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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Jansson, Eva
    Westerståhl, Maria
    The Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort born in 1958 - dropout analysis and overview at 36-year follow-up2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 418-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort study (SPAF-1958) was to describe physical fitness, physical activity, health, and lifestyle across part of the lifespan, and to assess the influences on these factors from the environment, personal factors, and genetics. There is inevitable dropout from longitudinal studies, and it may be systematic. The aim of this first paper of the second follow-up of SPAF-1958 was to provide a dropout analysis to consider to what extent the participants, at 52 years of age, remain a representative sample of the original adolescent study population. Additional aims were to provide an overview of the study protocol and the ongoing study population. Ongoing study participants in SPAF born in 1958 were, at the second follow-up at the age of 52, still representative of the study cohort in terms of sex, adolescent geographical area, upper secondary school program, adolescent body composition, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. However, a higher physical activity and, among women, a higher aerobic capacity in adolescence decreased the risk for dropout. It is important when interpreting results from longitudinal studies to adjust for the systematic dropout that could bias the conclusions drawn from the results.

  • 2.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Aerobic workout and bone mass in females1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 336-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate bone mass in females participating in aerobic workout. Twenty-three females (age 24.1 +/- 2.7 years), participating in aerobic workout for about 3 hours/week, were compared with 23 age-, weight- and height-matched non-active females. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, whole dominant humerus, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter femoris, in specific sites in right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia and tibial diaphysis, and bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the whole dominant arm and right leg, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The aerobic workout group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in total body (3.7%), lumbar spine (7.8%), femoral neck (11.6%), Ward's triangle (11.7%), trochanter femoris (9.6%), proximal tibia (6.8%) and tibia diaphysis (5.9%) compared to the non-active controls. There were no differences between the groups concerning BMD of the whole dominant humerus, femoral diaphysis, distal femur and BMC and lean mass of the whole dominant arm and right leg. Leaness of the whole dominant arm and leg was correlated to BMC of the whole dominant arm and right leg in both groups. In young females, aerobic workout containing alternating high and low impact movements for the lower body is associated with a higher bone mass in clinically important sites like the lumbar spine and hip, but muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups and soft-glove boxing are not associated with a higher bone mass in the dominant humerus. It appears that there is a skeletal adaptation to the loads of the activity.

  • 3.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Pietilä, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Concentric and eccentric shoulder and elbow muscle strength in female volleyball players and non-active females1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 8, no 5 Pt 1, p. 265-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximal isokinetic concentric (60 degrees/s and 180 degrees/s) and eccentric (60 degrees/s) muscle strength of the external and internal rotator muscles of the shoulder and the flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow was measured in a position resembling spiking and serving in volleyball, on 11 non-injured female volleyball players (first division) and 11 non-active females. In the dominant arm, the volleyball players had significantly higher concentric peak torque of the internal and external rotators and elbow extensors at both velocities, and significantly higher eccentric peak torque of the shoulder internal and external rotators and elbow flexors and extensors, than the controls. In the volleyball group, the concentric internal rotation peak torque at 60 degrees/s was significantly higher in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. The external/internal strength ratio was significantly lower at 60 degrees/s, but not at 180 degrees/s, in the dominant arm. CONCLUSION: The female volleyball players had a higher concentric and eccentric strength in the rotator muscles of the shoulder and in the extensor muscles of the elbow compared to untrained controls in this special test position. There were signs of rotator muscle imbalance at the low test speed, but no signs of weakness of the external rotators, in the dominant arm of the volleyball players.

  • 4.
    Backman, Ludvig J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Fong, Gloria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia and Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health and Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Scott, A
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Vancouver Coastal Health and Research Institute.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation triggers Achilles tenocyte hypercellularity: comparison between two model systems2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 687-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The histopathology of tendons with painful tendinopathy is often tendinosis, a fibrosis-like condition of unclear pathogenesis characterized by tissue changes including hypercellularity. The primary tendon cells (tenocytes) have been shown to express adrenoreceptors (mainly alpha-2A) as well as markers of catecholamine production, particularly in tendinosis. It is known that adrenergic stimulation can induce proliferation in other cells. The present study investigated the effects of an exogenously administered alpha-2 adrenergic agonist in an established in vivo Achilles tendinosis model (rabbit) and also in an in vitro human tendon cell culture model. The catecholamine producing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and the alpha-2A-adrenoreceptor (α(2A) AR) were expressed by tenocytes, and alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation had a proliferative effect on these cells, in both models. The proliferation was inhibited by administration of an α(2A) AR antagonist, and the in vitro model further showed that the proliferative alpha-2A effect was mediated via a mitogenic cell signaling pathway involving phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. The results indicate that catecholamines produced by tenocytes in tendinosis might contribute to the proliferative nature of the pathology through stimulation of the α(2A) AR, pointing to a novel target for future therapies. The study furthermore shows that animal models are not necessarily required for all aspects of this research.

  • 5.
    Bagge, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Gaida, JE
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. E430-E438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (rho) = 0.90, P < 0.01] but not among control women (rho = -0.08, P = 0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (rho = 0.65, P = 0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (rho = 0.04, P = 0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials.

  • 6. Clement, D.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Tranaeus, U.
    Johnson, U.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating the influence of intraindividual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1at the beginning of the season and Time 21month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; M-age=18.39, SD=3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries.

  • 7. Couppe, C
    et al.
    Thorborg, K
    Hansen, M
    Fahlstrom, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Bjordal, JM
    Nielsen, D
    Baun, M
    Storgaard, M
    Magnusson, SP
    Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM=EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in both groups (P<0.001). Males were generally stronger than females in all strength measurements except for IR on the dominant side (P<0.01). In females, IR dominant side strength was greater compared with IR on the nondominant side (P<0.05). TROM was reduced on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER strength.

  • 8.
    Edmundsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Toolanen, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Evidence for low muscle capillary supply as a pathogenic factor in chronic compartment syndrome2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 805-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of data regarding the pathogenesis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), its consequences for the muscles and the effects of treatment with fasciotomy. We analyzed biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle, from nine patients, obtained during a decompressing fasciotomy and during follow-up 1 year later. Control biopsies were obtained from nine normal subjects. Muscle capillarity, fiber-type composition and fiber area were analyzed with enzyme- and immunohistochemistry and morphometry. At baseline, CECS patients had lower capillary density (273 vs 378 capillaries/mm(2), P=0.008), lower number of capillaries around muscle fibers (4.5 vs 5.7, P=0.004) and lower number of capillaries in relation to the muscle fiber area (1.1 vs 1.5, P=0.01) compared with normal controls. The fiber-type composition and fiber area did not differ, but focal signs of neuromuscular damage were observed in the CECS samples. At 1-year follow-up after fasciotomy, the fiber area and the number of fibers containing developmental myosin heavy chains were increased, but no enhancement of the capillary network was detected. Thus, morphologically, patients with CECS seemed to have reduced microcirculation capacity. Fasciotomy appeared to trigger a regenerative response in the muscle, however, without any increase in the capillary bed.

  • 9.
    Englund, Undis
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Sondell, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Bucht, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Pettersson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Pharmacology.
    The beneficial effects of exercise on BMC are lost after cessation: a 5-year follow-up in older post-menopausal women2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether the positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and neuromuscular function following a combined weight-bearing program are sustained in older women, a longer period after cessation of training. Thirty-four women (18 exercisers and 16 controls) aged 73–88 years, who completed a 12-month randomized-controlled trial, were invited to a 5-year follow-up assessment of BMD and neuromuscular function. Both groups sustained significant losses in BMD of the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle during the follow-up period. Significant losses were also seen in all neuromuscular function tests. The inter-group change was, however, significant only for maximal walking speed where the exercise group had a significantly greater loss. In conclusion, this study suggests that gains in bone density and neuromuscular functions achieved by training are lost after cessation of training. Continuous high-intensity weight-loading physical activity is probably necessary to preserve bone density and neuromuscular function in older women.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, L. M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Irewall, Tommie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 180-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering (skiers) and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities (reference). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs 19%, P=.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs 20%, P=.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs 8.0years; P<.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent, elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma.

  • 11.
    Fahlström, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Acute badminton injuries1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 145-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During 1990-1994, 1.2% of all sports injuries that required emergency care at the University Hospital of Umeå were caused by badminton. In 90.7% of the cases the patients described themselves as recreational players or beginners. There were 51.3% minor injuries (AIS 1) and 48.7% moderate injuries (AIS 2). The lower extremities were affected in 92.3% of the cases. Achilles tendon ruptures (34.6%) and ankle sprains and fractures (29.5%) were the most frequent. By the time of the follow-up (10-69 months), 52.6% of the players still had symptoms from the injuries and 39.5% had not been able to return to playing badminton. Our data indicate the importance of adequate treatment and rehabilitation after acute badminton injuries.

  • 12.
    Gaida, James Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia ; University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Institute of Sport Exercise and Health, University College Hospital London, London, UK.
    Scott, A.
    Mousavizadeh, R.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Apolipoprotein A1 distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1506-1513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic factors such as cholesterol appear to play an important role in the development of Achilles tendinopathy. There is, however, no morphologic proof explaining the link between high cholesterol and tendinopathy. As apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) is essential for reverse cholesterol transport, it may be related to cholesterol overload in tendon. Nothing is known about Apo-A1 expression in tendon tissue. We examined the distribution of Apo-A1 protein in biopsies from normal and tendinopathy-affected human Achilles tendons, and APOA1 mRNA production from cultured human hamstring tenocytes. Specific immunoreactions for Apo-A1 were detected. The tenocytes showed specific Apo-A1 immunoreactions. These reactions were usually distinct in the tendinopathy specimens. While the tendinopathy specimens often showed granular/small deposit reactions, the slender tenocytes of control specimens did not show this pattern. The magnitude of Apo-A1 immunoreactivity was especially marked in the tendinopathy specimens, as there is a high number of tenocytes. Reactions were also seen in the walls of blood vessels located within the tendon tissue proper of both the normal and tendinopathy tendons and within the peritendinous/fatty tissue of the tendinopathy tendons. The reactions were predominantly in the form of deposit reactions within the smooth muscle layer of the vessel walls. Cultured hamstring tenocytes produced APOA1 mRNA. We demonstrated the presence of Apo-A1 in human tendon tissue. This suggests there may be a link between Achilles tendinopathy and cholesterol metabolism. We hypothesize that Apo-A1 may be important for tenocyte and blood vessel function within tendons.

  • 13.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gender in ice hockey: women in a male territory2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how female ice hockey players describe and explain their situation within as well as outside their sport. Information was obtained by semi-structured interviews with female ice hockey players. The results were analyzed in a gender perspective where the main starting point was the concepts of different levels of power relations in society developed by Harding and applied to sports by Kolnes (the symbolic, structural and individual level). The study shows that the players appeared to share the traditional views of men and women. They also described gender differences in terms of financial and structural conditions as well as differences in ice hockey history. Even though the players described structural inequalities, they were quite content with their situation and the differences in conditions were not considered when they explained the gender differences in ice hockey performance. On the individual level the players considered themselves different from other women and appeared to share the traditional views of femininity and masculinity.

    It has been suggested that performance of a sport traditionally associated with the other sex might alter the traditional view of men and women, however our results give little support to that suggestion.

  • 14. Gjesdal, Siv
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Solstad, Bård E.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    A study of coach-team perceptual distance concerning the coach-created motivational climate in youth sport2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether coach-team perceptual distance regarding the coach-created motivational climate related to achievement goal orientations and affective responses. To this end, we used polynomial regression analysis with response surface methodology. The sample consisted of 1359 youth soccer players (57.8% male; M-age = 11.81 years, SD = 1.18), belonging to 87 different teams (M-size = 16.47), and 87 coaches (94.6% male, M-age = 42 years, SD = 5.67). Results showed that team perceptions of a coach-created mastery climate were positively related to team-rated task goal orientation and enjoyment, whereas team perceptions of a coach-created performance climate were positively related to team-rated ego goal orientation and anxiety, and negatively related to team-rated enjoyment. When the coach and the team were in perceptual agreement, the outcomes increased as both coach and team perceptions of the climate increased. In situations of perceptual disagreement, the most negative effects were seen when the coach held a more favorable perception of the motivational climate compared to the team. The findings highlight the importance of perceptual agreement between the coach and his/her team, contributing to the literature focusing on the effects of the coach-created motivational climate.

  • 15. Gustafsson, H.
    et al.
    Sagar, S. S.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2091-2102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  • 16. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Hill, Andrew
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1256-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes can be identified that differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernable groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 male and 113 female aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one's best.

  • 17. Hagberg, L A
    et al.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nyberg, L
    Hellénius, M-L
    Importance of enjoyment when promoting physical exercise2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of enjoyment of exercise in a health care-based intervention aimed at promoting physical exercise in primary health care patients. In a controlled study design, the intervention group was offered a wide range of group exercises over 3 months, followed by support in designing their own exercise program. The control group received usual care. Enjoyment of exercise and exercise level were measured. Associations between enjoyment and exercise level were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Changes in enjoyment between and within study groups were analyzed by the independent and paired t-test. Associations were found between enjoyment and exercise level (r=0.36, P<0.01), as well as between changes in enjoyment and changes in exercise level (r=0.34, P<0.01). At the 12-month follow-up, enjoyment of exercise was 25% higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P<0.01). In this group of primary health care patients, enjoyment of exercise was associated with exercise level. Enjoyment of exercise seems to be a mediator of exercise level. Furthermore, health care-based interventions seem to be able to affect enjoyment of exercise. Enjoyment of exercise may be important for the long-term effectiveness, of health care-based interventions.

  • 18.
    Hagberg, Lars Axel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Is promotion of physical activity a wise use of societal resources? Issues of cost-effectiveness and equity in health.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 304-312Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hedelin, R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Wiklund, U
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Bjerle, P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Henriksson-Larsén, K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Pre- and post-season heart rate variability in adolescent cross-country skiers.2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 298-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the effects on cardiac autonomic control after a competitive cross-country skiing season, 9 females and 8 males, 16-19 years old, performed tilt-table heart rate variability (HRV) recordings and incremental treadmill tests before (August), and after (April the following year) the most intensive period of training and competition. Spectral analysis of HRV showed increased total variability at rest and reduced low frequency variability in the tilted position (LFtilt) at the second test (P<0.05). The female subgroup showed consistently higher high frequency (HF) and total heart rate variability than males. Total run time (RunT) increased from 18.5+/-1.9 min to 19.4+/-1.7 min (mean+/-SD) in the entire group (P<0.05), while VO2max only showed a non-significant increase (0.05

    <0.10). Submaximal heart rates (HRsubm) were reduced by an average of 4 beats (P<0.01) but maximal HR was unchanged. Performance data suggest a positive training effect. Following training, the increased total HRV the reduced LFtilt (both at rest), and the lower submaximal heart rates indicate an altered control of heart rate both at rest and during exercise. The consistently higher HF and total variability in the females indicate an increased parasympathetic activity in females compared with males.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Olofsson, P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Jacobsson, Erkki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Burlin, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Physiological predictors of performance in cross-country skiing from treadmill tests in male and female subjects.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study which parameter that best corresponds to performance during cross-country skiing, seven male and nine female cross-country skiers were tested with treadmill tests. Parameters measured or computed by metabolic gas measurements were the anaerobic threshold (AT), threshold of decompensated metabolic acidosis (TDMA), the exercise intensity where the Respiratory exchange ratio reaches 1.0 (R = 1) and peak oxygen (O2) uptake (VO2peak). Onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA, 4 mmol.l-1 blood lactate) was also measured. The various parameters were measured in percentage of maximal heart rate, percentage of peak O2 uptake, VO2 ml.kg-1.min-1, VO2 ml.min-1.kg-2/3 and VO2 l.min-1. Results from four large competitions were also collected to rank the subjects. With correlation analysis, it was revealed that in male subjects a high OBLA was associated with good ranking results (r = (-0.829) - (-0.964); P < 0.05-0.001). In female subjects, the best association with competition results was found for R = 1 (r = (-0.715) - (-0.810); P < 0.05). Concerning VO2 measurements, for male subjects the unit l.min-1 is suggested to be used and for female subjects either the units l.min-1, ml.min-1.kg-2/3, or ml.kg-1.min-1 could be used when predicting performance in cross-country skiing. In conclusion, treadmill tests can be used for the prediction of performance in cross-country skiing. Further, various parameters from treadmill tests in men and women are best used as predictors of performance in cross-country skiing.

  • 21. Lundkvist, E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, H.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lemyre, N.
    Ivarsson, A.
    The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

  • 22. Made, Curt
    et al.
    Elmqvist, Lars-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    A 10-year study of snowboard injuries in Lapland Sweden2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Markström, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Schelin, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Dynamic knee control and movement strategies in athletes and non‐athletes in side hops: implications for knee injury2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1181-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athletes exposed to rapid maneuvers need a high level of dynamic knee stability and robustness, while also controlling whole body movement, to decrease the risk of non‐contact knee injury. The effects of high‐level athletic training on such measures of movement control have not, however, been thoroughly evaluated. This study investigated whether elite athletes (who regularly perform knee‐specific neuromuscular training) show greater dynamic knee robustness and/or different movement strategies than non‐athletic controls, in relation to overall knee function. Thirty‐nine women (19 athletes, 20 controls) performed standardized rebound side hops (SRSH) while a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates registered three‐dimensional trunk, hip, and knee joint angles and moments. Dynamic knee robustness was evaluated using finite helical axis (FHA) inclination angles extracted from knee rotation intervals of 10°, analyzed with independent t tests. Angle and moment curves were analyzed with inferential methods for functional data. Athletes had superior knee function (less laxity, greater hop performances, and strength) but presented similar FHA inclination angles to controls. Movement strategies during the landing phase differed; athletes presented larger (a) hip flexion angles (during 9%‐29% of the phase), (b) hip adduction moments (59%‐99%), (c) hip internal rotation moments (83%‐89%), and (d) knee flexion moments (79%‐93%). Thus, elite athletes may have a greater ability than non‐athletes to keep the knee robust while performing SRSH more efficiently through increased engagement of the hip. However, dynamic knee robustness associated with lower FHA inclination angles still show room for improvement, thus possibly decreasing knee injury risk.

  • 24. Ntoumanis, N.
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.
    Vlachopoulos, S.
    Lindwall, M.
    Gucciardi, D. F.
    Tsakonitis, C.
    Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: a multilevel growth curve model approach2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 746-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past work linking exercise identity and exercise motivation has been cross-sectional. This is the first study to model the relations between different types of exercise identity and exercise motivation longitudinally. Understanding the dynamic associations between these sets of variables has implications for theory development and applied research. This was a longitudinal survey study. Participants were 180 exercisers (79 men, 101 women) from Greece, who were recruited from fitness centers and were asked to complete questionnaires assessing exercise identity (exercise beliefs and role-identity) and exercise motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external motivation, and amotivation) three times within a 6month period. Multilevel growth curve modeling examined the role of motivational regulations as within- and between-level predictors of exercise identity, and a model in which exercise identity predicted exercise motivation at the within- and between-person levels. Results showed that within-person changes in intrinsic motivation, introjected, and identified regulations were positively and reciprocally related to within-person changes in exercise beliefs; intrinsic motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in role-identity but not vice versa. Between-person differences in the means of predictor variables were predictive of initial levels and average rates of change in the outcome variables. The findings show support to the proposition that a strong exercise identity (particularly exercise beliefs) can foster motivation for behaviors that reinforce this identity. We also demonstrate that such relations can be reciprocal overtime and can depend on the type of motivation in question as well as between-person differences in absolute levels of these variables.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Motor imagery: if you can't do it, you won't think it2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 711-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since long, motor imagery has been recognized as a method for studying motor representations. In the last few years, important advances regarding the use of motor imagery have been made. In particular, issues concerning the functional equivalence between imagery and action have been addressed, and how equivalence affects the use of imagery to study motor representations. In this paper, we review recent findings in order to highlight the current state of knowledge about motor imagery and its relation to motor action. Three topics are discussed: (i) the imagery perspective, (ii) task complexity, and (iii) the importance of physical experience. It is shown how theses factors are closely related and how previous studies may have underestimated to what extent these factors affect the interpretation of results. Practical implications for imagery interventions are considered. It is concluded that if you cannot perform an action physically, you cannot imagine it in a way that is necessary for a high degree of functional equivalence.

  • 26.
    Sundell, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine.
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Low back pain and associated disability in Swedish adolescents2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) defined as ache or pain in the lowest part of the back is a common experience among people all over the world. The lifetime prevalence is reported to be as high as 84%, and the prevalence of LBP seems to be almost the same among adolescents as among adults. The risk for having LBP later in life if you experienced LBP in adolescence is high.

    Material and Methods: In this cross‐sectional study of 2550 students aged 16‐20 years, we used the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for the analysis of musculo‐skeletal symptoms. We studied gender difference, prevalence, and disability of Low back pain. We also studied differences in LBP in adolescent athletes depending on hours spent on sports or physical activity.

    Results: Significantly, more girls than boys had had problems sometimes during their life. Those who participated in sports reported LBP to a significantly higher extent than those who were physically inactive in their spare time. Gender and spare time sports were important risk factors for getting LBP some time in life. There was a higher risk for girls to have low back pain problems more than 30 days or daily the last year if they had had low back pain some time earlier in life.

    Conclusion: This study shows that low back pain (LBP) is common among Swedish adolescents, more common among girls than boys. High sport activity was associated with the risk of having LBP, length of time with LBP, and disability due to LBP.

  • 27.
    Söderman, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Adolphson, J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Injuries in adolescent female players in European football: a prospective study over one outdoor soccer season.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 299-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this prospective study, injuries in 153 adolescent female soccer players were recorded during one outdoor season (April-October). The overall injury incidence rate was 6.8 per 1000 h soccer (games and practice) and the incidence rate of traumatic injury 9.1 and 1.5 per 1000 player-hours in games and practice, respectively. Sixty-three players (41%) sustained 79 injuries. Sixty-six percent of the injuries were traumatic and 34% were overuse injuries. Most of the traumatic injuries occurred during games. Eighty-nine percent of the injuries were located in the lower extremities and 42% occurred in the knee or ankle. The most frequent type of injury was ankle sprain (22.8%). Forty-one percent of the traumatic injuries and 56% of the ankle sprains were re-injuries. Most of the injuries were of moderate severity (52%), while 34% were minor and 14% were major. Most of the major injuries were traumatic such as knee ligament injuries and ankle sprains.

  • 28.
    Söderman, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Pietilä, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Werner, S
    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young females playing soccer at senior levels.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 65-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study the consequences of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female soccer players. Special interest was focused on young female soccer players (< 16 years) sustaining anterior cruciate ligament injuries when playing at a senior level, which means playing together with players 19 years or older. In Sweden, all players belonging to an organized soccer club are insured by the same insurance company, the Folksam Insurance Company. Data of all soccer-related knee injuries in females reported to the Folksam Insurance Company between 1994 and 1998 were collected. A questionnaire was sent to 978 females who were registered to have sustained a knee injury before the age of 20 years. The response rate was 79%. Three hundred and ninety-eight female soccer players who had sustained an anterior cruciate ligament injury before the age of 19 years were analysed. Most of their anterior cruciate ligament injuries had been diagnosed using arthroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (84%). Thirty-eight percent of the players had been injured before the age of 16 years. Of these, 39% were injured when playing in senior teams. When playing in senior teams 59% of the players below the age of 16 years and 44% of the players 16 years or older sustained their ACL injuries during contact situations. At the time of this investigation (2-7 years after the anterior cruciate ligament injury), altogether 78% (n = 311) reported that they had stopped playing soccer. The most common reason (80%) was symptoms from their anterior cruciate ligament-injured knee. It appears that many young female soccer players injure their anterior cruciate ligament when playing at a senior level. Therefore, we suggest that female soccer players under the age of 16 years should be allowed to participate only in practice sessions but not games at a senior level.

  • 29.
    Tengman, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Brax Olofsson, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet .
    Lundgren, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 6, p. e491-e500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6–25%,P < 0.001–P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  • 30.
    Tengman, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Brax Olofsson, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Sor-Trondelag University College, Trondheim, Norge.
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: II. Concentric and eccentric knee muscle strength2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 6, p. e501-e509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term consequences on knee muscle strength some decades after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are not established. The aims of our study were to examine peak torque more than 20 years after ACL injury and to compare their knee muscle strength to that of healthy controls. We tested 70 individuals with unilateral ACL injury 23 ± 2 years after injury, whereof 33 (21 men) were treated with physiotherapy in combination with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and 37 (23 men) with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls (21 men). A Kin-Com® dynamometer (90°/s) was used to measure peak torque in knee flexion and extension in both concentric and eccentric contractions. Knee extension peak torque, concentric and eccentric, was ∼10% lower for the injured leg compared with the non-injured leg for both ACLR (P < 0.001; P < 0.001) and ACLPT (P = 0.007; P = 0.002). The ACLPT group also showed reduced eccentric knee flexion torque of the injured leg (P = 0.008). The strength of the non-injured leg in both ACL groups was equal to that of controls. No difference was seen for those with no-or-low degree of knee osteoarthritis compared to those with moderate-to-high degree of osteoarthritis. ACL injury may lead to a persistent reduction of peak torque in the injured leg, which needs to be considered across the lifespan.

  • 31.
    Tengman, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Physiotherapy, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway.
    Häger, Charlotte K
    Anterior cruciate ligament injury about 20 years post-treatment: a kinematic analysis of one-leg hop2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 818-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced dynamic knee stability, often evaluated with one-leg hops (OLHs), is reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This may lead to long-standing altered movement patterns, which are less investigated. 3D kinematics during OLH were explored in 70 persons 23 +/- 2 years after ACL injury; 33 were treated with physiotherapy in combination with ACL reconstruction (ACL(R)) and 37 with physiotherapy alone (ACL(PT)). Comparisons were made to 33 matched controls. We analyzed (a) maximal knee joint angles and range of motion (flexion, abduction, rotation); (b) medio-lateral position of the center of mass (COM) in relation to knee and ankle joint centers, during take-off and landing phases. Unlike controls, ACL-injured displayed leg asymmetries: less knee flexion and less internal rotation at take-off and landing and more lateral COM related to knee and ankle joint of the injured leg at landing. Compared to controls, ACL(R) had larger external rotation of the injured leg at landing. ACL(PT) showed less knee flexion and larger external rotation at take-off and landing, and larger knee abduction at Landing. COM was more medial in relation to the knee at take-off and less laterally placed relative to the ankle at landing. ACL injury results in long-term kinematic alterations during OLH, which are less evident for ACL(R).

  • 32.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Renault, V
    Mouly, V
    Butler-Browne, G S
    Satellite cells and training in the elderly.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present review, we describe the effects of ageing on human muscle fibres, underlining that each human muscle is unique, meaning that the phenotype becomes specifically changed upon ageing in different muscles, and that the satellite cells are key cells in the regeneration and growth of muscle fibres. Satellite cells are closely associated with muscle fibres, located outside the muscle fibre sarcolemma but beneath the basement lamina. They are quiescent cells, which become activated by stimulation, like muscle fibre injury or increased muscle tension, start replicating and are responsible for the repair of injured muscle fibres and the growth of muscle fibres. The degree of replication is governed by the telomeric clock, which is affected upon excessive bouts of degeneration and regeneration as in muscular dystrophies. The telomeric clock, as in dystrophies, does not seem to be a limiting factor in ageing of human muscle. The number of satellite cells, although reduced in number in aged human muscles, has enough number of cell divisions left to ensure repair throughout the human life span. We propose that an active life, with sufficient general muscular activity, should be recommended to reduce the impairment of skeletal muscle function upon ageing.

  • 33.
    Öhberg, L
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Good clinical results but persisting side-to-side differences in calf muscle strength after surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis: a 5-year follow-up.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have prospectively studied calf muscle strength (isokinetic concentric and eccentric muscle strength at 90 degrees/s and 225 degrees/s of angular velocity in 24 patients (17 males and 7 females, mean age 43.0 years) surgically treated for chronic Achilles tendinosis (at the 2-6 cm level in the tendon). The mean follow-up time was 5 years (range 31-82 months). Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weight-bearing below the knee plaster cast for 2-6 weeks, followed by a stepwise increasing strength training programme. Strength measurements (peak torque) were done preoperatively, and 1 and 5 (mean) years postoperatively. Preoperatively, concentric plantar flexion peak torque at 90 degrees/s and 225 degrees/s and eccentric plantar flexion torque at 90 degrees/s were significantly lower (12.3%, 19.7% and 8.5% respectively) on the injured side compared to the non-injured side. Postoperatively, at the 5-year follow-up, 22 out of 24 patients (92%) were satisfied with the operation and active at their desired level (running, tennis, badminton, walking). There was no significant increase in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength postoperatively. Concentric plantar flexion peak torque at 90 degrees/s and 225 degrees/s and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque at 90 degrees/s were still significantly lower (7.2%, 8.6% and 8.8% respectively) on the injured side compared to the non-injured side. In conclusion it seems that the calf muscle strength deficit seen on the injured side preoperatively in this group of patients remains despite 92% of the patients being pain-free and active in sports or at recreational level after the operation. However, the percentage side-to-side difference is relatively low, and might not have any clinical relevance.

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