts: examples from northern Norway,Sweden and Finland2018Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 29-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When ethnicity is said to be manifest and practised through handicrafts, these seemingly innocent objects become political. They raise questions concerning who can do what handicraft, who can use what symbols or what developments are“allowed”. They illustrate the continuous production of ethnic norms and boundaries, especially when global tourism enters into the equation. Taking a social constructivist perspective, our study addresses ethnic boundaries and boundary-making in handicrafts in northern Sweden, Norway and Finland. Our findings are based on fieldwork (35 interviewees) with people of diverse local backgrounds making and selling handicrafts. Methodologically, we avoid preselecting people based on ethnicity, but instead contribute to an understanding of the constitutive processes of ethnicity by looking at how ethnic talk comes into conversations about handicrafts. Our findings demonstrate that the interviewees draw an ethnic divide between“Sámi”/“non-Sámi”, while other ethnic-choices move to the background. This divide can be seen to be amplified by tourism. The boundary for who can make a Sámi handicraft or use Sámi symbols remains significant, yet also fluid. The article deepens the understanding of the Sámi/non-Sámi ethnic categorization, here in relation to handicrafts. It also helps unravel the complexities between tourism, ethnicities and handicrafts more broadly.

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