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  • 1. Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Al-Eisa, Einas S.
    Effect of voluntary teeth clenching and sitting posture on maximal static force of limb muscles2019In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 774-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People clench their teeth to activate facial, neck and abdominal muscles when they need to generate heavy muscle force against large resistance like lifting heavy objects, in order to gain possible ergogenic advantage. These are termed as remote voluntary contractions. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of voluntary teeth clenching on maximal voluntary contraction of extensors and flexors of the knee, shoulder and elbow joints of the dominant side during slouch and unsupported upright sitting.

    METHODS: One hundred healthy young male adults (mean age 23.3 years) participated in this study. Maximal voluntary contraction was measured using a hand-held dynamometer.

    RESULTS: Jaw clenching caused different ergogenic effect during slouch versus unsupported sitting postures. The data revealed that during unsupported upright sitting, the effect of jaw clenching consistently results in larger maximal voluntary contraction of both extensor and flexor muscles of all the three studied joints. However, during slouch sitting, only the maximal voluntary contraction of extensors of elbow and flexors of knee were larger with clenched teeth position.

    CONCLUSIONS: Jaw clenching can affect the maximal voluntary contraction of limb muscles which is sitting posture dependent. Jaw clenching can consistently facilitate certain muscles of the upper and lower limbs to generate greater force production during upright sitting.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?2018In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, ISSN 0022-4707, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1185-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-up as it is generally believed to increase mobility and reduce the risk of injury; however, SS has been shown to induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on certain sports, especially of explosive muscular performance. Whether sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on isokinetic muscle performance remains unclear.

    METHODS: The present study conducted two different warm-ups: 2-component warm-up and 3-component warm-up on 15 university students. Both protocols contained low intensity aerobic exercise and sport specific exercise, whereas the 3-component warm-up also contained SS which has been previously proven to induce negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. After the warm-ups, the subjects performed an isokinetic test on a Biodex. To make the sport specific exercise mimic the subsequent test, both included concentric isokinetic knee extension. During the tests, muscle performance of peak torque, mean power, and total work was recorded. Comparison of the measurements on each parameter between the two warm-ups was performed using paired t test.

    RESULTS: The comparisons did not reveal any significant difference in the measurement of any parameter between the two different warm-up protocols, and calculation of Cohen's revealed small effect sizes on all of the three variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: On basis of the present results and that the SS could induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance, we concluded that the negative effects of the SS on the variables were restored by the isokinetic contractions.

  • 3.
    Fahlström, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Fahlström, Per Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Positive short-term subjective effect of sports drink supplementation during recovery2006In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training2017In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, no 1-2, p. 43-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle on a high frequency periodized leg resistance training in trained women. METHODS: Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle for four months. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1 (N.=19) trained with high frequency (5 times-w-') during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2 (N.=19) during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group (N.=21) performed regurlar (3 times.w(-1)) leg resistance training for four months. RESULTS: Significant increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1 were observed, but not in group 2. In the control group an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was also observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1 only. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without oral contraceptive. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle is more beneficial to optimize training than in the last two weeks. Resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle even resulted in a larger gain of lean body mass than regular training.

  • 5.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?2017In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1519-1525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad.

    METHODS: Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants’ own experience of the training programs.

    RESULTS: No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

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