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  • 1. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Aly, Farag
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Effect of face veil on ventilatory function among Saudi adult females2012In: Pakistan journal of medical sciences print, ISSN 1682-024X, E-ISSN 1681-715X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 71-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The use of face veil called "niqab" by women to cover their faces at public places is a common practice in some Muslim communities. The long-term effect of niqab use on ventilatory function (VF) has not previously been reported. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare VF between niqab wearing and non-niqab wearing healthy Saudi females. Methodology: Thirty eight healthy adult Saudi females participated in this study. Nineteen subjects were regular niqab users and the other nineteen were either not using niqab at all or used it for less than one hour per day. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC (%), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were recorded using a digital spirometer. Results: Mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (%) and MVV for niqab wearers were significantly lower than the corresponding values for non-niqab wearers. Significant negative correlation was found between the FVC and FEV1 values and the number of hours of the use of face veil per day. Conclusions: Long-term use of traditional niqab use can affect VF.

  • 2. Almosa, Naif
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Incidence of orthodontic brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment: A systematic review2018In: Pakistan journal of medical sciences print, ISSN 1682-024X, E-ISSN 1681-715X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 744-750Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of orthodontic brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment.

    Methods: Using electronic databases; eligible studies up to January 2018 were retrieved, independently reviewed, and screened. The Coleman Methodology Scoring System (CMS) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool were used to assess quality and risk of bias in the included studies.

    Results: Of the seventeen studies included in the final synthesis, thirteen were categorized as randomized clinical trials (RCTs), one prospective cohort and retrospective survey each, whereas two studies could not be categorized. The number of patients in the selected studies ranged between 19 and 153; the mean age was between 10.5 to 38.7 years, and male to female ratio was 353:495. Almost all studies had a high risk of bias, and more than half of the studies had CMS score of 70 or above. The numbers of brackets examined in the studies ranged between 361 and 3336. The incidence of brackets detachment ranged from 0.6 to 28.3%.

    Conclusions: The incidence of brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment is high.

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