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  • 1.
    El Wakil, Abeer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). CNRS, Inst Pharmacol Mol & Cellulaire, 660 Route Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne, France.
    Mari, B.
    Barhanin, J.
    Lalli, E.
    Genomic Analysis of Sexual Dimorphism of Gene Expression in the Mouse Adrenal Gland2013In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 45, no 12, p. 870-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A relevant gender difference exists in adrenal physiology and propensity to disease. In mice, a remarkable sexual dimorphism is present in several components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with females displaying higher adrenal weight, plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and aldosterone levels than males. The molecular bases of this sexual dimorphism are little known. We have compared global gene expression profiles in males vs. female mouse adrenal glands and also studied the effect that testosterone treatment and castration have on adrenal gene expression in female vs. male mice, respectively. Our study evidenced a set of 71 genes that are coordinately modulated according to sex and hormonal treatments and represent the core sexually dimorphic expression program in the mouse adrenal gland. Moreover, we show that some genes involved in steroid metabolism have a remarkable sexual dimorphic expression and identify new potential markers for the adrenal X-zone, a transitory cellular layer in the inner adrenal cortex, which spontaneously regresses at puberty in males and during the first pregnancy in females and has an uncertain physiological role. Finally, sexually dimorphic expression of the transcriptional regulators Nr5a1 and Nr0b1 may explain at least in part the differences in adrenal steroidogenesis between sexes.

  • 2. Lindstrom, J.
    et al.
    Neumann, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sheppard, K. E.
    Gilis-Januszewska, A.
    Greaves, C. J.
    Handke, U.
    Pajunen, P.
    Puhl, S.
    Polonen, A.
    Rissanen, A.
    Roden, M.
    Stemper, T.
    Telle-Hjellset, V.
    Tuomilehto, J.
    Velickiene, D.
    Schwarz, P. E.
    Take Action to Prevent Diabetes: The IMAGE Toolkit for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Europe2010In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 42, no Suppl 1, p. S37-S55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we ask people what they value most, health is usually top of the list. While effective care is available for many chronic diseases, the fact remains that for the patient, the tax payer and the whole of society: Prevention is Better Than Cure. Diabetes and its complications are a serious threat to the survival and well-being of an increasing number of people. It is predicted that one in ten Europeans aged 20-79 will have developed diabetes by 2030. Once a disease of old age, diabetes is now common among adults of all ages and is beginning to affect adolescents and even children. Diabetes accounts for up to 18% of total healthcare expenditure in Europe. The Good News is That Diabetes is Preventable. Compelling evidence shows that the onset of diabetes can be prevented or delayed greatly in individuals at high risk (people with impaired glucose regulation). Clinical research has shown a reduction in risk of developing diabetes of over 50% following relatively modest changes in lifestyle that include adopting a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and maintaining a healthy body weight. These results have since been reproduced in real-world prevention programmes. Even a delay of a few years in the progression to diabetes is expected to reduce diabetes-related complications, such as heart, kidney and eye disease and, consequently, to reduce the cost to society. A comprehensive approach to diabetes prevention should combine population based primary prevention with programmes targeted at those who are at high risk. This approach should take account of the local circumstances and diversity within modern society (e.g. social inequalities). The challenge goes beyond the healthcare system. We need to encourage collaboration across many different sectors: education providers, non-governmental organisations, the food industry, the media, urban planners and politicians all have a very important role to play.

  • 3.
    Lundgren, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindgren, P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Myrnäs, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Kirurgi.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Sex- and depot-specific lipolysis regulation in human adipocytes: interplay between adrenergic stimulation and glucocorticoids2008In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 40, p. 854-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore interactions between adrenergic stimulation, glucocorticoids, and insulin on the lipolytic rate in isolated human adipocytes from subcutaneous and omental fat depots, and to address possible sex diff erences. Fat biopsies were obtained from 48 nondiabetic subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Lipolysis rate was measured as glycerol release from isolated cells and proteins involved in lipolysis regulation were assessed by immunoblots. Fasting blood samples were obtained and metabolic and infl ammatory variables were analyzed. In women, the rate of 8-bromo-cAMP- and isoprenaline-stimulated lipolysis was ~ 2- and 1.5-fold higher, respectively, in subcutaneous compared to omental adipocytes, whereas there was no diff erence between the two depots in men. Dexamethasone treatment increased the ability of 8-bromo-cAMP to stimulate lipolysis in the subcutaneous depot in women, but had no consistent eff ects in fat cells from men. Protein kinase A, Perilipin A, and hormone sensitive lipase content in adipocytes was not aff ected by adipose depot, sex, or glucocorticoid treatment. In conclusion, catecholamine and glucocorticoid regulation of lipolysis in isolatedhuman adipocytes diff ers between adipose tissue depots and also between sexes. These findings may be of relevance for the interaction between endogenous stress hormones and adipose tissue function in visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome.

  • 4.
    Lundgren, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    No in vitro effects of fatty acids on glucose uptake, lipolysis or insulin signaling in rat adipocytes.2004In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 203-209Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Pajunen, P.
    et al.
    Landgraf, R.
    Muylle, F.
    Neumann, anne0010
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindstrom, J.
    Schwarz, P. E.
    Peltonen, M.
    Quality Indicators for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Europe - IMAGE2010In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 42, no Suppl 1, p. S56-S63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The marked increase of type 2 diabetes necessitates active development and implementation of efficient prevention programs. A European level action has been taken by launching the IMAGE project to unify and improve the various prevention management concepts, which currently exist within the EU. This report describes the background and the methods used in the development of the IMAGE project quality indicators for diabetes primary prevention programs. It is targeted to the persons responsible for diabetes prevention at different levels of the health care systems. Methods: Development of the quality indicators was conducted by a group of specialists representing different professional groups from several European countries. Indicators and measurement recommendations were produced by the expert group in consensus meetings and further developed by combining evidence and expert opinion. Results: The quality indicators were developed for different prevention strategies: population level prevention strategy, screening for high risk, and high risk prevention strategy. Totally, 22 quality indicators were generated. They constitute the minimum level of quality assurance recommended for diabetes prevention programs. In addition, 20 scientific evaluation indicators with measurement standards were produced. These micro level indicators describe measurements, which should be used if evaluation, reporting, and scientific analysis are planned. Conclusions: We hope that these quality tools together with the IMAGE guidelines will provide a useful tool for improving the quality of diabetes prevention in Europe and make different prevention approaches comparable.

  • 6.
    Renström, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Svensson, M K
    Eriksson, J W
    Factors in serum from type 2 diabetes patients can cause cellular insulin resistance.2009In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 767-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study was aimed to investigate whether there are humoral factors in serum from type 2 diabetic subjects that, in addition to glucose, insulin and free fatty acids are able to induce or contribute to peripheral insulin resistance with respect to glucose transport. Isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from 11 type 2 diabetic subjects and 10 nondiabetic controls were incubated for 24-h in medium supplemented with 25 % serum from a control or a type 2 diabetic donor, in the presence of a low (5 mM) or a high (15 mM) glucose concentration, respectively. After the incubation period glucose uptake capacity was assessed. Serum from type 2 diabetic donors, compared to serum from controls, significantly reduced the maximal insulin eff ect to stimulate glucose uptake (approximately 40 %, p < 0.05) in adipocytes from control subjects, independent of surrounding glucose concentrations. Glucose uptake capacity in adipocytes isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects was similar regardless of culture condition. No significant alterations were found in cellular content of key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2, and glucose transporter 4) that could explain the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport in control adipocytes incubated with serum from type 2 diabetic donors. The present findings indicate the presence of biomolecules in the circulation of type 2 diabetic subjects, apart from glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids with the ability to induce peripheral insulin resistance. This further implies that even though normoglycemia is achieved other circulating factors can still negatively aff ect insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

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