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  • 1.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ‘Arja Rantanen, Pennförare i periferin: Österbottniska sockenskrivare 1721–1868’2017In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 83, no 1Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Brandenburg-Prussia, 1466-1806: Karin Friedrich2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 171-172Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Makt och människor. Europeisk statsbildning från medeltiden till franska revolutionen: Harald Gustafsson2012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 140-141Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Tidigmodern statsformering2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 145-146Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783: John Brewer2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 150-151Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bergner, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Recension av Rysk spegel: svenska berättelser om Sovjetunionen - och om Sverige2009In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 104-106Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dermineur, Elise M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France: State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 149-150Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Att komma till Scott: teorins roll inom svensk genushistoria2012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 2, Supplement, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author discusses the specific contribution of theory to the field of Swedish gender history, and especially in relation to one dominant paradigm coined by the historian Yvonne Hirdman in the early 1990s. Scholars working in this field frequently refer to the American historian Joan Scott, but almost exclusively as the author of the article "Gender: a useful category for historical analysis". It is suggested that this limited reading of Scott is symptomatic of a tendency towards protectionism and stagnation. In order to effect a change, the suggestion is that more recent works by Scott be included in the general reading, not only for historians of gender, but for historians in general, and likewise that the field of history should be more alert to critical theory.

  • 9.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Den kulturella förevändningen: om historieämnet, poststrukturalismen och konflikten som inte får finnas2009In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 75, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Den odödliga historien: narrationen, händelsen och det förflutna2012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 11-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a reading of Karen Blixen's short story 'The immortal Story', the author explores the limits of historiography and the risks of confusing narrative with lived life. By critically examining the work of the philosopher Adriana Cavarero and the historian Frank Ankersmitt, the idea that narrative constitutes subjecthood is questioned. Instead, negativity and the death drive, as elaborated on in the work of literary scholar Lee Edelman, are used to demonstrate how the life of Mr Clay, the main character in the novel, is positioned as completely meaningless because of his lack of a narrative. While Cavarero shares Blixen's contempt for Mr Clay, rejecting his attempt to re-enact an old sailor's tale, this article suggests another approach based on a constitutive excess of the presented (positions, events) rather than an excess of representations (stories, narratives, etc.), where Mr Clay can be seen as struggling to demonstrate this ontological fact. It is argued that the inability to acknowledge the de-radicalizing limits of representation is symptomatic of a hermeneutic understanding of life and history, where meaning and comprehension are only acknowledged when neatly packaged as narration and continuity. To propose another view of the past, the author introduces the philosopher Quentin Meillassoux's critique of phenomenology and Alain Badiou's concept of the event, where the historians' main methodology - that of historicizing -not only becomes superfluous as a method, but is also revealed as the main culprit in the de-radicalization of both the past and the present. It behoves historians to scrutinize the foundations on which they build their research and to contemplate other methods and theories hitherto thought inapplicable where segmented or anachronistic history based on a strong affiliation ('fidelity') with ideology may be one example.

  • 11.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Därför är vi historiker2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Recension av Joan W. Scott ; The fantasy of feminist history2012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 137-138Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Recension av Peter Aronsson (red.); Platser för en bättre värld. Auschwitz, Ruhr och röda stugor2010In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 187-189Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ekerholm, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ett nationellt drivmedel: etanol i svensk politik 1924-19342013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 63-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the political efforts to establish ethanol as a national fuel in Sweden in 1924 - 1934. Drawing on official records - the transcripts of parliamentary debates, governmental commission reports, and government bills and legislation - ethanol is considered as a technological and political artefact, with a particular focus on a strongly ideological fuel policy intended to bring about technological change.

    At the time, considerable political effort went into finding and establishing a national fuel, efficient and abundant enough to support the nation's requirements for essential products. This was by no means a uniquely Swedish undertaking. Nation-states all over the industrialized world sought domestic fuel alternatives, prompted by the expected depletion of oil reserves and the fear of renewed international conflict. In that period, Swedish ethanol was distilled from fermented sulphite lye, a waste product from paper and pulp production. It was therefore presented as a lucrative solution for a waste problem, and, as it was produced within the nation-state's borders, a promising wartime surrogate. However, ethanol was more expensive than petrol, which made it less marketable during peacetime. To cover losses, the ethanol industry requested state support in the form of tax exemptions and legislation to force petrol importers to blend ethanol into all marketed petrol.

    Those who argued in favour of the ethanol industry's requests were mainly right-wing politicians, who based their arguments on a nationalist ideology that national collective benefit justified state intervention in the free market. Opposition was mainly mounted by a faction in the Social Democrat party. For them, any measure that made products more expensive for consumers was unthinkable. They also argued that the ethanol industry had reached the end of the line; any production without the means and capacity to support itself should make way for its competitors. Concerns about the anticipated international conflict, however, led the Social Democrat minister for finance, Ernst Wigforss, to concede to the demands of the ethanol industry. In 1934, he thus proposed legislation that largely corresponded to claims made by right-wing politicians and the influential forestry industry, of which ethanol production was a part.

  • 15.
    Jarlbrink, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Telegrafen på distans: ett digitalt metodexperiment2018In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 9-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitization of historical records not only creates new research opportunities but also challenges. Documents may be searched online and digital tools may be used for finding patterns in large datasets. Yet, the quality of digitized material is often low and it may be difficult for researchers to evaluate this material when hidden behind interfaces. My aim in this article is to explore a digitized newspaper and the associated problems and opportunities. My exploration is guided by the following question: What was written about the electrical telegraph in Aftonbladet in the 1830s, 1840s and 1850s? The files of the digitized Aftonbladet for the years 1830-1862 contain massive amounts of corrupted words generated by the OCR engine. Another problem is that the tool used for auto-segmentation has merged separate text items into single text blocks and split long texts into smaller parts. The digitization process is not a neutral text transfer from one medium to another, it is a process generating new texts never printed in the original newspaper. In order to find as many (corrupted) versions of the words "electrical" and "telegraph" as possible, the text files were searched with a Levhinstein distance of two (allowing for two letters to be added, replaced or missing). The words that were found were used as search words to identify texts blocks reporting on the electrical telegraph. To find themes in the texts, a co-occurrence search was carried out, identifying clusters of words frequently co-occurring. Previous research has focused on utopian ideas associated with this technology and the telegraph as an immaterial form of communication obliterating physical space. The clusters identified in the digital analysis suggest that more mundane topics dominated the newspaper: the electrical telegraph was described as a material form of communication controlled by bureaucracy, depending on and emphasizing geographical conditions. Digital databases make new research possible, but the low quality of digitized texts results in uncertainties concerning the results. Researchers using these databases need to be aware of the digital forms and interfaces regulating research practices.

  • 16. Jarlbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Nyblom, Andreas
    Aviatik och journalistik: Flygbaronen och medierna kring 19102012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 13-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first years of the twentieth century, numerous attempts were made at powered flight. What is commonly labelled 'the pioneer era' (1900-1914) covers the unsteady beginnings of the motorized airplane as well as its large-scale introduction in warfare and for the transportation of goods and passengers. Initially regarded as a foolish toy for hazardous adventure, the airplane rapidly became a favoured symbol of modernity, and the engineers, pilots, and entrepreneurs involved were celebrated as the heroes of progress. However, the quick change in opinion regarding the use and benefit of airplanes was not only prompted by the technical skill of the inventors or the bravery of the flyers. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the media history of early aviation, including the celebrity pilot as an important means by which aviation was publicly experienced and popularized. Through a case study of the mediatization of the first Swedish aviator, Carl Cederstrom (1867-1918), the article explores the interplay of the press, other kinds of media, and advertising in the introduction of the motorized airplane in Sweden in around 1910. At this time, air shows and competitions were being arranged all over the world. The media coverage was massive, and the aviators were frequently interviewed and celebrated. The press, however, did not only report on the events. By offering prizes and arranging competitions, individual newspapers played an active role in the introduction of powered flight. When the Stockholm Air Show was held in 1910 and 1911, one of the Stockholm dailies, Dagens Nyheter, was among the main organizers. The relation between the air show and the press coverage can be interpreted in terms of a feedback loop: the reporting drew attention to the show; the show became a mass attraction; and the papers reported it even more. At the centre of attention was always the aviator Cederstrom himself, popularly known as 'The Flying Baron'. The status of this persona and the participation of the press, the cinema, and postcard publishers also made the air shows attractive for sponsors such as champagne houses, patent medicine companies, and manufacturers of fire equipment. It was this joint attention that quickly transformed a limited concern into national awareness. When the Swedish armed forces in 1912 sought funding for its first aircraft, the politicians were easily convinced of the benefits of aviation.

  • 17.
    Johanna, Overud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    [Recension av: Edgren, Monika: Hem tar plats]2010In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 184-185Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Från giftermål till vigsel - från ett till två kött?: Om äktenskapet och förståelsen av kön, ca. 1650-18002003In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sunt förnuft och skattebetalarens kön: Skattebetalarnas förening i 1960-talets sambeskattningsdebatt2016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 70-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the Swedish Taxpayers' Association acted and reacted with regard to the political question of joint or individual taxation in Sweden during the 1960s, addressing how expressions of the taxpayer transformed, how the taxpayer was gendered and how the relationship between state, households and individuals changed. The theoretical and methodological approach is based on Carol Lee Bacchi's use of discourse theory on political issues, focusing on perceptions of gender and taxpaying. Individual taxation was introduced in Sweden in 1971. Through other reforms, such as social security and child care, the Nordic countries laid the foundation for changing the relationships between state and individuals, as well as between the sexes. Previous research has studied different actors who worked for and against the tax reform; however, right-wing organizations are not studied to the same extent as liberal or social democratic organizations. The Swedish Taxpayers' Association is characterized as non-socialist, whose goal was to cut taxes and scrutinize how taxpayers' money was used by state and local governments. In the early 1960s, there was an obvious norm of the taxpayer as male. If married, he was the breadwinner and his wife was not seen an economic subject. If she worked, both the joint taxation and other costs, such as for maids, were put on top of her income. Despite the male norm, the family or the mother were connected to children. When the issue appeared on the political agenda, the information changed and women were now conceivable as both taxpayers and wage earners. However, the male breadwinner norm was still dominant. From now on, the critique focused on the progressive elements in the tax system. The information material had to be revised in 1965, as a reform of voluntary individual taxation was introduced. Especially for families with high double incomes, it now became beneficial to use individual taxation, and thereby the idea of the woman as an individual economic unit developed further. The association accepted the reform of 1970, also due to the needs of the business sector. Conservative arguments concerning family faded away during these years, whereas the norm of the taxpayer was still male.

  • 20.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lindström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rum för röstande: om kön, klass och valdeltagande vid stadsfullmäktigevalen i Gävle 1910 och 19122011In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 36-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to apply gender perspective to a wide-ranging study of different actors’ dealings during the Gavle City Council elections of 1910 and 1912 in order to analyse local political culture in the wake of the 1909 reforms to the Local Government Act. Taking as the starting-point the idea of political culture and the actions of various key figures at the time of the election, the focus is on the gendering of Swedish politics once women’s suffrage had been introduced. The results are based on an intersectional analysis of the electorate’s behaviour, using electoral rolls, population registers, and press reports. The study includes local women’s organization’s strategies to increase women’s political participation, as well as the part played by the local branches of the political parties. Seen in the national context, Gavle was unusual - three women won seats on the City Council in 1910, in the run-up to which the local Society for Women’s Suffrage had run a spirited campaign to ensure that the women candidates got to stand in safe seats. All the newspapers in 1910 carried exhortations to voters of both sex to exercise their votes, and several newspapers reported an enthusiastic election turn-out amongst women.

    Two years later the Society for Women’s Suffrage had split, losing some of its influence in the process. Before the 1912 election, moreover, no women were selected to stand for a safe seats, and the newspapers’ reporting of the election tended to render the female electorate invisible, which in itself gave a somewhat misleading picture of the situation, bearing in mind that in the event similar numbers of women would vote in this election as had done in the previous one. Otherwise, in terms of the actual turn-out, it is noticeable that the male and female electorate adhered to the same social pattern - the rich, as always, voted in far greater numbers than those with few votes (municipal suffrage was income-based in such a way as an individual could have two or more votes in the same election). Yet there were also some noticeable differences between the sexes. The majority of the female electorate were unmarried women with few votes; a majority of the men who turned out to vote were married and well established. Since all the political parties without exception put up male candidates in the 1912 election, and chose to address their propaganda to a gender-neutral electorate, they tapped a fundamental characteristic of political culture that had deep historical roots. We would therefore argue that the actions of the local branch of the Society for Women’s Suffrage prior to the 1910 election were crucial in establishing the fact of women as political citizens.

  • 21.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Manlighetens flytande gränser. Om manlighet som analytisk kategori i historiska analyser.2008In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 83-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Exactly what does masculinity refer to in historical analyses? And how is it to be separated from other analytical categories like class and ethnicity? The aim of this article is to discuss how the concept masculinity – ”manlighet” – has been applied in some recent historical studies by Swedish historians. Masculinity plays a central role in Christopher Collstedts doctoral thesis Justice and the duellist: Crimes of duelling and Perceptions of Masculinity in the Final Phases of Sweden’s Period as a Great power (2007). One central point in Collstedt’s study is that indicted duellists were not afraid to base their narratives of defence on behaviours, emotions and physical states of helplessness and despair which were traditionally associated with unmanliness, but on the contrary often referred to themselves as peaceful, meek and in need of protection. Collstedt links this to an early modern fluidity of masculinity and the repertoire of a Christian virtuous lifestyle, which was prescribed for both men and women. Christian virtues permitted men to be meek without giving up on their masculinity. But Collstedt also goes one step further and argues that Christian virtues like meekness were attributed to masculinity in relation to crimes of duels. How this was done is however not demonstrated by the author. The question of the historian’s criteria for labelling descriptions of attitudes and behaviour as expressions of masculinity is brought to a head. This becomes even more obvious in Kekke Stadin’s Gender and estate in Sweden’s Age of Greatness (2004). After describing several different ”masculinities” in early modern Swedish society, the author states that in the eyes of the 17th century, only ”warriors” could be manly, referring to the contemporary usage of the Swedish term ”manlig” as synonymous with brave. In the absence of a clear definition of masculinity as an analytical category, the risk is that the historian in this way will limit the analysis either to what is expressively labelled ”manly” in the source material, or expand the concept to descriptions of whatever men do and say which could be taken as normative or prestigious. A more precise definition of masculinity should start from an understanding of gender as the continuous establishment of cultural meanings for (what is recognized as) the fundamental bodily differences between the sexes in a given historical culture. Exactly what is brought forth as the essential differences and how these have been understood has varied over time, but the fact that such differences are recognized and ascribed specific qualities as masculine and feminine respectively, comprise the elementary logic of gender and thus also of masculinity. This means that the historian must be able to show that a connection (immediate or metaphorical) was made by contemporaries between a described ideal, attitude or behaviour and (what was held as) specific qualities, physical attributes and abilities of male bodies, before labelling the phenomenon as an historical expression of masculinity. The article ends with some suggestions for a rhetorical perspective on masculinity and an alternative interpretation of possible connections between excessive violence and unmanliness.

  • 22.
    Norrhem, Svante
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Arkiv och perspektiv: Finns det en motsättning mellan populärhistoria och genushistoria?2011In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the history books and articles that address a broader readership tend to focus on 'great men'. Popular history publications often offer a form of history that is problematic in its gendering, and that often bears no relation to cutting-edge historical research and/or the historical canon. In view of this, it behoves the writers of popular history to be more aware of their choice of perspective and to adopt a more robust approach to source criticism. Designating the issue outlined here as a type of 'methodological gender-blindness' points to the fact that it is one aspect of a wider structural problem. Since historians have in the past been at the forefront of the development and dissemination of gender theories, it is argued here that it is of the greatest importance for the continued social relevance of the discipline as a whole that historians engage the public by means of popular history. Academic historians should face the challenge of writing works of popular history and of bringing their critical skills to bear on popular history products.

  • 23.
    Norén, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Statens informationslogik och den audiovisuella upplysningen 1945—19602014In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 66-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The period 1945–1960 was characterized in Swedish history by the rapidacceleration of state-led social reform. As part of this, there was a general feeling that film should be pressed into use for educational purposes. This article examines the activities of two public committees, the Committeefor Public Information (Kommittén för social upplysning, 1946–9) and the Committee for Public Information Films (Kommittén för social upplysningsfilm,1950–9). The two committees’ remit was to produce films that focused on social reform. This begs an important question. How did the use of film affect the official audiovisual information put out by the Swedish state in the period 1945–60? To better understand the conflict between official public information and the rules of the commercial film market, two different logics are considered, both defined by three variables: resources (small versus large), content (objective versus entertainment), andorganization (state/corporativism–private versus the market). The conceptof mediatization is used to understand how official public information was affected by the rules and rationale of the commercial film industry. The results indicate that there was a clear political agenda that drove the committees to make the film content in an attractive way, and the archival research shows how the committees obeyed these directions. Despite the turn in the popularization of film production, the committees took a clear standagainst trying their hand at pure entertainment. Instead, they preferred theideals of the British documentary tradition. The up shot was a compromise between the two logics. As for resources, the state logic was the determining factor here, and the committees never got much money, certainly not compared to the commercial film market. As for their organization, the committees were never able have their own rules and preferences, since the logic of the market was too strong.The analysis shows that state-controlled audiovisual information is best characterized as finding a middle way between the logic of official public information and the logic of the commercial film market. The committees’ momentum slackened in the second half of the 1950s, yet, even so, the results indicate that this should not be interpreted as a lack of faith in the audiovisual form as a force to be reckoned with in public education. Insteadit merely reflects a shift in preference from film to television.

  • 24.
    Petersson, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Gunnela Björk, Olof Palme och medierna2006In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 136-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Åström Elmersjö, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Historievetenskap och historieundervisning: Sven Ulric Palme och 1950-talets läroböcker i historia för folkskolan2017In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 10-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1950 and 1958 the Swedish historian Sven Ulric Palme (1912–1977) was engaged in a vivid discussion on historical scholarship and history teaching in schools. This article utilizes these debates in an examination of the relationship between scholarship and teaching, by especially focusing on Palme’s criticism of history textbooks and his own textbook written for ages 10–12 and published in 1956. By focusing on a controversial historian, like Palme, who previously criticized the history textbooks used in Swedish schools, the aim is to shed light on how debates on the relationship between scholarship and teaching emphasizes different dimensions of historical cultures. The results of the study show how scholarship and teaching are dichotomized in the concepts historical science versus pedagogical issues or historical science versus ideological conceptions. In both cases the historical sciences are seen as objective and untouchable. However, the study also shows how this dichotomy is difficult to uphold, as historical scholarship, as well as historical culture in general, is always a matter of negotiation. The results of historical scholarship are part of a negotiation over what history is interesting and important for the cultural community that it is supposed to make sense of. History textbooks are part of the same negotiation and the content of them are not the result of historical scholarship trickling down, instead the negotiation continues as the example of Palme’s textbook shows.

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