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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Jaric, S
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, M
    Johansson, H
    Muscle strength assessment from functional performance tests: role of body size2003In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 664-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the body size plays an important role in assessment of muscle ability to exert force by standard functional performance tests. Twenty-one male students were tested on maximal isometric lift, one leg rising, vertical jump, and box lift tests, and the maximal isokinetic strength of hip and knee extensors was also recorded. When indices of the 4 functional performance tests were related to the strength of each of the 2 leg extensor muscle groups, only maximal isometric lift demonstrated positive correlation with knee extensors strength. When muscle strength was corrected for body mass, however, the aforementioned relationship became insignificant, but the 1 leg rising performance demonstrated a positive relationship with knee extensor strength. In addition, maximal isometric lift and 1 leg rising test performance provided positive and negative correlation, respectively, with body mass. The obtained findings were in line with the effects of scale applied on the tested performance. We generally conclude that the assessment of muscle capability to exert force based on some standard functional performance tests could be confounded by the body size effect.

  • 2.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hellqvist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi .
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Which patients with low back pain benefit from deadlift training?2015In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 1803-1811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated that the deadlift exercise may be effective in decreasing pain intensity and increasing activity for most, but not all, patients with a dominating mechanical low back pain pattern. This study aimed to evaluate which individual factors measured at baseline could predict activity, disability, and pain intensity in patients with mechanical low back pain after an 8-week training period involving the deadlift as a rehabilitative exercise. Thirty-five participants performed deadlift training under the supervision of a physical therapist with powerlifting experience. Measures of pain-related fear of movement, hip and trunk muscle endurance and lumbopelvic movement control were collected at baseline. Measures of activity, disability and pain intensity were collected at baseline and at follow-up. Linear regression analyses were used to create models to predict activity, disability and pain intensity at follow-up. Results showed that participants with less disability, less pain intensity and higher performance on the Biering-Sørensen test, which tests the endurance of hip and back extensor muscles, at baseline benefit from deadlift training. The Biering-Sørensen test was the strongest predictor since it was included in all predictive models. Pain intensity was the next best predictor as it was included in two predictive models. Thus, for strength and conditioning professionals who use the deadlift as a rehabilitative exercise for individuals with mechanical low back pain, it is important to ensure that clients have sufficient back extensor strength and endurance and a sufficiently low pain intensity level to benefit from training involving the deadlift exercise.

  • 4.
    Bogdanis, Gregory C.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physical Educaation & Sports Science, University of Athens.
    Papaspyrou, Aggeliki
    Faculty of Physical Educaation & Sports Science, University of Athens.
    Souglis, Athanasios
    Faculty of Physical Educaation & Sports Science, University of Athens.
    Theos, Apostolos
    Faculty of Physical Educaation & Sports Science, University of Athens.
    Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis
    Faculty of Physical Educaation & Sports Science, University of Athens.
    Maridaki, Maria
    Faculty of Physical Educaation & Sports Science, University of Athens.
    Effects of two different half-squat training programs on fatigue during repeated cycling sprints in soccer players2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 1849-1856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared the effects of two different half-squat training programs on the repeated-sprint ability of soccer players during the preseason. Twenty male professional soccer players were divided into 2 groups: One group (S-group) performed 4 sets of 5 repetitions with 90% of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and the other group (H-group) performed 4 sets of 12 repetitions with 70% of 1RM, 3 times per week for 6 weeks, in addition to their common preseason training program. Repeated-sprint ability was assessed before and after training by 10 × 6-second cycle ergometer sprints separated by 24 seconds of passive recovery. Maximal half-squat strength increased significantly in both groups (p < 0.01), but this increase was significantly greater in the S-group compared with the H-group (17.3 ± 1.9 vs. 11.0 ± 1.9%, p < 0.05). Lean leg volume (LLV) increased only in the H-group. Total work over the 10 sprints improved in both groups after training, but this increase was significantly greater in the second half (8.9 ± 2.6%) compared with the first half of the sprint test (3.2 ± 1.7%) only in the S-group. Mean power output (MPO) expressed per liter of LLV was better maintained during the last 6 sprints posttraining only in the S-group, whereas there was no change in MPO per LLV in the H-group over the 10 sprints. These results suggest that resistance training with high loads is superior to a moderate-load program, because it increases strength without a change in muscle mass and also results in a greater improvement in repeated sprint ability. Therefore, resistance training with high loads may be preferable when the aim is to improve maximal strength and fatigue during sprinting in professional soccer players.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Tiivel, Toomas
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Sweden..
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1496-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [V̇O2max] = 5.34 ± 0.34 L·min) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), V̇O2max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, V̇O2max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Wedholm, Lars
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 2138-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (p = 0.048), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (p = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.046), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (ml·min·kg) (p = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 7.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine.
    Geithner, Christina
    Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players: Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 2496-2502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women’s ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % Fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p<0.05. The % Fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%,p=0.000). Bland Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % Fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72% to 18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the Sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population, but result in underestimates of % Fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.

  • 8.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Thorsen, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Physiological Correlates of Skating Performance in Women's and Men's Ice Hockey2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 2133-2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current investigation was to identify relationships between physiological off-ice tests and on-ice performance in female and male ice hockey players on a comparable competitive level. Eleven women, 24 ± 3.0 years, and 10 male ice hockey players, 23 ± 2.4 years, were tested for background variables: height, body weight (BW), ice hockey history, and lean body mass (LBM) and peak torque (PT) of the thigh muscles, [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak and aerobic performance (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation [OBLA], respiratory exchange ratio [RER1]) during an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Four different on-ice tests were used to measure ice skating performance. For women, skating time was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to BW and negatively correlated to LBM%, PT/BW, OBLA, RER 1, and [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (ml O2·kg-1 BW-1·min-1) in the Speed test. Acceleration test was positively correlated to BW and negatively correlated to OBLA and RER 1. For men, correlation analysis revealed only 1 significant correlation where skating time was positively correlated to [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (L O2·min-1) in the Acceleration test. The male group had significantly higher physiological test values in all variables (absolute and relative to BW) but not in relation to LBM. Selected off-ice tests predict skating performance for women but not for men. The group of women was significantly smaller and had a lower physiological performance than the group of men and were slower in the on-ice performance tests. However, gender differences in off-ice variables were reduced or disappeared when values were related to LBM, indicating a similar capacity of producing strength and aerobic power in female and male hockey players. Skating performance in female hockey players may be improved by increasing thigh muscle strength, oxygen uptake, and relative muscle mass.

  • 9.
    Högström, Gabriel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Pietilä, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Body composition and performance: influence of sport and gender among adolescents2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1799-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body composition is well known to be associated with endurance performance amongst adult skiers, however the association among adolescent cross-country and alpine skiers is inadequately explored. The study sample was comprised of 145 male and female adolescent subjects (aged 15-17 years), including 48 cross-country skiers, 33 alpine skiers, and 68 control subjects. Body composition [%body fat, %lean mass, bone mineral density (g/cm2)] was measured with a dual-emission X-ray absorptiometer, and pulse and oxygen uptake were measured at three break points during incremental performance tests to determine physical fitness levels. Female cross-country and alpine skiers were found to have significantly higher %lean mass (mean difference = 7.7%, p < 0.001) and lower %body fat (mean difference = (8.1%, p < 0.001) than female control subjects. Male cross-country skiers were found to have lower %body fat (mean difference = 3.2%, p < 0.05) and higher %lean mass (mean difference = 3.3%, p < 0.01) than male alpine skiers and higher % lean mass (mean difference = 3.7%, p < 0.05) and % body fat (mean difference = 3.2%, p < 0.05) than controls. The present study found strong associations between %lean mass and the OBLA and VO2 max weight adjusted thresholds among both genders of the cross-country skiing cohort (r = 0.47-0.67, p < 0.05) and the female alpine skiing cohort (r = 0.77-0.79, p < 0.001 for all). The present study suggests that body composition is associated with physical performance already in adolescent athletes.

  • 10.
    Markström, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Countermovement jump peak force relative to body weight and jump height as predictors for sprint running performances: (in)homogeneity of track and field athletes?2013In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 944-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate: (1) If variables from one-leg drop jump (DJ), DJ, squat jump (SJ), and counter movement jump (CMJ) tests can predict sprint performances for sprinters. (2) If sprinters and jumpers can be distinguished based on variables from one-leg DJ, DJ, SJ, and CMJ tests, also if sprinters and throwers can be distinguished based on variables from stiff leg jump (SLJ), SJ, and CMJ tests. A single linear regression and multiple linear regression analysis approach with models including two or three variables were used when predicting sprint performances. Five elite sprinters (1 female) participated in the first subexamination and five sprinters (1 female) vs five jumpers and six sprinters vs. six throwers (4 females) participated in the second. The force variable CMJ peak force relative to body weight significantly predicted the sprint performances maximal running velocity through 10 m (Vmax10m) and 60 m time. Vmax10m was also predicted by CMJ height. Jump heights from SJ and DJ did not predict sprint performances. The between group analysis of the athletes showed a non-significant group difference with respect to the jump variables. However, planned comparisons between sprinters and throwers showed significant differences on a number of SLJ variables. When constructing training programs for sprinters, aim should be to improve CMJ peak force and CMJ height because of the prediction of Vmax10m and 60 m time, presumably due to velocity specificity components.

  • 11.
    Nordström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Högström, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Bonnerud, Patrik
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Idrottsmedicin.
    Higher muscle mass but lower gynoid fat mass in athletes using anabolic androgenic steroids2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 246-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordstrom, A, Hogstrom, G, Eriksson, A, Bonnerud, P, Tegner, Y, and Malm, C. Higher muscle mass but lower gynoid fat mass in athletes using anabolic androgenic steroids. J Strength Cond Res 26(1): 246-250, 2012-This study evaluated the relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and body constitution. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD, g.cm(-2)) of the total body, arms, and legs. Total gynoid and android fat mass (grams) and total lean mass (grams) were measured in 10 strength trained athletes (41.4 +/- 7.9 years) who had used AASs for 5-15 years (Doped) and 7 strength trained athletes (29.4 +/- 6.2 years) who had never used AASs (Clean). Seventeen sedentary men (30.3 +/- 2.1 years) served as Controls. Doped athletes had significantly more lean body mass (85.5 +/- 3.8 vs. 75.3 +/- 2.5 vs. 60.7 +/- 1.9, p < 0.001) and a greater index of fat-free/fat mass (5.8 vs. 2.6 vs. 2.5, p < 0.001) compared with Clean athletes and Controls. Doped athletes also had significantly less gynoid fat mass compared with that of Clean athletes (2.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.2 kg, p = 0.02). There were no differences in BMD between the athletes (p = 0.39-0.98), but both groups had significantly higher BMDs at all sites compared with that of Controls (p = 0.01 to <0.001). Thus, long-term AAS use seems to alter body constitution, favoring higher muscle mass and reduced gynoid fat mass without affecting BMD.

  • 12.
    Sjöberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Adolf Fredriks Fysiocenter, Physical Therapy Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rosengren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Adolf Fredriks Fysiocenter, Physical Therapy Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Content validity index and reliability of a new protocol for evaluation of lifting technique in the powerlifting squat and deadlift2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to create a protocol to cover aspects of technique considered to be associated with risk of injury in the powerlifting squat and deadlift and to examine the content validity and reliability of the aspects included in the protocols. For the content validity investigation, a consensus group of 3 powerlifting physiotherapists identified the domains of content (risk of injury) for 2 protocols (1 for squat and 1 for deadlift) of essential aspects of lifting technique through discussions and a review of the literature. Eight selected powerlifting experts rated the relevance of each aspect in relation to risk of injury (acute or by overuse), and a quantitative estimate of the content validity of each aspect was measured through calculations of a Content Validity Index (CVI). Aspects of low content validity were discarded, and the remainders were evaluated for their inter-rater and intra-rater reliability among 4 experienced powerlifters used to coaching and evaluating powerlifting technique. The reliability was calculated and analyzed with kappa and percentage of agreement. The final protocols included 17 aspects of squat technique and 10 aspects of deadlift technique that showed good to excellent CVI and percentage of agreement between 64 and 100%. The protocols, formed in this study, will provide evidence-based recommendations on safe lifting technique for coaches and strength practitioners' to use to make relevant assessments and instructions.

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