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  • 1.
    Eklöf, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ekerholm, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Promoting ethanol in the shadow of oil dependence: 100 years of arguments and frictions in Swedish politics2012In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 621-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On a political level, Swedish transport ethanol has always been embedded in visions of an alternative, brighter future. Arguments in support of ethanol have been reiterated throughout the 20th and 21st century, exhibiting a striking stability over time. At the same time, the contexts in which arguments for ethanol have been raised have undergone dramatic shifts. This article investigates the historical contingencies of three empirical cases, covering the interwar years, the aftermath of the oil crises of the 1970s and the 21st century's concerns over global warming. It concludes with the observation that despite political convictions about ethanol's commercial, military and environmental potential, domestic production has not managed to take off on its own. It has relied on state support such as tax exemptions, it has been dependent on other industries for feedstock provision and its technical superiority is still waiting for market confirmation.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Materiality, rhetoric and emotion in the Pietà: the Virgin Mary in images of piety in 15th century Sweden2016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the representation of materiality on wall paintings, as depicted objects functioned as triggers of emotion to convey meaning in images. In medieval aesthetics images were made to engage all the senses in the spectator so as to create a truthful experience. The material perspective combines well with medieval rhetoric in understanding this process, particularly the concepts of ekphrasis, enargeia and ductus. By doing close readings of images, and identifying materials, figures, objects, gestures and so on, in the same manner as one can close read texts, narratives of the images can be discovered. It is also a reading that helps in identifying emotive expressions and rhetorical gestures that together with material aspects of images and texts also help in identifying gender-related contents. During the 15th century the Pietà (the mourning Virgin Mary holding her dead son) was introduced in Sweden. The image is key in understanding the Marian cult as it was established alongside the expanding devotion to the Virgin in the Nordic countries. By fusing the material aspect and rhetoric in a close reading of the motif that focuses on gender and emotion this study aims to find alternative paths in analysing medieval art. 

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Regional Policy as Interaction between National Institutions and Regional Science: The Nordic Growth Centre Policies, 1965-19802013In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 367-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a reaction to emerging regional imbalances, discussions regarding growth centre policy began in the Nordic countries during the latter part of the 1960s. At this time, a working group within EFTA provided a policy option based on international theories from urban and agglomeration economics. Within the actual growth centre policies in Norway, Sweden and Finland, central elements from the EFTA concept related to the scale of the centres were however not adopted. Instead, growth centres were located to places which had a smaller population than the 30 000 inhabitants recommended by the EFTA concept. This outcome was related to the fact that the EFTA concept was adapted to the existing regional policy institutions. As these institutions were egalitarian and redistributive in character, the Nordic growth centre policies favoured a more dispersed settlement structure than suggested by the EFTA concept.

  • 4.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gendered death risks among disabled individuals in sweden: A case study of the 19th-century Sundsvall region2016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 160-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study follows around 500 disabled individuals over their lifespan to examine their risks of dying in 19th-century society, in comparison to a reference group of non-disabled people. The aim is to detect whether people, due to their disability, had a higher probability of meeting an untimely death. We use Sweden’s 19th-century parish registers to identify people the ministers defined as disabled, and to construct a reference group of individuals who were not affected by these disabilities. By combining the deviance theories from sociology studies with demographic sources and statistical methods, we achieve new insight into how life developed for disabled people in past societies. The results suggest that disability significantly jeopardized the survival of individuals, particularly men, but also that the type of disability had an impact. Altogether, we can demonstrate that the disabled constituted a disadvantaged but heterogeneous group of people whose demography and life courses must be further researched.

  • 5.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Matrimony, property and power: marriage settlements in Sweden 1870-19202011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 443-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores marriage settlements in national political debate and legal usage in three Swedish towns, c. 1870–1920. During this period one of the central issues for the Swedish women's movement was to abolish the legalized male dominance within marriage. Despite some ambiguities towards marriage settlements, the women's movement tried to encourage women to write up contracts before marriage, as a way to both protect their property and to achieve more power within marriage. Traditionally, marriage settlements were exceptions in Swedish legal practice, but they became somewhat more common during the period under investigation. This development could be explained by the population increase and industrialization, but only partially. The analysis of the initiators, their social background and civil status as well as the change of contents in the marriage settlements are interpreted not only as reflections of economic change, but as evidence of female agency and emancipation.

  • 6.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Negotiating charity: emotions, gender, and poor relief in Sweden at the turn of the 19th century2016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the role of emotions as charity and poor relief expanded in late 18th- and early 19th-century Sweden, with a special focus on how fundraising was expressed in the local media. It was important for the local press to include almsgivers and to mobilize their ability to give when a more well-organized poor relief managed by men of the expanding middle class developed. The needs of the poor and the charity that were described and discussed were almost always dealing with the socalled 'worthy' poor. It was important that the almsgivers gave voluntarily and with joy. This was necessary for both women and men. Furthermore, it was important for both sexes, irrespective of whether the gifts consisted of money or goods, to give from the Christian heart and thought with honesty, tenderness, pity, and consideration. These emotions were expressed within a local community in which the main responsibility for charity and poor relief was local, and in which the local press in this way contributed to shaping an emotional community. Emotions towards the poor were reciprocal, and the so-called unworthy poor, or ungrateful poor, aroused negative emotions. Many of the donors in these cases were anonymously and gender-neutrally described. Class relations were more significant than divisions based on sex.

  • 7.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Lindström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Widows, Ownership and Political Culture: Sweden 1650-18002004In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 29, no 3/4, p. 241-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will analyse and discuss the widow's political participation during the second half of the early modern period. We focus on political elections and what possibilities that laid open for peasant and burgher widows to exert their influence at the elections.1 [Formula: See Text] We would like to thank Hanne Marie Johansen and others that participated in the workshop Enkefolk i skandinavisk historie …, Bergen in October 2003 and colleagues in the Department of Historical Studies, Umeå for valuable comments on earlier versions of this paper.

  • 8.
    Lantto, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Mörkenstam, Ulf
    Sami Rights and Sami Challenges: The modernazition process and the Swedish Sami movement, 1886-20062008In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 26-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the authors analyse the conflict in contemporary Sami politics in Sweden. To understand this conflict a historical perspective is necessary, and the authors reconstruct the ideas and beliefs in the public debate that has legitimized a system of Sami rights over more than a century, and analyse the challenges to these by the Sami movement. Two parallel themes are discussed: The first deals with the continuity and change of the Swedish Sami policy, where the authors show how ideas and beliefs concerning the Sami have limited the possibilities of political action. The second theme focuses on the political mobilization of the Sami in Sweden and their challenges of the established view of the Sami in official policy. One of the conclusions made is that it is of importance to grant indigenous peoples, like the Sami, some kind of secure political platform from which they could participate in the democratic procedure and legitimately counter-act the power of the nation states in which they live.

  • 9.
    Lindblom, Ina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The botany of friendship and love: flowers and emotional practices in the Gjörwell family, c. 1790-18102016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 410-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the interrelation of objects and emotion in a bourgeois Swedish family influenced by the 18th-century concept of sensibility – the Gjörwells. Headed by noted publicist Carl Christoffer Gjörwell (1731–1811), this family served as the centre of a large circle of friends in late 18th-century Stockholm. One of the unifying aspects of this group was an expressly emotional relationship to the aesthetics of natural scenery. In this setting, pressed flowers became important emotional tokens frequently exchanged in letters between family members, friends and couples. Using Monique Scheer's concept of emotion as a form of practice, this article examines how flowers were used in the practices of communicating emotion, remembering loved ones and emotionally significant events as well as experiencing pleasant emotions. Furthermore, this article demonstrates how flowers as objects facilitated the expression of intimacy and the upholding of social ties within this group, paying special attention to the gendered aspects of these practices. By focusing on the intersection of emotion and objects, this article contributes to the growing research on emotion and material culture.

  • 10. Molinder, Jakob
    et al.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Magnusson, Lars
    What Can the State Do for You?: Reallocation allowances and regional subsidies in post-war Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 273-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that Swedish policy during the early post-war period was strongly directed towards mobility-increasing expenditures – most notably relocation allowances – aimed at moving labour from north to south. While this view has dominated the academic discussion on labour market policy, there is little direct evidence. We make three claims. First, the relocation allowances have to be evaluated against the regional policy. Second, by doing so we show that the mobility-oriented policy was predominant only for a short period of time: in the early 1970s, there was a decisive shift towards a policy directed at stimulating employment in the north. Third, drawing on this, we revaluate the previous view on policy making in Sweden. Our analysis suggests that the Social Democratic government acted in a voter-maximizing way. The relocation allowances were introduced at the behest of the Trade Union Confederation (LO). The regional subsidies were expanded when voter sentiment turned against the perceived depletion of rural regions. However, this strategy interacted with the political and institutional environment. The new election law in 1970 and political competition from the Centre Party pushed the Social Democrats to shift their policies on regional subsidies.

  • 11.
    Norén, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    '6 to 8 slices of bread': Swedish health information campaigns in the 1970s2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 233-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish health information, conducted by the National Board of Health and Welfare in collaboration with private participants, expanded rapidly in the 1970s. This study examines a controversial bread campaign, which declared that the National Board, in collaboration with the private Bread Institute, wanted citizens to eat six to eight slices of bread every day. Why and how could such a seemingly unholy alliance come about? Contextualizing the collaborations with the industry, with a network governance approach, this article seeks the answers by investigating the organizational conditions behind the various campaigns. Different conflicting dilemmas influenced the campaigns and their outcomes. For example, the desire to maximize the dissemination of information, and at the same time controlling it, as well as the imbedded power dynamics between private and public sector. The result points to a shift from strong to weak interdependence between the government agency and collaborating parties, basically due to the agency's diminishing campaign resources, which opened up for a stronger commercialization of the bread campaign.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The Breakthrough of a Post-Materialistic Marital Ideology: The discussion of divorce in Swedish newspapers during the 1960s2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 161-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labour force participation rate of married women and the divorce rate increased more than any other period of the 20th century. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, non-marital cohabitation, and increasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developments exemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition (SDT), and were markedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. By investigating the debate on divorce in national newspapers during the 1960s, this study traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomic changes prior to the implementation of the permissive 1974 divorce law in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that a normative shift occurred in Sweden during the 1960s. From 1964 to 1969, publicly expressed attitudes towards divorce were increasingly characterized by post-materialist and individualistic values and a marital ideology prioritizing individual autonomy and emotional fulfilment started to dominate the debate. Conversely, representatives expressing a conservative view on marriage that framed the conjugal family rather than the individual as the most important social unit were increasingly marginalized in public discussions.

  • 13.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Time–space trends in Swedish divorce behaviour 1911–19742011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 65-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the divorce rate in Sweden has varied over time and across different geographical areas during the period 1911-1974, and how these variations can be connected to the political, socio-economic, and cultural development in Sweden. The analysis provides empirical support for the hypothesis that increased divorce rates has been the result of changes in the structural conditions that determine the degree of economic interdependence between spouses. There is a strong connection between the degree of urbanization and the divorce rate on a regional level for the entire research period. The statistical analysis of the regional data indicates that these patterns are connected to the more diversified economy that has developed in urban settings, in the form of a more qualified labor market and higher wages for females. These characteristics resulted in a faster and more pronounced reduction of economic interdependence between spouses, which made divorce more attainable in these areas as compared to rural settings.

  • 14.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Garðarsdóttir, Ólöf
    Long-Term Perspectives on Divorce in the Nordic Countries: Introduction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are often put forward as forerunners in the acceptance of permissive divorce practices and in the shift away from a patriarchal family system during the twentieth century. This special issue focuses on the long term historical path dependencies that make Nordic institutions and norms regarding divorce stand out as liberal and individualistic in an international comparison, but also shed new light on the differences that exist between the countries. Specific traits that are raised is the role played by the shared Lutheran culture that facilitated the breakthrough of a secular notion of marriage as a civil contract, but also the important role played by the first wave feminist movement in all of the Nordic countries for the early breakthrough of liberal divorce laws. However, it is clear that permissive norms and institutions have tended to spread in two distinct waves with leaders and laggards within the Nordic context. In the early twentieth century, Denmark and Norway spearheaded the shift to bi-lateral no-fault divorce. In the 1970s, Sweden took over as the leader when the country adopted unilateral no-fault divorce while Finland consistently has tended to stand out as the conservative laggard within the Nordic context.

  • 15.
    Åström Elmersjö, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Establishing an ideologically coherent history: Swedish social-democratic historical culture, 1881–19002017In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 193-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the historical culture of the Swedish Social Democratic Worker’s Party (SAP) during its formation in the last decades of the 19th century. Utilising the theoretical concepts of myth and conceptual metaphor, the sense-making aspects of historical narration is studied, especially the way coherent stories are told in which the movement under formation is made part of a long history leading to a desirable future. The SAP utilised history both morally-defensively and tactically-offensively. The moral use of history depicts Jesus, Münster and the French Revolution, establishing the righteousness of revolt. The revolutions of 1848 and the Paris Commune, where the workers are seen as acting more independently, are depicted in a way which draws attention to tactical aspects; lessons are learned on how the workers should act in a revolutionary situation. As has been shown to be the case regarding national narratives, the sense-making mechanisms of historical narration also tends to appeal to issues of identity. The metaphorical conceptualisation of ideas and movements as individuals and families, further underlines these issues.

  • 16.
    Össbo, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Colonial Tutelage and Industrial Colonialism: Reindeer husbandry and early 20th-century hydroelectric development in Sweden2011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 324-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incentives for large-scale hydropower development in Sweden are usually explained in terms of the early 20th-century belief in progress and the need for energy to fuel industrialization and modernization. For reindeer husbandry, the consequences and cumulative effects of this large-scale landscape conversion, and the societal changes it entailed are still largely a story to be told as impacts and effects constantly evolve in the socio-ecological system of the reindeer grazing lands. The present article investigates hydropower development in the northern parts of Sweden, and how the reindeer husbandry of the indigenous Sami people was involved, through a case study of three hydropower projects in the early 20th century. An additional perspective is illuminated: how early hydroelectric development in the reindeer grazing areas was made possible through an immersed colonialism

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