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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Sweden in 1930 and the 1930 census2016In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 61-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of censuses has always been to collect reliable information on the state’s population and provide a basis for governmental decision-making. This study examines the categories used in the 1930 census and links them to the context in which they were generated. We treat the census as a tool of state power, which can be discerned from the definitions of its categories and the way in which statistics are collected and used. The guiding question of the study was “how does the 1930 census differ from previous censuses and how can these differences and changes be explained?” We find that as in earlier censuses, Statistics Sweden used extracts from the parish books on the individual level to collect information for the 1930 census, but also used diverse supplementary sources including tax registers, income tax returns and language surveys. Thus, unlike in most countries, Sweden did not send out census takers or questionnaires to the population. Many of the new or updated variables we see in the 1930 census such as income, wealth, and number of children born, can be related to the political and social debate concerning the poor working class and the establishment of the welfare state. The inclusion of categories such as ethnicity, religion, and foreign nationality can be seen as part of a normative approach wanting to control, monitor and correct deviant elements of the Swedish population. Sweden has several extraordinary longitudinal population databases built on the country’s excellent parish registers dating back to the 18th century. While the Swedish censuses have rarely been used as sources of data for historical analysis, this work demonstrates that the 1930 census has great potential to support new research.

  • 2.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Kling, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The practice of birth control and historical fertility change: Introduction2010In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction discusses the contributions in the special issue. The articles present results concerning the practice of birth control, mainly at the family level. They represent different analytical approaches where both interviews, letters, surveys and micro-level data have been used. The European fertility decline has made a fundamental change to the societies in the 20th and 21st centuries. Birth control spreads rapidly. Research in this field requires both qualitative and quantitative studies, where both approaches contribute to different perspectives on the transition. The articles in the issue discuss several themes in relation to birth control, of which three are developed in the introduction. These are gender and fertility, gender and health and finally how to control fertility. The presented results demonstrate the importance of including gender in the analyses of the fertility decline. A gender perspective makes it natural to consider historical persons as agents. It is also necessary to acknowledge that we should not treat the married couple as a single unit. They may have conflicting interests, something that several of the articles illustrate. One aspect we would like to emphasize is how health problems can influence the will to have more children and this affects birth control. This is a theme that in different forms is taken up by several of the authors. Finally, families practiced birth control with several different methods that also changed throughout the married years, thus demonstrating a flexibility that is often overlooked in conventional methods for the analysis of fertility.

  • 3.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Gender and fertility within the free churches in the Sundsvall region, Sweden, 1860–19212016In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 243-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of secularization in the European fertility decline has been of interest to demographers, who often explore the relationship on a macro-level or by identifying religious affiliation by proxy. However, the relationship has not been thoroughly studied on an individual level utilizing indicators of personal religious conviction and affiliation. The aim of the present article is to examine reproductive practices by religious affiliation in order to understand the impact of secularization on fertility decline. This is accomplished using event history analysis of longitudinal parish register data from Sundsvall (1860–1921) where religious affiliation is identified on a family level. Reproductive practices are analysed using cohort TFR, descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazard regressions. Free-church affiliates had, overall, a higher probability of having another child than did affiliates to the state church. However, these differences decreased over time, and as fertility dropped throughout society free-church affiliates showed the strongest significant reduction in probability of another birth. This indicates that over time, within the free churches, ideas about respectability and restraint came to mean that birth control, in the form of abstinence within marriage, became an important practice in the formation of gendered religious identities - leading to a relatively early decrease in fertility.

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  • 4.
    Kling, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Reproductive health, birth control, and fertility change in Sweden, circa 1900-19402010In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with two aspects of reproductive health during the latter part of the Swedish fertility decline: failing health as a motive for birth control, and failing health as a possible consequence of illegal abortions. The main argument is that reproductive health was an important factor in most reproductive decisions during this period, a circumstance largely ignored by researchers of the fertility decline. Questions that are addressed include: How can aspects of reproductive health be viewed as explanatory factors of the fertility decline? How did men react to women's need to stop bearing children for health reasons? Flow did couples seeking abortion, sometimes for health reasons, perceive the risks associated with abortion? A source material mainly consisting of letters, written in the 1930s and sent to the Swedish Association for Sexuality Education, has been used to discern how aspects of health, contraception and abortion were experienced by ordinary men and women. The analysis shows that reproductive health became a motive for birth control, at this point in history, for at least two reasons. Firstly, the experience of childbirth had changed through institutionalization and secularization and, secondly, respectable masculinity was increasingly constructed to include sexual respect towards women. Still, when couples decided to abort, aspects of health were largely ignored. Often abortion was sought because the health risks associated with childbirth were perceived as larger than those associated with abortion. The connection between reproductive health and birth control was, therefore, of a rather complex kind.

  • 5.
    Namatovu, Fredinah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The impact of disability on partnership formation in Sweden during 1990-20092019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that disability negatively affects people’s propensity to find a partner. Persons with disabilities that eventually find a partner do so later in life compared to the average population. There is a lack of studies on the differences in partnership opportunities for persons with disabilities compared to those without disabilities in Sweden. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of disability on partnership formation and to assess whether partnership formation varies as a function of individual demographic and socio-economic factors. We use nationwide data available in the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in Social and Medical Sciences (Umeå SIMSAM Lab). We follow persons born from 1973 to 1977 when they were from 16 to 37 years of age and analyze their data using logistic regression. Our findings indicate that regardless of whether a person started to receive a disability pension at an early age or later, it was associated with lower odds for partnership formation. For persons who started receiving disability pension from 16 to 20 years of age, chances for partnership formation reduced with increase in age of partnership. Individuals that started to receive disability pension later were more likely to form partnership prior to receiving disability pension. Partnership formation was less likely among persons born outside Sweden, in persons with mothers born outside Sweden, in individuals born by unmarried mothers and in persons, whose mothers had a high level of education. Partnership was high among women and among persons who had many maternal siblings. In conclusion, receiving disability pension was associated with reduced chances for partnership formation. Receiving disability pension might imply financial constraints that negatively influence partnership formation supporting Oppenheimer’s theory on the economic cost of marriage and the uncertainty hypothesis.

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  • 6.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parenthood and welfare outcomes in late-twentieth-century Sweden2010In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the impact of family formation and in particular the impact of parenthood on Swedish men's and women's welfare outcomes during the last decades of the twentieth century. A description of changes to family forms since the 1970s, with an emphasis on marriages, divorces, and childbirth is followed by a description of Swedish family policy and labour market settings. After this, the article focuses on the effects of parenthood on welfare outcomes, namely income and well-being. Negative effects of parenthood, specifically lowered income and self-reported feelings of tiredness are more frequently observed in mothers, something which is argued to influence future childbirth patterns. Furthermore, the article points to the need to examine the potential influence that fathers' changing roles within families will have on future family formation and fertility patterns.

  • 7.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    True or false?: Nineteenth-century Sápmi fertility in qualitative vs. demographic sources2012In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 157-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge about childbirth and childcare among Arctic indigenous peoples in historical times, and the Swedish Sami are no exception. The main aim of the present study is to investigate whether the Sami experienced fertility trends parallel to those of the rest of the population in the area and in Sweden as a whole. Digitized parish records offer a unique possibility to include comparisons from ethnic, cultural, geographical and long-term perspectives. The present study compares the statements about fertility and childcare provided by qualitative sources with data from quantitative demographic investigations. This comparison reveals a contrasting picture, from which it is evident that contemporary observers' impressions of the Sami and their childbirths were somewhat inaccurate. Opposite to what the qualitative sources claimed Sami fertility was higher than the national average rates. Moreover, crude birth rates were high and the average number of children in families exceeded what was generally claimed. We can conclude that the statements made by clergy, physicians and travelers concerning childbirth among the Sami did not correspond particularly well with the demographic reality.

  • 8.
    Puschmann, Paul
    et al.
    Centre for Sociological Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Schumacher, Reto
    University of Geneva.
    Matthijs, Koen
    Centre for Sociological Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Access to marriage and reproduction among migrants in Antwerp and Stockholm. A longitudinal approach to processes of social inclusion and exclusion, 1846–19262014In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal approach is used to describe and explain processes of social inclusion and exclusion among different groups of migrants in Antwerp and Stockholm (1846–1926), in terms of access to marriage and reproduction. In this way we want to get a better idea about the factors which facilitated or hampered the social inclusion of migrants upon arrival in two different Western European port cities. The results of the discrete time event history analyses show that social inclusion of migrants was easier in Antwerp and became easier over time, while in Stockholm it was more difficult and became even more complicated over time. This finding might be interpreted as the result of greater societal openness in Antwerp, as the Belgian port-city's economic success depended largely upon foreigners and international trade. Higher odds for social inclusion in Antwerp might also have been related to differences in the chances of finding an urban niche, which in turn might have been a result of disparities in economic and demographic growth. Most likely it was a combination of differences in the local opportunity structure and the level of societal openness. Furthermore, it was found that region and place of birth, age at arrival, historical time period, and, in the case of Stockholm, gender and social class had an important impact on the chances of successful inclusion.

  • 9.
    Reher, David
    et al.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Requena, Miguel
    Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED).
    Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    Sociology II , Universidad Complutense de Madrid , Madrid , Spain.
    How level is the Playing Field? Divided Families Among Latin American Immigrants in Spain2013In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 26-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International migratory movements tend to produce the reality of divided families that are located in at least two different places. The literature on divided or transnational families and family reunification movements has shown how the socio-demographic determinants in origin and the socio-economic and institutional factors in destination drive these processes. Assuming that migratory movements are the result to a large extent of specifically familial dynamics and strategies, in this paper we are interested in exploring whether other elements associated to the country of origin and to the relationship between country of origin and country of destination have a discernible influence on the family results of migration and, specifically, on the separation and subsequent reunification of the immigrant families. This complex set of elements builds on the playing field where migratory decisions are taken. The Spanish case, characterized by a sudden explosion of international immigration between 2000 and 2007 and significant numbers of Latin American migrants arriving during these years, is a particularly suitable scenario to investigate this phenomenon. The empirical analysis will be mainly based on the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007).

  • 10.
    Sandstrom, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The mid-twentieth century baby boom in Sweden: changes in the educational gradient of fertility for women born 1915-19502014In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 120-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes changes in the educational gradient of fertility among Swedish women who participated in the mid twentieth-century baby boom. Using individual-level data covering the entire Swedish population drawn from the Population and Housing Census of 1960, and the Multi-generation Register, the study determines fertility outcomes during the baby boom across educational strata. The results indicate important differences between the first wave of the baby boom during the 1940s and the second peak in the 1960s. This is the case with regard to both education and age-specific fertility patterns. The results show that a pertinent feature of the first wave was a recovery among older women who had postponed births during the 1930s, and that the educational gradient was still strongly negative at this time. On the other hand, the second wave during the 1960s was primarily created by increased fertility among younger women below 30 years of age. For these women born in the 1930s and 1940s, who increased their educational levels compared to earlier generations, fertility differentials across educational strata were almost eliminated. This convergence of childbearing behavior between high and low educated women was an important prerequisite for the second peak of the Swedish baby boom in the 1960s, as the proportion of secondary and post-secondary educated women had increased substantially in the cohorts born since the mid 1930s.

  • 11.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in early twentieth-century Sweden2011In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, ISSN 1081-602X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of census data and aggregated divorce statistics, this study investigates how socio-economic conditionsinfluenced the risk of divorce among men in different occupations during the 1920s and 1930s in Sweden. The results support thetheoretical presupposition that the stability of marriage was associated with the degree of economic interdependence betweenspouses. Rural, low-income, single-provider households with many children exhibit a significantly lower probability of divorcethan urban, dual-provider, high-income households with few children. This lends support to a socio-economic growth hypothesisstating that lower levels of marriage stability first developed in the more affluent strata of society living in urban settings. Thetendency of decreasing marriage stability then successively spread to the middle and lower classes as the divorce rate continued toincrease during the course of the twentieth century.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women’s socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900–60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

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  • 13.
    Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The marriage boom: Spanish and Swedish women making sense of marriage during the marriage boom2015In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 69-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the marriage boom that took place during the middle decades of the twentieth century. The increase in nuptiality is analyzed in Spain and Sweden from a qualitative perspective, and the authors describe how cultural, social, economic and institutional transformations were understood by women who were in their reproductive period during the marriage boom. In-depth interviews were conducted in both places with 51 women born between 1919 and 1951. The authors argue that it is important that the ways in which the factors previously identified as decisive of the marriage boom are studied for their motivating power, and the way they were or were not made important in people's understandings of their marital practices. The results show that despite the differences between the national contexts of Spain and Sweden, three interrelated themes recurred when the interviewed women framed their marital choices: (1) the normalization of marriage as a life event; (2) religion; (3) and education and work life. The results also suggest that the women highlighted norm systems within which their choices and decisions were made, rather than describing individual choices and decisions as stemming from individual preferences and wishes.

  • 14.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Vulnerability among paupers: determinants of individuals receiving poor relief in nineteenth-century northern Sweden2006In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study combines computerized parish registers with parish meeting records that account for individuals who received poor relief in the nineteenth-century Sundsvall region, Sweden. The combination of sources especially helps to explore the recipients who are overlooked in the literature or difficult to trace in historical data. Their demographic characteristics in relation to relief allocation and experiences prior to it are analyzed and show that they did not only share the occurrence of entitlement. Vast but insufficient family networks failed to give the recipients support to manage their distressed situation. Deaths and births of relatives jeopardized their capability to guarantee subsistence for them or their family, and so did also their gender and phase in the lifecycle. The multi-dimensional concept of vulnerability is employed to comprehend the dynamic determinants of poverty represented by individuals granted poor relief. It is argued that this concept has to be further developed but nevertheless helps to identify and stratify some of the vulnerabilities that characterized paupers in the past.

  • 15.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marriages among people with disabilities in 19th-century Sweden: marital age and spouse’s characteristics2020In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While marrying was an expected event in 19th-century Western society and has been subject to much historical research, there are few studies on how disabilities influenced people’s marriage patterns and spouse selection. The aim of this analysis is to contribute clarification on this issue by examining with whom disabled men and women married and the marital age and socio-demographic characteristics of them and their spouses. In total, 188 disabled individuals born in the first half of the 19th century and who married in the Sundsvall region, Sweden, are studied. The results reveal that disabled men and women did not marry each other, and they entered into marriage at a slightly higher age than the average, although there was usually no marked age gap between them and their spouse. Endogamous patterns were primarily found regarding the socio-spatial background of the two spouses. This analysis is one of the few studies identifying the marriages among a comparatively large number of disabled people using demographic data. Their participation in the partner pool highlight their agency historically and emphasize that disability did not lead to distance from social life in past society.

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