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  • 1.
    Andén, Annika
    et al.
    Bergnäsets Vårdcentral, Luleå, Sweden / Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Inst for Community medicine/General practice, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sven-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Rudebeck, Carl Edvard
    Kalmar County Council, Vårdcentralen Esplananden, Västervik, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Tromsö University, Tromsö, Norway.
    To make a difference - how GPs conceive consultation outcomes: A phenomenographic study2009In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 7-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Outcomes from GPs' consultations have been measured mainly with disease specific measures and with patient questionnaires about health, satisfaction, enablement and quality. The aim of this study was to explore GPs' conceptions of consultation outcomes.

    Methods: Interviews with 17 GPs in groups and individually about consultation outcomes from recently performed consultations were analysed with a phenomenographic research approach.

    Results: The GPs conceived outcomes in four ways: patient outcomes, GPs' self-evaluation, relationship building and change of surgery routines.

    Conclusion: Patient outcomes, as conceived by the GPs, were generally congruent with those that had been taken up in outcome studies. Relationship building and change of surgery routines were outcomes in preparation for consultations to come. GPs made self-assessments related to internalized norms, grounded on a perceived collegial professional consensus. Considerations of such different aspects of outcomes can inspire professional development.

     

  • 2.
    Danielsson, Ulla EB
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Struck by lightning or slowly suffocating: gendered trajectories into depression2009In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 56-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In family practice depression is a common mental health problem and one with marked gender differences; women are diagnosed as depressed twice as often as men. A more comprehensive explanatory model of depression that can give an understanding of, and tools for changing, this gender difference is called for. This study explores how primary care patients experience, understand and explain their depression.

    Methods: Twenty men and women of varying ages and socioeconomic backgrounds diagnosed with depression according to ICD-10 were interviewed in-depth. Data were assessed and analyzed using Grounded Theory.

    Results: The core category that emerged from analysis was "Gendered trajectories into depression". Thereto, four categories were identified – "Struck by lightning", "Nagging darkness", "Blackout" and "Slowly suffocating" – and presented as symbolic illness narratives that showed gendered patterns. Most of the men in our study considered that their bodies were suddenly "struck" by external circumstances beyond their control. The stories of study women were more diverse, reflecting all four illness narratives. However, the dominant pattern was that women thought that their depression emanated from internal factors, from their own personality or ways of handling life. The women were more preoccupied with shame and guilt, and conveyed a greater sense of personal responsibility and concern with relationships.

    Conclusion: Recognizing gendered narratives of illness in clinical consultation may have a salutary potential, making more visible depression among men while relieving self-blame among women, and thereby encouraging the development of healthier practices of how to be a man or a woman.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Research, Education and Development - Östersund, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Research, Education and Development - Östersund, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Could it be colorectal cancer?: general practitioners' use of the faecal occult blood test and decision making - a qualitative study2015In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal complaints are common reasons for contacting primary care physicians, and it can be challenging for general practitioners (GPs) to identify patients with suspected colorectal cancer (CRC) for referral to secondary care. The immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is used as a diagnostic aid in primary care, but it is unclear how test results are interpreted. Studies show that negative tests are associated with a risk of delayed diagnosis of CRC and that some patients with positive tests are not investigated further. The aim of this study was to explore what makes GPs suspect CRC and to investigate their practices regarding investigation and referral, with special attention on the use of iFOBTs.

    METHOD: Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with eleven purposely selected GPs and registrars in Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Sweden, and subjected to qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: In the analysis of the interviews four categories were identified that described what made the physicians suspect CRC and their practices. Careful listening-with awareness of the pitfalls: Attentive listening was described as essential, but there was a risk of being misled by, for example, the patient's own explanations. Tests can help-the iFOBT can also complicate the diagnosis: All physicians used iFOBTs to various extents. In the absence of guidelines, all found their own ways to interpret and act on the test results. To refer or not to refer-safety margins are necessary: Uncertainty was described as a part of everyday work and was handled in different ways. Common vague symptoms could be CRC and thus justified referral with safety margins. Growing more confident-but also more humble: With increasing experience, the GPs described becoming more confident in their decisions but they were also more cautious.

    CONCLUSIONS: Listening carefully to the patient's history was essential. The iFOBT was frequently used as support, but there were considerable variations in the interpretation and handling of the results. The diagnostic process can be described as navigating uncertain waters with safety margins, while striving to keep the patient's best interests in mind. The iFOBT may be useful as a diagnostic aid in primary care, but more research and evidence-based guidelines are needed.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Teenage suicide cluster formation and contagion: implications for primary care2006In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 32-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We have previously studied unintentional as well as intentional injury deaths among teenagers living in the four northernmost counties, forming approximately 55% of Sweden with 908,000 inhabitants in 1991. During this work, we found what we suspected to be a suicide cluster among teenagers and we also suspected contagion since there were links between these cases. In this present study, we investigate the occurrence of suicide clustering among teenagers, analyze cluster definitions, and suggest preventive measures. METHODS: A retrospective study of teenager suicides autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Umea, Sweden, during 1981 through 2000. Police reports, autopsy protocols, and medical records were studied in all cases, and the police officers that conducted the investigation at the scene were interviewed in all cluster cases. Parents of the suicide victims of the first cluster were also interviewed. Two aggregations of teenager suicides were detected and evaluated as possible suicide clusters using the US Centers for Disease Control definition of a suicide cluster. RESULTS: Two clusters including six teenagers were confirmed, and contagion was established within each cluster. CONCLUSION: The general practitioner is identified as a key person in the aftermath of a teenage suicide since the general practitioner often meet the family, friends of the deceased, and other acquaintances early in the process after a suicide. This makes the general practitioner suitable to initiate contacts with others involved in the well-being of the young, in order to prevent suicide cluster formation and para-suicidal activities.

  • 5.
    Lehti, Arja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Mattsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study2009In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 10, p. 53-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features.

    METHODS: The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse.

    CONCLUSION: Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms.

  • 6.
    Mosquera Mendez, Paola A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hernandez, Jinneth
    Vega, Roman
    Martinez, Jorge
    Labonte, Ronald
    Sanders, David
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis2012In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 13, article id 84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables.

    Methods: A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index.

    Results: The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health system itself, Bogota's initiative of a PHC strategy has successfully contributed to the improvement of some health outcomes.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Unit Clin Res Ctr Östersund, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Diagnostic characteristics and prognoses of primary-care patients referred for clinical exercise testing: a prospective observational study2014In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evaluation of angina symptoms in primary care often includes clinical exercise testing. We sought to identify clinical characteristics that predicted the outcome of exercise testing and to describe the occurrence of cardiovascular events during follow-up. Methods: This study followed patients referred to exercise testing for suspected coronary disease by general practitioners in the County of Jamtland, Sweden (enrolment, 25 months from February 2010). Patient characteristics were registered by pre-test questionnaire. Exercise tests were performed with a bicycle ergometer, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, and validated scales for scoring angina symptoms. Exercise tests were classified as positive (ST-segment depression > 1 mm and chest pain indicative of angina), non-conclusive (ST depression or chest pain), or negative. Odds ratios (ORs) for exercise-test outcome were calculated with a bivariate logistic model adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and previous cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular events (unstable angina, myocardial infarctions, decisions on revascularization, cardiovascular death, and recurrent angina in primary care) were recorded within six months. A probability cut-off of 10% was used to detect cardiovascular events in relation to the predicted test outcome. Results: We enrolled 865 patients (mean age 63.5 years, 50.6% men); 6.4% of patients had a positive test, 75.5% were negative, 16.4% were non-conclusive, and 1.7% were not assessable. Positive or non-conclusive test results were predicted by exertional chest pain (OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.69-3.59), a pathologic ST-T segment on resting electrocardiogram (OR 2.29, 95% Cl 1.44-3.63), angina according to the patient (OR 1.70, 95% Cl 1.13-2.55), and medication for dyslipidaemia (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.02-2.23). During follow-up, cardiovascular events occurred in 8% of all patients and 4% were referred to revascularization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 52.7%, 18.3%, and 2% of patients with positive, non-conclusive, or negative tests, respectively. The model predicted 67/69 patients with a cardiovascular event. Conclusions: Clinical characteristics can be used to predict exercise test outcome. Primary care patients with a negative exercise test have a very low risk of cardiovascular events, within six months. A predictive model based on clinical characteristics can be used to refine the identification of low-risk patients.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Unit of Research, Education and Development, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderström, Lars
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Use of exercise tests in primary care: importance for referral decisions and possible bias in the decision process; a prospective observational study2014In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, article id 182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The utility of clinical exercise tests depends on their support of treatment decisions. We sought to assess the utility of exercise tests for the selection of primary-care patients for referral to cardiologic care, and to determine whether referral decisions were biased by gender or socioeconomic status. We also evaluated referral rates and cardiovascular events in patients with positive exercise tests. 

    Methods: We designed a prospective observational study of 438 men and 427 women from 28 Swedish primary-care clinics who were examined with exercise testing for suspected coronary disease. All participants were followed-up with respect to cardiologist referrals and cardiovascular events (hospitalisation for unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) within six months and revascularisation within 250 days. Variables associated with referral were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Socioeconomic status was determined by educational level and employment. 

    Results: Positive/inconclusive exercise tests and exertional chest pain predicted referral in men and women. Of 865 participants, patients with positive, inconclusive, or negative exercise tests were referred to cardiologists in 67.3%, 26.1%, and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference in referral rates related to gender or socioeconomic level. Self-employed women were referred more frequently compared to other women (odds ratio (OR) 3.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-10.99). Among non-manual employees, women were referred to cardiologic examination less frequently than men (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-1.00; p = 0.049; ORs adjusted for age, exertional chest pain, and exercise test result). In patients with positive exercise tests, the referral rate decreased continuously with age (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.97; adjusted for cardiovascular co-morbidity). Cardiovascular events occurred in 22.2% (4/18) of non-referred patients with positive exercise tests; 56% (10/18) of these patients were not considered for cardiologic care, with continuity problems in primary care as one possible contributing cause. 

    Conclusions: Exercise tests are important for selecting patients for referral to cardiologic care. Interactions related to gender and socioeconomic status affected referral rates. In patients with positive exercise tests, referral rates decreased with age. An increased awareness of possible bias regarding age, gender, and socioeconomic status, which may influence medical decisions, is therefore necessary.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Söderstrom, Lars
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Low use of statins for secondary prevention in primary care: a survey in a northern Swedish population2016In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 17, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cholesterol-lowering therapy with statins is recommended in established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and should be considered for patients at high cardiovascular risk. We surveyed statin treatment before first-time myocardial infarction in clinical practice compared to current guidelines, in patients with and without known CVD in primary care clinics with general practitioners (GPs) on short-term contracts vs. permanent staff GPs. Methods: A total of 931 patients (345 women) in northern Sweden were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and December 2014 and stratified by prior CVD, comprising angina pectoris, revascularisation, ischaemic stroke or transitory ischaemic attack, or peripheral artery disease. Primary care clinics were classified by the proportion of GP salaries that were paid to GPs working on short-term contracts: low (0-9 %), medium (10-39 %), or high (>= 40 %). We used logistic regression to identify determinants of statin treatment. Results: Among patients with prior CVD, only 34.5 % received statin treatment before myocardial infarction. The probability of statin treatment decreased with age (>= 70 years OR 0.30; 95 % CI 0.13-0.66) and female gender (OR 0.39; 95 % CI 0.20-0.78) but increased in patients with diabetes (OR 3.52; 95 % CI 1.75-7.08). Among patients with prior CVD, the type of primary care clinic was not predictive of statin treatment. In the entire study cohort, 17.3 % of patients were treated with statins; women < 70 years old were more likely to receive statin treatment than women >= 70 years old (OR 3.24; 95 % CI 1.64-6.38), and men >= 70 years old were twice as likely to be treated with statins than women of the same age (OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.31-3.76) after adjusting for diabetes and CVD. Overall, patients from clinics with predominantly permanent staff GPs received statin therapy less frequently than those with GPs on short-term contracts. Conclusions: In patients with prior CVD we found considerable under-treatment with statins, especially among women and the elderly. Methodologies for case findings, recall, and follow-up need to be improved and implemented to reach the goals for CVD prevention in clinical practice.

  • 10.
    Obando Medina, Claudia
    et al.
    Centre for Demography and Health Research, Nicaraguan National Autonomous University, León, Nicaragua.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Dahlblom, Kjerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    A qualitative study on primary health care professionals' perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua2014In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, p. 129-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people's mental health problems, suicidal problems and help-seeking behaviour.

    METHODS: Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach.

    RESULTS: This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems.

    CONCLUSION: PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people's willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people.

  • 11. Van der Wielen, Marie
    et al.
    Giaquinto, Carlo
    Gothefors, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Huelsse, Christel
    Huet, Frédéric
    Littmann, Martina
    Maxwell, Melanie
    Talayero, José M P
    Todd, Peter
    Vila, Miguel T
    Cantarutti, Luigi
    Van Damme, Pierre
    Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study.2010In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 11, p. 22-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. METHODS: Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. RESULTS: 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, > or = 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  • 12.
    Weinehall, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sorensen, Julie
    Bassett Healthcare Network Research Institute, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326, USA.
    Jerdén, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Dalarna County Council, Unit of Research and Development, Falun.
    May, John
    Bassett Healthcare Network Research Institute, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326, USA.
    Jenkins, Paul
    Bassett Healthcare Network Research Institute, One Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326, USA.
    Counseling on lifestyle habits in the United States and Sweden: a report comparing primary care health professionals' perspectives on lifestyle counseling in terms of scope, importance and competence2014In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 83-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The role of primary care professionals in lifestyle counseling for smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet is receiving attention at the national level in many countries. The U. S. and Sweden are two countries currently establishing priorities in these areas. A previously existing international research collaboration provides a unique opportunity to study this issue.

    METHODS: Data from a national survey in Sweden and a study in rural Upstate New York were compared to contrast the perspectives, attitudes, and practice of primary care professionals in the two countries. Answers to four key questions on counseling for tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and eating habits were compared.

    RESULTS: The response rates were 71% (n = 180) and 89% (n = 86) in the Sweden and the U.S. respectively. U.S. professionals rated counseling "very important" significantly more frequently than Swedish professionals for tobacco (99% versus 92%, p < .0001), physical activity (90% versus 79%, p = .04), and eating habits (86% versus 69%, p = .003). U.S. professionals also reported giving "very much" counseling more frequently for these same three endpoints than did the Swedish professionals (tobacco 81% versus 38%, p < .0001, physical activity 64% versus 31%, p < .0001, eating 59% versus 34%, p = .0001). Swedish professionals also rated their level of expertise in providing counseling significantly lower than did their U.S. counterparts for all four endpoints. A higher percentage of U.S. professionals expressed a desire to increase levels of counseling "very much", but only significantly so for eating habits (42% versus 28%, p = .037).

    CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates large differences between the extent that Swedish and American primary care professionals report being engaged in counseling on lifestyle issues, how important they perceive counseling to be, and what expertise they possess in this regard. Explanations might be found in inter-professional attitudes, the organization of healthcare, including the method of reimbursement, traditions of preventive healthcare, and cultural differences between the two countries. Further studies are needed to explore these questions, with the aim of facilitating improved lifestyle counseling in primary care.

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