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  • 1.
    Elbakidze, M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, PK
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Axelsson, R
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Multi-stakeholder collaboration in Russian and Swedish model forest initiatives: adaptive governance toward sustainable forest management?2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building the adaptive capacity of interlinked social and ecological systems is assumed to improve implementation of sustainable forest management (SFM) policies. One mechanism is collaborative learning by continuous evaluation, communication, and transdisciplinary knowledge production. The Model Forest (MF) concept, developed in Canada, is intended to encourage all dimensions of sustainable development through collaboration among stakeholders of forest resources in a geographical area. Because the MF approach encompasses both social and ecological systems, it can be seen as a process aimed at improving adaptive capacity to deal with uncertainty and change. We analyzed multi-stakeholder approaches used in four MF initiatives representing social–ecological systems with different governance legacies and economic histories in the northwest of the Russian Federation (Komi MF and Pskov MF) and in Sweden (Vilhelmina MF and the Foundation Säfsen Forests in the Bergslagen region). To describe the motivations behind development of the initiative and the governance systems, we used qualitative open-ended interviews and analyzed reports and official documents. The initial driving forces for establishing new local governance arrangements were different in all four cases. All MFs were characterized by multi-level and multi-sector collaboration. However, the distribution of power among stakeholders ranged from clearly top down in the Russian Federation to largely bottom up in Sweden. All MF initiatives shared three main challenges: (a) to develop governance arrangements that include representative actors and stakeholders, (b) to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance, and (c) to coordinate different sectors’ modes of landscape governance. We conclude that, in principle, the MF concept is a promising approach to multi-stakeholder collaboration. However, to understand the local and regional dimensions of sustainability, and the level of adaptability of such multi-stakeholder collaboration initiatives, empirical studies of outcomes are needed. To assess the adaptive capacity, the states and trends of economic, ecological, social, and cultural dimensions in actual landscapes need to be linked to how the multi-stakeholder collaboration develops and performs over the long term.

  • 2.
    Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Daniel
    Vindel River Fishery Advisory Board.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Demonstration Restoration Measures in Tributaries of the Vindel River Catchment2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 3, p. Article Number: UNSP 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some ecological restoration projects include elements of trial and error where new measures are repeatedly tried, evaluated, and modified until satisfactory results are achieved. Thereafter, the resulting methods may be applied on larger scales. A difficult step is judging whether developed "best-practice" methods have become reasonably ecologically functional or whether further experimentation "demonstration" methods can lead to yet better results. Here, we use a stream restoration project as a case study for evaluating methods and abiotic effects and outlining stakeholder support for demonstration restoration measures, rather than only using best-practice methods. Our work was located in the Vindel River system, a free-flowing river that is part of the Natura 2000 network. The river was exploited for timber floating from 1850-1976, and rapids in the main channel and tributaries below timberline were channelized to increase timber transport capacity. Several side channels in multi-channeled rapids were blocked and the flow was concentrated to a single channel from which boulders and large wood were removed. Hence, previously heterogeneous environments were replaced by more homogeneous systems with limited habitat for riverine species. The restoration project strives to alleviate the effects of fragmentation and channelization in affected rapids by returning coarse sediment from channel margins to the main channel. However, only smaller, angular sediment is available given blasting of large boulders, and large (old-growth) wood is largely absent; therefore, original levels of large boulders and large wood in channels cannot be achieved with standard restoration practices. In 10 demonstration sites, we compensated for this by adding large boulders and large wood (i.e., entire trees) from adjacent upland areas to previously best-practice restored reaches and compared their hydraulic characteristics with 10 other best-practice sites. The demonstration sites exhibited significantly reduced and more variable current velocities, and wider channels, but with less variation than pre-restoration. The ecological response to this restoration has not yet been studied, but potential outcomes are discussed.

  • 3. Hagen, Dagmar
    et al.
    Svavarsdottir, Kristin
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolvanen, Anne K
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Aradottir, Asa L
    Fosaa, Anna Maria
    Halldorsson, Gudmundur
    Ecological and social dimensions of ecosystem restoration in the nordic countries2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 34-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An international overview of the extent and type of ecological restoration can offer new perspectives for understanding, planning, and implementation. The Nordic countries, with a great range of natural conditions but historically similar social and political structures, provide an opportunity to compare restoration approaches and efforts across borders. The aim of this study was to explore variation in ecological restoration using the Nordic countries as an example. We used recent national assessments and expert evaluations of ecological restoration. Restoration efforts differed among countries: forest and peatland restoration was most common in Finland, freshwater restoration was most common in Sweden, restoration of natural heathlands and grasslands was most common in Iceland, restoration of natural and semi-cultural heathlands was most common in Norway, and restoration of cultural ecosystems, mainly abandoned agricultural land, was most common in Denmark. Ecological restoration currently does not occur on the Faroe Islands. Economic incentives influence ecological restoration and depend on laws and policies in each country. Our analyses suggest that habitat types determine the methods of ecological restoration, whereas socio-economic drivers are more important for the decisions concerning the timing and location of restoration. To improve the understanding, planning, and implementation of ecological restoration, we advocate increased cooperation and knowledge sharing across disciplines and among countries, both in the Nordic countries and internationally. An obvious advantage of such cooperation is that a wider range of experiences from different habitats and different socio-economic conditions becomes available and thus provides a more solid basis for developing practical solutions for restoration methods and policies.

  • 4.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vlasova, Tatiana
    Sutinen, Marja-Liisa
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Chapin, F Stuart, III
    Bråthen, Kari Anne
    Cabeza, Mar
    Callaghan, Terry V
    van Oort, Bob
    Dannevig, Halvor
    Bay-larsen, Ingrid A
    Ims, Rolf A
    Aspholm, Paul Eric
    Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans depend on services provided by ecosystems, and how services are affected by climate change is increasingly studied. Few studies, however, address changes likely to affect services from seminatural ecosystems. We analyzed ecosystem goods and services in natural and seminatural systems, specifically how they are expected to change as a result of projected climate change during the 21st century. We selected terrestrial and freshwater systems in northernmost Europe, where climate is anticipated to change more than the global average, and identified likely changes in ecosystem services and their societal consequences. We did this by assembling experts from ecology, social science, and cultural geography in workshops, and we also performed a literature review. Results show that most ecosystem services are affected by multiple factors, often acting in opposite directions. Out of 14 services considered, 8 are expected to increase or remain relatively unchanged in supply, and 6 are expected to decrease. Although we do not predict collapse or disappearance of any of the investigated services, the effects of climate change in conjunction with potential economical and societal changes may exceed the adaptive capacity of societies. This may result in societal reorganization and changes in ways that ecosystems are used. Significant uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the forecast make specific conclusions about societal responses to safeguard human well-being questionable. Adapting to changes in ecosystem services will therefore require consideration of uncertainties and complexities in both social and ecological responses. The scenarios presented here provide a framework for future studies exploring such issues.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of how proactive measures to reduce livestock depredation by carnivores affect human tolerance toward carnivores are extremely rare. Nevertheless, substantial amounts of money are spent each year on proactive measures to facilitate large carnivore conservation. The objective of this study was to assess how subsidies for proactive measures to reduce sheep losses to wolves are associated with public attitudes toward wolves. The respondents were 445 people living inside wolf territories in Sweden. Our data set is unique because we combine wolf territory level information regarding proactive subsidies and wolf attacks on dogs and sheep with geographical information of the respondents. Consequently, the respondents can be assigned to a specific wolf territory. The number of wolf attacks on sheep and dogs in the respective territories as well as the number of years that the wolf territory had existed did not affect human attitudes toward wolves. Subsidies for proactive measures to reduce wolf predation on sheep significantly increased positive attitudes toward wolf presence on the local scale. The magnitude of the effect of subsidies for proactive measures was comparable to the effect of other variables well known to affect human attitudes toward wolves such as age or education. Our data show that subsidies not only made the already positive more positive, but also made people with negative attitudes to wolf presence locally, less negative. Our conclusion is, therefore, that subsidies for proactive measures are an effective tool when working with "the human dimension" of conservation biology.

  • 6.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Understanding adaptive capacity in forest governance: editorial2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 45-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Lundmark, Linda JT
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    ETOUR; Mittuniversitetet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University; Stockholm University.
    National parks and protected areas and the role for employment in tourism and forest sectors: a Swedish case2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  • 8.
    Moen, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Interlocking panarchies in multi-use boreal forests in Sweden2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses northern Sweden as a case study of a multi-use social-ecological system, in which forestry and reindeer husbandry interact as different land use forms in the same area. We aim to describe the timeline of main events that have influenced resource use in northern Sweden, that is, to attempt a historical profiling of the system, and to discuss these trends in the system in terms of adaptive cycles and resilience. The study shows that key political decisions have created strong path dependencies and a situation in which forestry today is characterized by low flexibility and low resilience due to the highly optimized harvesting of tree resources. Since forestry is the overwhelmingly strongest actor, trends in forestry from the mid-19th century forward are, to a large part, driving dynamics in reindeer husbandry and environmental protection, resulting in a system of interlocking panarchies with large implications for the competing land uses.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Aradottir, Asa L
    Ecological and social aspects of ecological restoration: new challenges and opportunities for northern regions2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 35-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in ecological restoration has recently intensified as scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders use restoration in management strategies to address and mitigate global climate change and biodiversity loss. Northern ecosystems offer special challenges to restoration managers because of their short growing seasons and long recovery periods. This special feature of Ecology and Society on ecological restoration in northern regions draws together 11 papers based on presentations from the conference "Restoring the North", convened in October 2011 in Selfoss, Iceland. We summarize two themes of this conference: ( 1) setting objectives and evaluating success in restoration, and ( 2) legislation, policy, and implementation of restoration. We conclude that northern countries altogether comprise a significant knowledge base and suggest five actions to enhance restoration practices within them: ( 1) improved documentation of restoration actions, including objectives, measures and results, ( 2) regular evaluation of restoration progress and outcome, ( 3) coordination of conservation actions among northern countries, including location of restoration actions to sites where they are most useful in a global context, ( 4) formation of a common platform to strengthen development of research about ecological, political, social, and technical aspects of ecological restoration, and ( 5) education of new generations of restoration actors who can work in diverse biogeographic settings and cultures.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Aradottir, Asa L.
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Halldorsson, Guomundur
    Hoegh, Kenneth
    Mitchell, Ruth J.
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdottir, Kristin
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Evaluating the process of ecological restoration2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating the process of ecological restoration and applied it to 10 examples of restoration projects in the northern hemisphere. We identified three major phases, planning, implementation, and monitoring, in the restoration process. We found that evaluation occurred both within and between the three phases, that it included both formal and informal components, and that it often had an impact on the performance of the projects. Most evaluations were short-term and only some parts of them were properly documented. Poor or short-term evaluation of the restoration process creates a risk that inefficient methods will continue to be used, which reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of restoration. To improve the restoration process and to transfer the knowledge to future projects, we argue for more formal, sustained evaluation procedures, involving all relevant stakeholders, and increased and improved documentation and dissemination of the results.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Naiman, Robert J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Restoring Riverine Landscapes: the Challenge of Identifying Priorities, Reference States, and Techniques2007In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Ecology and Society on restoring riverine landscapes draws together nine presentations from the Second International Symposium on Riverine Landscapes, convened in August 2004 in Storforsen, Sweden. We summarize three themes related to river restoration: (1) setting priorities, (2) identifying relevant reference conditions, and (3) choosing appropriate techniques. We discuss ways of developing river restoration and provide examples of future needs in sustaining functioning river ecosystems that can support human societies.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malm-Renöfält, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Linking flow Regime and water quality in rivers: a challenge to adaptive catchment management2008In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water quality describes the physicochemical characteristics of the water body. These vary naturally with the weather and with the spatiotemporal variation of the water flow, i.e., the flow regime. Worldwide, biota have adapted to the variation in these variables. River channels and their riparian zones contain a rich selection of adapted species and have been able to offer goods and services for sustaining human civilizations. Many human impacts on natural riverine environments have been destructive and present opportunities for rehabilitation. It is a big challenge to satisfy the needs of both humans and nature, without sacrificing one or the other. New ways of thinking, new policies, and institutional commitment are needed to make improvements, both in the ways water flow is modified in rivers by dam operations and direct extractions, and in the ways runoff from adjacent land is affected by land-use practices. Originally, prescribed flows were relatively static, but precepts have been developed to encompass variation, specifically on how water could be shared over the year to become most useful to ecosystems and humans. A key aspect is how allocations of water interact with physicochemical variation of water. An important applied question is how waste releases and discharge can be managed to reduce ecological and sanitary problems that might arise from inappropriate combinations of flow variation and physicochemical characteristics of water. We review knowledge in this field, provide examples on how the flow regime and the water quality can impact ecosystem processes, and conclude that most problems are associated with low-flow conditions. Given that reduced flows represent an escalating problem in an increasing number of rivers worldwide, managers are facing enormous challenges.

  • 13. Palo, Thomas R
    et al.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Tärnvik, Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Climate variability reveals complex events for tularemia dynamics in man and mammals2005In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, but the natural reservoir is unknown and environmental conditions for outbreaks in mammals and man are poorly understood. The present study analyzed the synchrony between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the number of human cases of tularemia reported in Sweden, and the density of hares. Climate variation at a lag of 2 yr explained as a single factor similar to 27% of the variation in the number of tularemia cases over time. A low NAO index, indicating cold winters, and low water flow in rivers during the coming summer were associated with high numbers of human cases of tularemia 2 yr later. The number of mountain hares was not related to NAO or to the number of cases of tularemia. The change in mountain hare numbers was negatively associated with the number of human cases, showing the sensitivity of this species to the disease. Low turnover in water environments may at some point in time trigger a chain of events leading to increased replication of F. tularensis via unknown reservoirs and/or vectors that affect humans and mammals. A possible increase in the NAO index with a future warmer climate would not be expected to facilitate a higher frequency of tularemia outbreaks in Sweden.

  • 14.
    Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    SLU.
    Felton, Adam
    SLU.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rosvall, Ola
    A new paradigm for adaptive management2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 63-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is a pervasive feature in natural resource management. Adaptive management, an approach that focuses on identifying critical uncertainties to be reduced via diagnostic management experiments, is one favored approach for tackling this reality. While adaptive management is identified as a key method in the environmental management toolbox, there remains a lack of clarity over when its use is appropriate or feasible. Its implementation is often viewed as suitable only in a limited set of circumstances. Here we restructure some of the ideas supporting this view, and show why much of the pessimism around AM may be unwarranted. We present a new framework for deciding when AM is appropriate, feasible, and subsequently successful. We thus present a new paradigm for adaptive management that shows that there are no categorical limitations to its appropriate use, the boundaries of application being defined by problem conception and the resources available to managers. In doing so we also separate adaptive management as a management tool, from the burden of failures that result from the complex policy, social, and institutional environment within which management occurs.

  • 15.
    Robinson, G. M.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, D. A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 32-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Robinson, Guy M.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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