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  • 1.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ström, L
    Laudon, H
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers2010Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 870-880Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecology Letters (2010) Abstract Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  • 2. Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén
    et al.
    Calatayud, Joaquín
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Department of Life Science, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain; Department of Biogeography and Global Change, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    González-Suárez, Manuela
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Lucas, Pablo M.
    Rueda, Marta
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Revilla, Eloy
    Human activity is altering the world's zoogeographical regions2019Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 1297-1305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoogeographical regions, or zooregions, are areas of the Earth defined by species pools that reflect ecological, historical and evolutionary processes acting over millions of years. Consequently, researchers have assumed that zooregions are robust and unlikely to change on a human timescale. However, the increasing number of human‐mediated introductions and extinctions can challenge this assumption. By delineating zooregions with a network‐based algorithm, here we show that introductions and extinctions are altering the zooregions we know today. Introductions are homogenising the Eurasian and African mammal zooregions and also triggering less intuitive effects in birds and amphibians, such as dividing and redefining zooregions representing the Old and New World. Furthermore, these Old and New World amphibian zooregions are no longer detected when considering introductions plus extinctions of the most threatened species. Our findings highlight the profound and far‐reaching impact of human activity and call for identifying and protecting the uniqueness of biotic assemblages.

  • 3.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Abreu, Ilka N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Univ Copenhagen, Sect Plant Biochem, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, DK-1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Geographic structure in metabolome and herbivore community co-occurs with genetic structure in plant defence genes2013Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 791-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plantherbivore interactions vary across the landscape and have been hypothesised to promote local adaption in plants to the prevailing herbivore regime. Herbivores that feed on European aspen (Populus tremula) change across regional scales and selection on host defence genes may thus change at comparable scales. We have previously observed strong population differentiation in a set of inducible defence genes in Swedish P. tremula. Here, we study the geographic patterns of abundance and diversity of herbivorous insects, the untargeted metabolome of the foliage and genetic variation in a set of wound-induced genes and show that the geographic structure co-occurs in all three data sets. In response to this structure, we observe local maladaptation of herbivores, with fewer herbivores on local trees than on trees originated from more distant localities. Finally, we also identify 28 significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs from defence genes and a number of the herbivore traits and metabolic profiles.

  • 4.
    Cameron, Thomas C.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Univ Leeds, Inst Integrat & Comparat Biol, Ecol & Evolut Res Grp, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
    O'Sullivan, Daniel
    Reynolds, Alan
    Piertney, Stuart B.
    Benton, Tim G.
    Eco-evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on life-history2013Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 754-763Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the consequences of environmental change on ecological and evolutionary dynamics is inherently problematic because of the complex interplay between them. Using invertebrates in microcosms, we characterise phenotypic, population and evolutionary dynamics before, during and after exposure to a novel environment and harvesting over 20 generations. We demonstrate an evolved change in life-history traits (the age- and size-at-maturity, and survival to maturity) in response to selection caused by environmental change (wild to laboratory) and to harvesting (juvenile or adult). Life-history evolution, which drives changes in population growth rate and thus population dynamics, includes an increase in age-to-maturity of 76% (from 12.5 to 22days) in the unharvested populations as they adapt to the new environment. Evolutionary responses to harvesting are outweighed by the response to environmental change (similar to 1.4 vs. 4% change in age-at-maturity per generation). The adaptive response to environmental change converts a negative population growth trajectory into a positive one: an example of evolutionary rescue.

  • 5. De Laender, Frederik
    et al.
    Melian, Carlos J.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Daam, Michiel
    Roussel, Helene
    Juselius, Jonas
    Verschuren, Dirk
    Janssen, Colin R.
    The contribution of intra- and interspecific tolerance variability to biodiversity changes along toxicity gradients2014Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 72-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide distribution of toxicants is an important yet understudied driver of biodiversity, and the mechanisms relating toxicity to diversity have not been adequately explored. Here, we present a community model integrating demography, dispersal and toxicant-induced effects on reproduction driven by intraspecific and interspecific variability in toxicity tolerance. We compare model predictions to 458 species abundance distributions (SADs) observed along concentration gradients of toxicants to show that the best predictions occur when intraspecific variability is five and ten times higher than interspecific variability. At high concentrations, lower settings of intraspecific variability resulted in predictions of community extinction that were not supported by the observed SADs. Subtle but significant species losses at low concentrations were predicted only when intraspecific variability dominated over interspecific variability. Our results propose intraspecific variability as a key driver for biodiversity sustenance in ecosystems challenged by environmental change.

  • 6. Declerck, Steven A. J.
    et al.
    Malo, Andrea R.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Waasdorp, Dennis
    Lemmen, Kimberley D.
    Proios, Konstantinos
    Papakostas, Spiros
    Rapid adaptation of herbivore consumers to nutrient limitation: eco-evolutionary feedbacks to population demography and resource control2015Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 553-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans alter biogeochemical cycles of essential elements such as phosphorus (P). Prediction of ecosystem consequences of altered elemental cycles requires integration of ecology, evolutionary biology and the framework of ecological stoichiometry. We studied micro-evolutionary responses of a herbivorous rotifer to P-limited food and the potential consequences for its population demography and for ecosystem properties. We subjected field-derived, replicate rotifer populations to P-deficient and P-replete algal food, and studied adaptation in common garden transplant experiments after 103 and 209days of selection. When fed P-limited food, populations with a P-limitation selection history suffered 37% lower mortality, reached twice the steady state biomass, and reduced algae by 40% compared to populations with a P-replete selection history. Adaptation involved no change in rotifer elemental composition but reduced investment in sex. This study demonstrates potentially strong eco-evolutionary feedbacks from shifting elemental balances to ecosystem properties, including grazing pressure and the ratio of grazer:producer biomass.

  • 7.
    Englund, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, P
    Salonsaari, J
    Öhman, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Predation leads to assembly rules in fragmented fish communities2009Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 12, s. 663-671Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond [Assembly of species communities. In: Ecology and Evolution of Communities (eds Cody, M.L. & Diamond, J.M.). Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 342–444] proposed that resource competition leads to checkerboard-like distributions of competing species. This proposal prompted research that revealed checkerboard patterns within a wide range of communities, but the mechanisms that generate such patterns are still poorly understood. Here we present whole-lake natural experiments and analyses of species–environment relationships in small coastal lake fish communities that were fragmented when land uplift isolated these lakes from the Baltic Sea, showing that a combination of predation and habitat suitability generated checkerboard distributions. Checkerboard patterns developed because two piscivores, northern pike and Eurasian perch, caused the extinction of several prey species in deep lakes. Conversely, low oxygen levels in shallow lakes caused extinction of the piscivores, and these areas served as a refuge for tolerant prey species. Based on these findings, we suggest that habitat suitability and biotic interactions should be viewed simultaneously in null models of assembly rules.

  • 8.
    Englund, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hein, Catherine L
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temperature dependence of the functional response2011Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 914-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arrhenius equation has emerged as the favoured model for describing the temperature dependence of consumption in predator-prey models. To examine the relevance of this equation, we undertook a meta-analysis of published relationships between functional response parameters and temperature. We show that, when plotted in lin-log space, temperature dependence of both attack rate and maximal ingestion rate exhibits a hump-shaped relationship and not a linear one as predicted by the Arrhenius equation. The relationship remains significantly downward concave even when data from temperatures above the peak of the hump are discarded. Temperature dependence is stronger for attack rate than for maximal ingestion rate, but the thermal optima are not different. We conclude that the use of the Arrhenius equation to describe consumption in predator-prey models requires the assumption that temperatures above thermal optima are unimportant for population and community dynamics, an assumption that is untenable given the available data.

  • 9.
    Faithfull, Carolyn L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Oceanography University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii.
    Goetze, Erica
    Copepod nauplii use phosphorus from bacteria, creating a short circuit in the microbial loop2019Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 1462-1471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In subtropical oceans phytoplankton carbon: phosphorus (C : P) ratios are high, and these ratios are predicted to increase further with rising ocean temperatures and stratification. Prey stoichiometry may pose a problem for copepod zooplankton nauplii, which have high phosphorus demands due to rapid growth. We hypothesised that nauplii meet this demand by consuming bacteria. Naupliar bacterial and phytoplankton carbon and phosphorus ingestion, assimilation and incorporation were traced using P-33 and C-14 radioisotopes. Bacterial carbon was incorporated four times less efficiently into biomass than phytoplankton carbon. In contrast, bacterial and phytoplankton phosphorus were incorporated at similar efficiencies, and bacteria could meet a substantial amount of naupliar phosphorus requirements. As parts of the ocean become more oligotrophic, bacteria could help sustain naupliar growth and survival under suboptimal stoichiometric conditions. Thus, nauplii may be a shortcut for phosphorus from the microbial loop to the classical food web.

  • 10.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wardle A., David
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Strong invaders are strong defenders: implications for the resistance of invaded communities2016Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 487-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystems receive a steady stream of non-native species. How biotic resistance develops over time in these ecosystems will depend on how established invaders contribute to subsequent resistance. If invasion success and defence capacity (i.e. contribution to resistance) are correlated, then community resistance should increase as species accumulate. If successful invaders also cause most impact (through replacing native species with low defence capacity) then the effect will be even stronger. If successful invaders instead have weak defence capacity or even facilitative attributes, then resistance should decrease with time, as proposed by the invasional meltdown hypothesis. We analysed 1157 introductions of freshwater fish in Swedish lakes and found that species' invasion success was positively correlated with their defence capacity and impact, suggesting that these communities will develop stronger resistance over time. These insights can be used to identify scenarios where invading species are expected to cause large impact.

  • 11. Hunsicker, Mary E.
    et al.
    Ciannelli, Lorenzo
    Bailey, Kevin M.
    Buckel, Jeffrey A.
    White, J. Wilson
    Link, Jason S.
    Essington, Timothy E.
    Gaichas, Sarah
    Anderson, Todd W.
    Brodeur, Richard D.
    Chan, Kung-Sik
    Chen, Kun
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Frank, Kenneth T.
    Freitas, Vania
    Hixon, Mark A.
    Hurst, Thomas
    Johnson, Darren W.
    Kitchell, James F.
    Reese, Doug
    Rose, George A.
    Sjödin, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Sydeman, William J.
    van der Veer, Henk W.
    Vollset, Knut
    Zador, Stephani
    Functional responses and scaling in predator-prey interactions of marine fishes: contemporary issues and emerging concepts2011Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 14, nr 12, s. 1288-1299Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predatorprey interactions are a primary structuring force vital to the resilience of marine communities and sustainability of the worlds oceans. Human influences on marine ecosystems mediate changes in species interactions. This generality is evinced by the cascading effects of overharvesting top predators on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. It follows that ecological forecasting, ecosystem management, and marine spatial planning require a better understanding of food web relationships. Characterising and scaling predatorprey interactions for use in tactical and strategic tools (i.e. multi-species management and ecosystem models) are paramount in this effort. Here, we explore what issues are involved and must be considered to advance the use of predatorprey theory in the context of marine fisheries science. We address pertinent contemporary ecological issues including (1) the approaches and complexities of evaluating predator responses in marine systems; (2) the scaling up of predatorprey interactions to the population, community, and ecosystem level; (3) the role of predatorprey theory in contemporary fisheries and ecosystem modelling approaches; and (4) directions for the future. Our intent is to point out needed research directions that will improve our understanding of predatorprey interactions in the context of the sustainable marine fisheries and ecosystem management.

  • 12.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon dioxide supersaturation promotes primary production in lakes2012Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 527-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecology Letters (2012) Abstract A majority of the worlds lakes are supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2). By experimental manipulation of the CO2 concentration in supersaturated boreal lakes, we demonstrate that phytoplankton primary production was up to 10 times higher in supersaturated lake water in comparison with water with CO2 at equilibrium concentrations and that CO2, together with nutrients, explained most of the variation in pelagic primary production and phytoplankton biomass over a wide variety of unproductive lakes. These results suggest that phytoplankton can be co-limited by CO2 and nutrients in unproductive lakes. As import of terrestrial organic carbon and its subsequent microbial mineralisation in lakes is a driving force of CO2-supersaturation our results suggest that lake productivity and carbon cycling may respond to variations in terrestrial organic carbon export, (e.g. caused by land use or climate change) in ways not described before.

  • 13.
    Matthews, Blake
    et al.
    EAWAG, Aquatic Ecology Department, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Narwani, Anita
    Department of Biology, University of Victoria.
    Hausch, Stephen
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary.
    Nonaka, Etsuko
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Peter, Hannes
    Department of Ecology and Genetics/Limnology, Uppsala University.
    Yamamichi, Masato
    Department of Evolutionary Studies of Biosystems, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies.
    Sullam, Karen
    Department of Biology, Drexel University.
    Bird, Kali
    W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University.
    Thomas, Mridul
    W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University.
    Hanley, Torrance
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University.
    Turner, Caroline
    Department of Zoology, Michigan State University.
    Toward an integration of evolutionary biology and ecosystem science2011Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 14, nr 7, s. 690-701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the disciplines of evolutionary biology and ecosystem science are weakly integrated. As a result, wehave a poor understanding of how the ecological and evolutionary processes that create, maintain, and changebiological diversity affect the flux of energy and materials in global biogeochemical cycles. The goal of thisarticle was to review several research fields at the interfaces between ecosystem science, community ecologyand evolutionary biology, and suggest new ways to integrate evolutionary biology and ecosystem science.In particular, we focus on how phenotypic evolution by natural selection can influence ecosystem functionsby affecting processes at the environmental, population and community scale of ecosystem organization.We develop an eco-evolutionary model to illustrate linkages between evolutionary change (e.g. phenotypicevolution of producer), ecological interactions (e.g. consumer grazing) and ecosystem processes (e.g. nutrientcycling). We conclude by proposing experiments to test the ecosystem consequences of evolutionary changes.

  • 14.
    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stoks, Robby
    University of Leuven.
    De Block, Marjan
    University of Leuven.
    Johansson, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Latitudinally structured variation in the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates2013Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 64-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Metabolic Theory of Ecology predicts that the slope of the rate–temperature relationship, E, remains consistent across traits and organisms, acting as a major determinant of large-scale ecological patterns. Although E has recently been shown to vary systematically, we have a poor understanding of its ecological significance. To address this question, we conducted a common-garden experiment involving six damselfly species differing in distribution, estimating E at the level of full-sib families. Each species was sampled throughout its latitudinal range, allowing us to characterise variation in E along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We show that E differs among populations and increases with latitude. E was right-skewness across species, but this was largely an artefact of the latitudinal trend. Increased seasonality towards higher latitude may contribute to the latitudinal trend in E. We conclude that E should be seen as a trait involved in local adaptation.

  • 15. Petchey, Owen L.
    et al.
    Pontarp, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Massie, Thomas M.
    Kefi, Sonia
    Ozgul, Arpat
    Weilenmann, Maja
    Palamara, Gian Marco
    Altermatt, Florian
    Matthews, Blake
    Levine, Jonathan M.
    Childs, Dylan Z.
    McGill, Brian J.
    Schaepman, Michael E.
    Schmid, Bernhard
    Spaak, Piet
    Beckerman, Andrew P.
    Pennekamp, Frank
    Pearse, Ian S.
    The ecological forecast horizon, and examples of its uses and determinants2015Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 18, nr 7, s. 597-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasts of ecological dynamics in changing environments are increasingly important, and are available for a plethora of variables, such as species abundance and distribution, community structure and ecosystem processes. There is, however, a general absence of knowledge about how far into the future, or other dimensions (space, temperature, phylogenetic distance), useful ecological forecasts can be made, and about how features of ecological systems relate to these distances. The ecological forecast horizon is the dimensional distance for which useful forecasts can be made. Five case studies illustrate the influence of various sources of uncertainty (e.g. parameter uncertainty, environmental variation, demographic stochasticity and evolution), level of ecological organisation (e.g. population or community), and organismal properties (e.g. body size or number of trophic links) on temporal, spatial and phylogenetic forecast horizons. Insights from these case studies demonstrate that the ecological forecast horizon is a flexible and powerful tool for researching and communicating ecological predictability. It also has potential for motivating and guiding agenda setting for ecological forecasting research and development.

  • 16.
    Rodriguez-Castaneda, Genoveva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dyer, Lee A
    Brehm, Gunnar
    Connahs, Heidi
    Forkner, Rebecca E
    Walla, Thomas R
    Tropical forests are not flat: how mountains affect herbivore diversity2010Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 13, nr 11, s. 1348-1357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecologists debate whether tropical insect diversity is better explained by higher plant diversity or by host plant species specialization. However, plant-herbivore studies are primarily based in lowland rainforests (RF) thus excluding topographical effects on biodiversity. We examined turnover in Eois (Geometridae) communities across elevation by studying elevational transects in Costa Rica and Ecuador. We found four distinct Eois communities existing across the elevational gradients. Herbivore diversity was highest in montane forests (MF), whereas host plant diversity was highest in lowland RF. This was correlated with higher specialization and species richness of Eois/host plant species we found in MF. Based on these relationships, Neotropical Eois richness was estimated to range from 313 (only lowland RF considered) to 2034 (considering variation with elevation). We conclude that tropical herbivore diversity and diet breadth covary significantly with elevation and urge the inclusion of montane ecosystems in host specialization and arthropod diversity estimates.

  • 17.
    Rodriguez-Castaneda, Genoveva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Univ Texas Austin, Sect Integrat Biol, 205 W 24th St, Austin, TX 78712 USA.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    How bird clades diversify in response to climatic and geographic factors2017Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 20, nr 9, s. 1129-1139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the environmental correlates of global patterns in standing species richness are well understood, it is poorly known which environmental factors promote diversification (speciation minus extinction) in clades. We tested several hypotheses for how geographic and climatic variables should affect diversification using a large dataset of bird sister genera endemic to the New World. We found support for the area, evolutionary speed, environmental predictability and climatic stability hypotheses, but productivity and topographic complexity were rejected as explanations. Genera that had accumulated more species tend to occupy wider niche space, manifested both as occurrence over wider areas and in more habitats. Genera with geographic ranges that have remained more stable in response to glacial-interglacial changes in climate were also more species rich. Since many relevant explanatory variables vary latitudinally, it is crucial to control for latitude when testing alternative mechanistic explanations for geographic variation in diversification among clades.

  • 18. Siefert, Andrew
    et al.
    Violle, Cyrille
    Chalmandrier, Loic
    Albert, Cecile H.
    Taudiere, Adrien
    Fajardo, Alex
    Aarssen, Lonnie W.
    Baraloto, Christopher
    Carlucci, Marcos B.
    Cianciaruso, Marcus V.
    Dantas, Vinicius de L.
    de Bello, Francesco
    Duarte, Leandro D. S.
    Fonseca, Carlos R.
    Freschet, Gregoire T.
    Gaucherand, Stephanie
    Gross, Nicolas
    Hikosaka, Kouki
    Jackson, Benjamin
    Jung, Vincent
    Kamiyama, Chiho
    Katabuchi, Masatoshi
    Kembel, Steven W.
    Kichenin, Emilie
    Kraft, Nathan J. B.
    Lagerstrom, Anna
    Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann
    Li, Yuanzhi
    Mason, Norman
    Messier, Julie
    Nakashizuka, Tohru
    McC Overton, Jacob
    Peltzer, Duane A.
    Perez-Ramos, I. M.
    Pillar, Valerio D.
    Prentice, Honor C.
    Richardson, Sarah
    Sasaki, Takehiro
    Schamp, Brandon S.
    Schoeb, Christian
    Shipley, Bill
    Sundqvist, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Center for Macroecology Evolution and Climate The Natural History Museum of Denmark University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark.
    Sykes, Martin T.
    Vandewalle, Marie
    Wardle, David A.
    A global meta-analysis of the relative extent of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities2015Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1406-1419Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that accounting for intraspecific trait variation (ITV) may better address major questions in community ecology. However, a general picture of the relative extent of ITV compared to interspecific trait variation in plant communities is still missing. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relative extent of ITV within and among plant communities worldwide, using a data set encompassing 629 communities (plots) and 36 functional traits. Overall, ITV accounted for 25% of the total trait variation within communities and 32% of the total trait variation among communities on average. The relative extent of ITV tended to be greater for whole-plant (e.g. plant height) vs. organ-level traits and for leaf chemical (e.g. leaf N and P concentration) vs. leaf morphological (e.g. leaf area and thickness) traits. The relative amount of ITV decreased with increasing species richness and spatial extent, but did not vary with plant growth form or climate. These results highlight global patterns in the relative importance of ITV in plant communities, providing practical guidelines for when researchers should include ITV in trait-based community and ecosystem studies.

  • 19.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA and Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavrilets, Sergey
    National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA .
    Evolution of mate choice and the so-called magic traits in ecological speciation2013Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, nr 8, s. 1004-1013Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-random mating provides multiple evolutionary benefits and can result in speciation. Biological organisms are characterised by a myriad of different traits, many of which can serve as mating cues. We consider multiple mechanisms of non-random mating simultaneously within a unified modelling framework in an attempt to understand better which are more likely to evolve in natural populations going through the process of local adaptation and ecological speciation. We show that certain traits that are under direct natural selection are more likely to be co-opted as mating cues, leading to the appearance of magic traits (i.e. phenotypic traits involved in both local adaptation and mating decisions). Multiple mechanisms of non-random mating can interact so that trait co-evolution enables the evolution of non-random mating mechanisms that would not evolve alone. The presence of magic traits may suggest that ecological selection was acting during the origin of new species.

  • 20.
    Uszko, Wojciech
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Amarasekare, Priyanga
    Effects of warming on predator-prey interactions - a resource-based approach and a theoretical synthesis2017Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 513-523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We theoretically explore consequences of warming for predator-prey dynamics, broadening previous approaches in three ways: we include beyond-optimal temperatures, predators may have a type III functional response, and prey carrying capacity depends on explicitly modelled resources. Several robust patterns arise. The relationship between prey carrying capacity and temperature can range from near-independence to monotonically declining/increasing to hump-shaped. Predators persist in a U-shaped region in resource supply (=enrichment)-temperature space. Type II responses yield stable persistence in a U-shaped band inside this region, giving way to limit cycles with enrichment at all temperatures. In contrast, type III responses convey stability at intermediate temperatures and confine cycles to low and high temperatures. Warming-induced state shifts can be predicted from system trajectories crossing stability and persistence boundaries in enrichment-temperature space. Results of earlier studies with more restricted assumptions map onto this graph as special cases. Our approach thus provides a unifying framework for understanding warming effects on trophic dynamics.

  • 21.
    Wickman, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Evolution of resource specialisation in competitive metacommunities2019Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial environmental heterogeneity coupled with dispersal can promote ecological persistence of diverse metacommunities. Does this premise hold when metacommunities evolve? Using a two-resource competition model, we studied the evolution of resource-uptake specialisation as a function of resource type (substitutable to essential) and shape of the trade-off between resource uptake affinities (generalist- to specialist-favouring). In spatially homogeneous environments, evolutionarily stable coexistence of consumers is only possible for sufficiently substitutable resources and specialist-favouring trade-offs. Remarkably, these same conditions yield comparatively low diversity in heterogeneous environments, because they promote sympatric evolution of two opposite resource specialists that, together, monopolise the two resources everywhere. Consumer diversity is instead maximised for intermediate trade-offs and clearly substitutable or clearly essential resources, where evolved metacommunities are characterised by contrasting selection regimes. Taken together, our results present new insights into resource-competition-mediated evolutionarily stable diversity in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments, which should be applicable to a wide range of systems.

  • 22. Wollrab, Sabine
    et al.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    De Roos, Andre M.
    Simple rules describe bottom-up and top-down control in food webs with alternative energy pathways2012Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 935-946Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many human influences on the world's ecosystems have their largest direct impacts at either the top or the bottom of the food web. To predict their ecosystem-wide consequences we must understand how these impacts propagate. A long-standing, but so far elusive, problem in this endeavour is how to reduce food web complexity to a mathematically tractable, but empirically relevant system. Simplification to main energy channels linking primary producers to top consumers has been recently advocated. Following this approach, we propose a general framework for the analysis of bottom-up and top-down forcing of ecosystems by reducing food webs to two energy pathways originating from a limiting resource shared by competing guilds of primary producers (e.g. edible vs. defended plants). Exploring dynamical models of such webs we find that their equilibrium responses to nutrient enrichment and top consumer harvesting are determined by only two easily measurable topological properties: the lengths of the component food chains (oddodd, oddeven, or eveneven) and presence vs. absence of a generalist top consumer reconnecting the two pathways (yielding looped vs. branched webs). Many results generalise to other looped or branched web structures and the model can be easily adapted to include a detrital pathway.

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