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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 203-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 6-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 278-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 4.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    From state railway housekeeping to railway economics: Swedish railway policy and economic transformation after 1920 in an institutional perspective1996Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 23-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the development of Swedish railway policy in the twentieth century is interpreted as a process of institutional change where the effects of real economic development are filtered through the railway's established institutional framework. The change in railway policy is seen as a result of an economic historical process where the industrialisation era's conception of the role of railways in society survives in institutional arrangements, and marks the railways adjustment to present-day economic and soical conditons.

  • 5.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    National patterns and the regulation of railways and telephony in the Nordic Countries up to 19502000Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 30-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the railways, as the first national industrialization project, became role models for public regulatory solutions in other industries in the same country.  However, it still has to be explored if the institutional arrangements have actually been transferred from the railways to other industries. Comparative country analysis may increase our understanding of how institutions changes and eventually are ‘inherited’ by other industries. In this paper the question of whether or not the bias of the railway policy in the various Nordic countries found its way into a later emerging network industry, the telephone industry is discussed. The result shows that even as similar railway regulations emerged in the Nordic countries from the 1920s, the regulation of the telephone industries did not emerge along the same lines. Here, two different regulatory trajectories were established, one in Sweden and Norway and another one in Denmark and Finland. Here other factors such as for instance political bargaining power and national and regional development strategies must be taken into consideration.

  • 6.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Swedish economic history writing: self-suffiency or recognition of the international context?2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 75-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Bohman, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Deal with it!: The emergence and reversal of an agro-ecological crisis, Southern Sweden in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 206-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Early Modern period provides examples of stagnating and even declining production and energy consumption per capita, which can be interpreted as indicators of an emerging crisis. With a focus on agriculture sector, some have suggested that the crisis was ‘conditional’ – meaning that a crisis can only be observed in some cases. This article investigates one such case, a village in Southern Sweden during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and investigates the mechanisms that mediate population growth to deteriorating living standards and environmental degradation. It provides new insights into the conditions of pre-industrial agriculture, particularly as regards the consequences of intensified demand pressure in ecologically fragile areas, and argues that human societies must be studied in tandem with their natural surroundings.

  • 8.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Recension av Robert W. Fogel, "The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100"2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 324-325Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Review of: Donald Harman Akenson, Ireland, Sweden and the Great European migration 1815–1914. McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history, series two, number 302014Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 96-98Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    The inter-war land reforms in Estonia, Finland and Bulgaria: A comparative study2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 64-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the development and performance of the interwar land reforms in Estonia, Finland and Bulgaria: three countries within the so-called Agrarian Reform Zone, which constituted previous parts of the Russian and Ottoman Empires heavily influenced by the Russian revolutions. In spite of their different scope and outlook these land reforms aimed at solving similar problems of an agrarian and socio-economic developmental character. Finland and Estonia underwent wars of liberation when seceding from revolutionary Russia: Finland also had to go through civil war before the land redistributions took place. In Bulgaria, however, land redistribution had been an ongoing theme since the late 1870s when autonomy from the Ottoman Empire was achieved. The interwar land expropriation and redistribution was most profound and radical in Estonia. The gradual Finnish reforms were also radical from the perspective of the precarious political situation they aimed at solving. Bulgaria's less thorough reform was nevertheless radical from the perspective of its agrarian ideological aspirations. These land reforms must therefore be seen as a part of the interwar state-building process and struggle for independence: peasant movements were influential in all three cases and geographical proximity to revolutionary Russia had impacts on their outcomes. The study emphasises that by exploring and comparing the profound interwar land redistributions, we can gain a better understanding of current problems, such as those resulting from the post-socialist de-collectivisation: e.g. the return to small-scale family farming by means of restitution, in countries that were subjugated to a command economy after World War II. For this reason interwar Finland's different road and sustained national independence makes an interesting comparison, since Finland shared several features with the land reform zone countries before the Russian revolution of 1917 and not least during the 1920s and 1930s. In the case of Estonia and Bulgaria, however, the development path was interrupted by Soviet expansion.

  • 11.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Store drømmer og harde realiteter: Veibygging og biltrafikk i Norge, 1912–1960 [Big dreams and hard realities: roadbuilding and car traffic in Norway, 1912–1960]2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 107-109Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Two Sides of the same Coin?: Private car ownership in Sweden and Norway since 19502009Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 172-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Norwegian private car density has lagged behind the Swedish and did not reach same national levels until the late 1980s, despite the same GDP per capita levels. Can both the time lag and the diffusion process be explained with national differences in income, institutions, infrastructure and population settlements? Or have regional differences in income and population density affected the outcome? The aim of this article is to compare car diffusion in Norway and Sweden in order to find explanations for the national and regional patterns of car diffusion. The conclusion is that car diffusion in Norway and Sweden displays two sides of same coin; the national levels converged, but the process did not follow the same regional pattern. Regional differences in income and population density have in general been a significant explanation for car density in Sweden, but not in Norway.

  • 13.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    An historical wealth assessment – measuring the Swedish national wealth for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 122-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides historical account of wealth accumulation and composition in Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A detailed account on capital formation during the industrialisation process shows that produced capital grew faster than natural capital from the 1850s. Natural capital was changing from a predominance of forest towards crop land as the main asset in the early twentieth century. Produced capital was largely bounded in the agriculture sector up till the second half of the nineteenth century. Heavy investments in the infrastructure sector and later in the manufacturing section changed the produced capital structure and thereby lowered transport costs and return of investment in manufacturing and services; providing incentives for accumulating the stock of produced capital and enhance consumption and living standard. The return on capital was dispersed from the outset of the period but has converged over time.

  • 14.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    From organic to fossil and in-between: new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–19132018Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 18-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913 are used for interpreting the Swedish industrialisation process from an energy economic perspective. For one we conclude that the revision of previous estimates is substantial when it comes to manufacturing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increase of coal consumption, the expansion of the fossil or mineral energy system, to a high degree can be explained by the increased use of steam engines in manufacturing and the transport sector. Finally, we conclude that overall energy intensity patterns is largely determined by assumptions on household firewood consumption. A narrative interpretation of the interplay between energy system transformation and the industrialisation in Sweden concludes the article.

  • 15.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Vikström, Peter
    Growth and structural change in Sweden and a story of convergence Finland, 1870–1990: a story of convergence2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 46-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies convergence between Finland and Sweden during the 1870-1990 period. Convergence is defined primarily as convergence in income levels and Growth rates, but the article also examines divergence and convergence in economic structure.  It studies both the performance of the total economy and the manufacturing industry sector, the latter with special attention to multifactor productivity as an indicator of technical progress.  The results suggest that  Finnish manufacturing  industry  was  not  obviously  backward  in  comparison  with  its  Swedish  counterpart,  and that convergence, particularly during the post-war period, was influenced by falling profit shares in Swedish manufacturing industry. It is hypothesized that certain Swedish institutions may account for this.

  • 16.
    Norlander, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Entrepreneurs during the early industrialization in Sweden: Review article1992Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 89-94Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17. Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Firm-collaboration and environmental adaptation.: the case of the Swedish pulp- and paper industry 1900-19902012Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 2, nr 60, s. 183-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the importance of research and development (R&D) collaboration for environmental adaptation in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. It reviews the collaborative efforts initiated during the first half of the twentieth century, and investigates in particular how these efforts were influenced by the advent of modern environmental legislation in the late 1960s. We find that during the early period the underlying motives for environmental R&D collaboration were related to the presence of local resistance to pollution, over time turning into increased requirements from tightening environmental regulation. When the Swedish Environmental Protection Act was implemented in 1969, the long-lasting tradition of collaborative R&D activities facilitated the development and the adaptation of cleaner technologies in the sector. The article concludes that in the case of the Swedish pulp and paper industry, the significant environmental improvements witnessed during the 1960s and onwards can only be fully comprehended by acknowledging the role of the industry-wide collaborative activities in R&D. The positive outcomes of this collaboration were in turn reinforced by an environmental regulation system, which facilitated long-term investments in environmental R&D and, in contrast to their Finnish and American counterparts, encouraged internal process changes in the industry.

  • 18.
    Vikström, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Avango, Dag
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Swedish Steel and Global Resource Colonialism: Sandviken's Quest for Turkish Chromium, 1925-19502017Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 307-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses Swedish industry’s attempts to secure strategic raw materials in an era of global resource colonialism. More precisely, it tells the story of how Sandvikens Jernverk – a leading Swedish steel producer – set out to secure its need for chromium ore during the Interwar Era. Up to the late 1920s, Sandviken sourced its chromium from British and French colonies. However, the company feared the British Empire’s growing dominance in the global chromium ore market. In 1928, then, Sandviken joined forces with several other Swedish steel producers, forming a consortium that, with ample help from Swedish foreign policy actors, managed to establish an independent source of chromium ore in Turkey. This project, however, which took the form of an Istanbul-based mining company, made big losses and was abandoned after only a few years. The project failed because of changes in the world chromium market, the global economic crisis, conflicts with the company’s Turkey-based managing director and the Swedish reluctance to scale up mining in such a way that the chromium ore might compete with Rhodesian, New Caledonian and Baluchistani ore.

1 - 18 av 18
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