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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ladenvall, Per
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jern, Christina
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    C-reactive protein is a determinant of first-ever stroke: prospective nested case-referent study2009In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 544-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a determinant of stroke, but there are no prospective studies on CRP and first ischemic stroke divided into etiologic subtypes. Our primary aim was to study CRP as a determinant of ischemic stroke, classified according to Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a prospective study. A secondary aim was to study the relationship between the 1444C>T polymorphism, plasma levels of CRP and stroke.

    METHODS: The study was a prospective population-based case-referent study nested within the Northern Sweden Cohorts. We defined 308 cases of ischemic stroke and 61 ICH. Two controls for each case were defined from the same cohort.

    RESULTS: The OR for the highest (>3 mg/l) versus lowest group (<1 mg/l) of CRP was 2.58 (95% CI 1.74-3.84) for ischemic stroke and 1.63 (95% CI 0.67-3.93) for ICH. In a multivariate model including traditional risk factors, CRP remained associated with ischemic stroke (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.29-3.29). Small-vessel disease was associated with CRP in the multivariate model (OR 3.88; 95% CI 1.10-13.7). The CRP 1444 (CC/CT vs. TT) polymorphism was associated with plasma levels of CRP but neither with ischemic stroke nor with ICH.

    CONCLUSIONS: This prospective population-based study shows that CRP is significantly associated with the risk of having a first ischemic stroke, especially for small-vessel disease. No significant associations were found between the CRP 1444C>T polymorphism and any stroke subtype.

  • 2. Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asberg, Signild
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asberg, Kerstin Hulter
    Norrving, Bo
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Terent, Andreas
    Trends in Stroke Treatment and Outcome between 1995 and 2010: Observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register2014In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Continuous changes in stroke treatment and care, as well as changes in stroke characteristics, may alter stroke outcome over time. The aim of this paper is to describe time trends for treatment and outcome data, and to discuss if any such changes could be attributed to quality changes in stroke care.

    Methods: Data from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register, were analyzed for the time period of 1995 through 2010. The total number of patients included was 320,181. The following parameters were included: use of computed tomography (CT), stroke unit care, thrombolysis, medication before and after the stroke, length of stay in hospital, and discharge destination. Three months after stroke, data regarding walking, toileting and dressing ability, as well social situation, were gathered. Survival status after 7, 27 and 90 days was registered. Results: In 1995, 53.9% of stroke patients were treated in stroke units. In 2010 this proportion had increased to 87.5%. Fewer patients were discharged to geriatric or rehabilitation departments in later years (23.6% in 2001 compared with 13.4% in 2010), but more were discharged directly home (44.2 vs. 52.4%) or home with home rehabilitation (0 vs. 10.7%). The need for home help service increased from 18.2% in 1995 to 22.1% in 2010. Regarding prevention, more patients were on warfarin, antihypertensives and statins both before and after the stroke. The functional outcome measures after 3 months did improve from 2001 to 2010. In 2001, 83.8% of patients were walking independently, while 85.6% were independent in 2010. For toileting, independence increased from 81.2 to 84.1%, and for dressing from 78.0 to 80.4%. Case fatality (CF) rates after 3 months increased from 18.7% (2001) to 20.0% (2010). This trend is driven by patients with severe strokes.

    Conclusions: Stroke outcomes may change over a relatively short time period. In some ways, the quality of care has improved. More stroke patients have CT, more patients are treated in stroke units and more have secondary prevention. Patients with milder strokes may have benefited more from these measures than patients with severe strokes. Increased CF rates for patients with severe stroke may be caused by shorter hospital stays, shorter in-hospital rehabilitation periods and lack of suitable care after discharge from hospital. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 3. Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asberg, Kerstin Hulter
    Norrving, Bo
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Epidemiologic Center, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm.
    Terént, Andreas
    Trends in baseline patient characteristics during the years 1995-2008: observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register2010In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many baseline parameters in Riks-Stroke have changed over the years. This has consequences for the interpretation of outcome data. Some changes may be due to inclusion bias, others due to alterations in general health, evolution of vascular risk factors or demographics.

  • 4. Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sundström, G
    Stroke in the elderly1999In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 2, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergström, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ögren, Joachim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Laurell, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus - incidence, trend over time and predictors2015In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 39, p. 14-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Carlberg, B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hägg, E
    Course of blood pressure in different subsets of patients after acute stroke1991In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 1, p. 281-287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ekblom, Kim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Marklund, Stefan L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Iron stores and HFE genotypes are not related to increased risk of ischemic stroke.: a prospective nested case-referent study2007In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High iron levels can increase the formation of noxious oxygen radicals, which are thought to contribute to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine if iron status and HFE genotypes constitute risk factors for stroke.

    Methods: First-ever stroke cases (231 ischemic and 42 hemorrhagic) and matched double referents from the population-based Northern Sweden cohorts were studied in a nested case-referent setting.

    Results: For total iron binding capacity, an increased risk of ischemic stroke was seen in the highest quartile (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.14-2.83; p for trend 0.012). The highest quartile of transferrin iron saturation showed a decreased risk of ischemic stroke in men (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.22-0.87; p for trend 0.028), but not in women. There was an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in the second (OR 4.07; 95% CI 1.09-15.20) and third quartile (OR 4.22; 95% CI 1.08-16.42) of ferritin. Neither quartiles of plasma iron concentrations nor the HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes were associated with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.

    Conclusions: Iron stores were not positively related to increased risk of ischemic stroke. Furthermore, HFE genotypes did not influence the risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 8.
    Ekblom, Kim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Marklund, Stefan L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Johansson, Lars
    Osterman, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Bilirubin and UGT1A1*28 are not associated with lower risk for ischemic stroke in a prospective nested case-referent setting.2010In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 590-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bilirubin, an antioxidant, has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. A major cause of elevated plasma bilirubin is the common UGT1A1*28 promoter polymorphism in the gene of the bilirubin-conjugating enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, which reduces transcription by 70%. Earlier studies reporting a protective effect of bilirubin on stroke have not included analysis of UGT1A1*28. The purpose of this study is to investigate if bilirubin and UGT1A1*28 are protective against ischemic stroke in a prospective case-referent setting. Methods: Cases with first-ever ischemic stroke (n = 231; median lag time 4.9 years) and 462 matched referents from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort were included. Plasma bilirubin was measured and UGT1A1*28 was analyzed by fragment analysis. Results: Plasma bilirubin was lower in cases than in referents, but the difference reached significance only for women. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism (allele frequency 30%) showed a strong gene-dose relationship with bilirubin levels both among cases and referents, but was not associated with risk for stroke. Among multiple other variables analyzed, the strongest correlation with bilirubin was found for plasma iron. Conclusions: There was no evidence for a protective effect of the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism against stroke and consequently neither for bilirubin. The findings suggest that other factors influencing the risk for stroke might also affect bilirubin levels.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. mats.eliasson@nll.se.
    Differences in cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic status do not explain the increased risk of death after stroke in diabetic patients: results from the Swedish Stroke Register2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 3, p. 305-305Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The disparity in long-term survival after a first stroke in patients with and without diabetes persists: the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2012In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes is an established risk factor for stroke. Compared to nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients also have an increased risk of new vascular events and death after stroke. We analyzed how differences in long-term survival between diabetic and nondiabetic stroke patients have changed over time, and if differences varied with respect to sex and age.

    Methods: This population-based study included 12,375 first-ever stroke patients, 25-74 years old, who were registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA Stroke Registry 1985-2005. Uniform diagnostic criteria for stroke case ascertainment were used throughout the study period. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on medical records or diabetes diagnosed during the acute stroke event. Patients were separated into four cohorts according to year of stroke and followed for survival until August 30, 2008.

    Results: The diabetes prevalence at stroke onset was 21%, similar in men and women, and remained stable throughout the study period. The diabetic patients were an average of 2 years older, more often nonsmokers and more likely to have antihypertensive treatment, antithrombotics, atrial fibrillation, and a history of myocardial infarction or transient ischemic attack than the nondiabetic patients. The total follow-up time was 86,086 patient-years during which a total of 1,930 (75.7%) of the diabetic patients and 5,744 (58.5%) of the nondiabetic patients died (p < 0.001). Median survival was 60 months (95% CI: 57-64) in diabetic patients and 117 months (113-120) in the nondiabetic patients. Survival improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001). A Cox regression, adjusting for possible confounders (age, sex, antihypertensive medication, antithrombotics or other thrombolytic agents, history of myocardial infarction, type of stroke, diabetes, cohort and the diabetes-by-sex, diabetes-by-age and diabetes-by-cohort interactions), showed a hazard ratio of 1.67 (1.58-1.76) comparing survival in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. The reduced survival in diabetic stroke patients was more pronounced in women (p = 0.02) and younger patients (p < 0.001). There was a tendency that the difference in survival decreased between the earlier cohorts and the 2000-2005 cohort, but the test for interaction did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.08).

    Conclusion: Long-term survival after a first stroke has improved in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Survival is markedly lower in diabetics, especially in women and younger patients, and the disparity persisted over 24 years. Decreasing the disparity in stroke survival is a challenge for stroke and diabetes care. New treatment methods in combination with intense secondary prevention in diabetic patients, especially in younger women, are needed.

  • 11.
    Ghatnekar, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Persson, U
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The societal cost of stroke in Sweden 2009 and developments since 19972013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 3, p. 475-475Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Edlund, Hilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Sukhova, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Norrving, B
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    More equal stroke unit care over time. A 15-year follow up of socioeconomic disparities in stroke unit care in Sweden2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 3, p. 702-702Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Edlund, Hilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Sukhova, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Norrving, Bo
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Neurology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Reduced inequality in access to stroke unit care over time: a 15-year follow-up of socioeconomic disparities in Sweden2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 36, no 5-6, p. 407-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the compelling scientific evidence on the superiority of stroke unit care, far from all acute stroke patients have access to stroke unit care. In congruence with what has been observed when other new methods are introduced in health care, we hypothesized that there has been an inequality in the buildup phase of stroke units but that the gradients between patient groups have decreased as the total capacity of stroke unit care has increased. The purpose of this study was to explore if patients in a national sample who were socioeconomically disadvantaged (low education or low income) had reduced access to stroke unit care and if differences varied over time.

    Methods: All patients 18-74 years of age registered between 1995 and 2009 in Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register, were included. The Stroke Unit Trialists' definition of a stroke unit has been adopted by Riks-Stroke and hospitals participating in the registry. Basic patient characteristics, stroke risk factors, process and outcome variables are recorded in Riks-Stroke. Socioeconomic data were accessed from Statistics Sweden. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for stroke unit care between prespecified patient subgroups.

    Results: A total of 319,240 stroke patients were included in Riks-Stroke during the years 1995-2009, and 124,173 were aged between 18 and 74 years; they were included in the final analyses. After adjustment for confounders in a multiple regression model, women were treated in stroke units slightly less often [OR 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99]. There were no statistically significant associations between stroke unit care and age or between stroke unit care and cohabiting or living alone. The highest level of education predicted access to stroke unit care (secondary vs. primary school: OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; university vs. primary school: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10). Differences according to level of education diminished over time (p = 0.001). Income was not independently associated with stroke unit care, and over time the proportion of patients treated in stroke units increased at a similar rate in all income groups (p = 0.12).

    Conclusions: Even in a country with modest socioeconomic differences in the general population and public financing of all acute hospital care, socioeconomic inequalities in access to stroke unit care were evident during the early years, but they diminished as the total capacity for stroke unit care increased.

    © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 14.
    Gu, Weigang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Thrombectomy versus intravenous thrombolysis for treating acute anterior and posterior circulation stroke2016In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 41, p. 145-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Högström, Gabriel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Risk factors assessed in adolescence and the later risk of stroke in men: a 33-year follow-up study2015In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a common cause of death, and a leading contributor to long-term disability. The cost associated with the disease is great. Several modifiable risk factors for stroke have been found in older cohorts; however, no study to date has investigated the effects of these risk factors from late adolescence.

    METHODS: The study cohort comprised 811,579 Swedish men (mean age, 18 years) that participated in the mandatory military conscription service in Sweden between 1969 and 1986. Some risk factors for stroke, such as body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and cognitive function, were assessed at conscription. Aerobic fitness was also assessed at conscription, using a braked ergometer cycle test. Other risk factors for stroke, including stroke in subjects' parents, and socioeconomic factors including highest achieved level of education and annual income 15 years after conscription, were collected through national register linkage using the personal identification number. Stroke diagnosis among the study participants was tracked in the National Hospital Discharge Patient Register.

    RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 33 years 6,180 ischemic strokes and 2,104 hemorrhagic strokes were diagnosed in the cohort at a mean age of 47.9 years. Strong independent risk factors (all p <1.0 × 10-(6)) for ischemic stroke included low aerobic fitness (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84 per standard deviation [SD] increase), high BMI (HR, 1.15 per SD increase), diabetes (HR, 2.85), alcohol intoxication (HR, 1.93), low annual income (HR, 0.85 per SD decrease), and stroke in the mother (HR, 1.31). Similar risk factors were found for hemorrhagic stroke including low aerobic fitness (HR, 0.82 per SD increase), high BMI (HR, 1.18 per SD increase) alcohol intoxication (HR, 2.92), diabetes (HR, 2.06), and low annual income (HR, 0.75). The population attributable risks associated with all evaluated risk factors were 69% for ischemic stroke and 88% for hemorrhagic stroke (p < 0.001 for both).

    CONCLUSIONS: In the present study we have shown that several known risk factors for stroke are present already in late adolescence, and that they are independent of each other. The strongest risk factors were low physical fitness, high BMI, diabetes, low annual income and a maternal history of stroke. Several of the aforementioned risk factors are potentially modifiable.

  • 16.
    Jakobsson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Graipe, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Huber, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The Risk of Ischemic Stroke after an Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Decreased Renal Function2014In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 460-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Data on the incidence, trends over time and predictors of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are sparse for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Data for unselected AMI patients were obtained from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) between 2003 and 2010. Patients with and without CKD were compared. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of ischemic stroke during the hospitalization for AMI, Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the 1-year postdischarge ischemic stroke trends over time and Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors. Results: Of 118,434 AMI patients, 40,679 had CKD. The CKD patients had more extensive previous cardiovascular disease and received less reperfusion and secondary preventive therapies than the patients without CKD. An inhospital ischemic stroke occurred in 2.3 and 1.2% of CKD and non-CKD patients, respectively. The incidence of ischemic stroke during hospitalization for AMI was stable during the study period. The occurrence of ischemic stroke after hospital discharge decreased between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010 from 4.1 to 2.5% in CKD patients and from 2.0 to 1.3% in non-CKD patients, respectively. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and statins were independently associated with a reduced risk of stroke after discharge from hospital. Conclusions: Ischemic stroke is a more common complication after an AMI in CKD patients than in non-CKD patients, but the risk has decreased in recent years. The increased use of PCI and statins may have contributed to this reduction.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Åhrén, Ann-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Systemic antibodies to the leukotoxin of the oral pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans correlate negatively with stroke in women2005In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 226-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1β  from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitansleukotoxin in stroke cases (n = 273) and matched controls (n = 546) in an incident case-control study nested within the Northern Sweden MONICA and Västerbotten Intervention cohorts.

    Methods: Antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin were analyzed in a bioassay with HL-60 cells (leukocytes), purified A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples which inhibited lactate dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by ≥50% were classified as antibody positive.

    Results: Antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin were detected in 18.8% of the women and 15.2% of the men. Women with those antibodies had a significantly decreased risk for stroke (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13–0.59), but not men (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.52–1.51).

    Conclusion: The immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin correlates negatively with a future stroke in woman, but not in men. Further studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms, as well as the biological relevance of this finding.

  • 18.
    Johansson, K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, T. K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Lind, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    D-dimer is associated with first-ever intracerebral hemorrhage. A prospective ease-control study2018In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 45, p. 213-213Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lindmark, Anita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Norrving, B
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Socioeconomic disparities in stroke case fatality: observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 3, p. 225-225Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Malm, J
    et al.
    Kristensen, B
    Carlberg, B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Fagerlund, M
    Olsson, T
    Clinical features and prognosis in young adults with infratentorial infarcts.1999In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 282-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many comprehensive descriptions of the clinical spectrum of infratentorial infarcts in elderly patients and with a retrospective design have been published. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and prognosis in young patients with isolated infratentorial infarcts.

    METHODS: In a prospective series of 105 patients aged 18-44 years with cerebral infarction 24 had a brainstem or cerebellar infarction. The patient selection was validated in a population-based epidemiological survey. The patients were assessed acutely and at 4 and 12 months after onset. Extensive evaluation included CT and MRI scans, angiography, ultrasonic duplex scanning, transesophageal echocardiography and a chemistry panel including hematologic testing. The modified Rankin scale and NIH stroke scale were used for assessment of disability and neurological dysfunction.

    RESULTS: Eighteen patients had a cerebellar infarct (posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory in 9 patients, superior cerebellar artery in 6, anterior inferior cerebellar artery in 2, nonterritorial in 1). Two patients had lateral medullary infarcts and 2 isolated pontine infarcts. In 2 patients MRI was normal despite repeated investigations. Hearing loss and tinnitus were the only explicit symptoms for superior cerebellar artery infarcts, but it was otherwise impossible to classify each case to a vascular territory according to clinical characteristics. The age-specific incidence of isolated cerebellar infarction was 1.8/100,000/year. The presumed causes were arterial dissection in 8 patients, idiopathic in 7, cardioembolic in 5, oral contraceptive use in 3 and protein S deficiency in 1 patient. One patient died during the acute phase and another developed a locked-in syndrome. At follow-up, 1 patient had a transitory ischemic attack and 1 a silent cerebral infarction. Twenty-two patients had a favorable outcome according to the modified Rankin scale (grade 0-2) and the NIH scale.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cerebellar infarctions are frequent among young stroke patients in northern Sweden. Arterial dissection is the prevailing stroke mechanism in infratentorial infarcts. The prognosis is favorable regarding motor impairment but cognitive deficits may prevent return to work.

  • 21.
    Nordström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Low bone mineral density is an independent risk factor for stroke and death2010In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We found that decreased BMD as well as osteoporosis of the femoral neck are independently associated with stroke and death. Given the impact of osteoporosis and stroke on morbidity and mortality, this relationship is of high interest for further studies.

  • 22.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Strömberg, Ulf
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Stroh, Emilie
    Lindgren, Arne G
    Norrving, Bo
    Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène
    Engström, Gunnar
    Björk, Jonas
    Hospital admissions for ischemic stroke: does long-term exposure to air pollution interact with major risk factors?2011In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 284-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim was to investigate whether the effects of major risk factors for ischemic stroke were modified by long-term exposure to air pollution in Scania, southern Sweden.

    Methods: Cases were defined as first-ever ischemic strokes in patients born between 1923 and 1965 during 2001-2006 (n = 7,244). Data were collected from The Swedish National Stroke Register (Riks-stroke) and the Malmö and Lund Stroke Registers. Population controls were matched on age and sex. Modeled outdoor annual mean NO(x) concentrations were used as proxy for long-term exposure to air pollution. Heterogeneity across NO(x) categories was tested for smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and physical inactivity. Data were analyzed as case-control data and to some extent as case-only data, with logistic regression analysis.

    Results: The case-control odds ratios for ischemic stroke in association with diabetes were 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.6] and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.4) in the lowest and highest NO(x) category, respectively (p value for testing heterogeneity across the categories = 0.056). The case-only approach gave further support for the risk associated with diabetes to increase with NO(x) (p for trend = 0.033). We observed no main effect of mean NO(x) or any conclusive effect modifications between NO(x) and smoking, hypertension, atrial fibrillation or physical inactivity.

    Conclusions: In a low-level air pollution area, the risk for ischemic stroke associated with diabetes seemed to increase with long-term exposure to air pollution.

  • 23.
    Stecksén, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Norrving, Bo
    Klinisk medicin, Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in access to stroke thrombolysis: observations in the Swedish stroke register (Riks-Stroke)2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Suppl. 3, p. 671-671Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Strand, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderström, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms and First-Ever Intracerebral Hemorrhage.2007In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 500-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Signaling through estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) regulates vasodilatation and atherogenesis. Since hypertension and atherosclerosis are major mechanisms in stroke development, we hypothesized that genetic variants of the ER alpha gene (ESR1) are determinants of future ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a population-based prospective nested case-control study, the relationships between ESR1 polymorphisms (c.454-397T>C and c.454-351A>G) and ischemic stroke and ICH were examined in univariate and multivariate models using conditional logistic regression, which included established risk factors.Definitive first-ever stroke events (n = 388), including ischemic stroke (n = 320), ICH (n = 61), and unspecified stroke (n = 7) cases, and controls without cardiovascular disease (n = 773), matched for age, sex, and geographical region were included. RESULTS: Carriers of the c.454-397T/T genotype had a significantly (p = 0.017) increased risk of ICH (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.16-4.60) in a univariate analysis. This association persisted (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.54-10.03), after adjustment for stroke risk determinants. Carriers of c.454-397T/T or c.454-397T/C genotypes had significantly (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively) higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), than carriers of c.454-397C/C, and a similar relationship was observed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The combinations of c.454-397T/T genotype and hypertension (OR 21.46, 95% CI 5.20-88.51), or high SBP (OR 18.17, 95% CI 4.91-67.31) or DBP (OR 11.94, 95% CI 3.75-38.03), were strongly associated with increased risk of ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In this population,the c.454-397T/T genotype associates with first-ever ICH, particularly in combination with hypertension. This implies that alterations in ER alpha-mediated signaling may be involved in the pathophysiology of this disease, with a putative impact on primary prevention.

  • 25.
    Strand, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderström, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wiklund, Per-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Polymorphisms at the osteoprotegerin and interleukin-6 genes in relation to first-ever stroke.2007In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Arterial calcification and osteoporosis often coexist, especially in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis associates with a substantially increased risk of stroke in elderly women, suggesting that impaired estrogen signaling may link stroke and osteoporosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL6) are putative target genes for estrogen signaling and have been implicated in both cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. We hypothesized that specific polymorphisms in these genes may be associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective nested case-control study, in which the relationships between polymorphisms (OPG-1181G/C, OPG-950T/C and IL6-174G/C) and ischemic stroke and ICH were examined. Definitive first-ever stroke events (n = 388), i.e. ischemic stroke (n = 320), ICH (n = 61) and unspecified stroke (n = 7) cases, and controls without cardiovascular disease (n = 773), matched for age, sex and geographical region were studied. Univariate and multivariate models using conditional logistic regression, which included traditional risk factors, were used to test for association. RESULTS: Carriers of the OPG-1181C/C genotype had a significantly (p = 0.018) increased risk of ICH (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.19-6.12) in the univariate analysis. After adjustments (hypertension, diabetes, BMI and triglycerides), this genotype remained significantly (p = 0.005) associated with ICH (OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.71-21.29). By contrast, no correlations were found between this genotype and ischemic stroke, nor between the OPG-950T/C or IL6-174G/C polymorphisms and stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the OPG-1181C/C genotype associates with first-ever ICH, implying that alterations in OPG-mediated signaling in the vasculature may be involved in the pathophysiology of this disease.

  • 26.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ahlbeck-Glader, Christine
    Slunga-Birgander, Lisbeth
    Ahrén, Bo
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    High leptin levels are associated with stroke.2003In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 15, no 1-2, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leptin, an important hormone for body weight regulation, may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular manifestations of obesity. We tested whether leptin may be an independent risk marker for stroke in a case-referent study.

    METHODS: Definitive acute stroke events, defined by MONICA criteria, were identified from October 1, 1995 to April 30, 1999. Referents without known cardiovascular disease were randomly selected from a population census. Patient characteristics were taken from hospital files and leptin was analyzed in stored samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine possible differences in leptin levels between groups.

    RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven cases with ischemic stroke and 69 cases with hemorrhagic stroke were identified. In comparison with referents, male patients with stroke had significantly higher leptin levels. Both male and female stroke patients had increased blood pressure compared with the referents. In multivariate analyses, high leptin levels were associated with both ischemic (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.89-12.62) and hemorrhagic (OR = 3.86; 95% CI: 1.13-13.16) stroke in men, and with ischemic stroke in women (OR = 4.10; 95% CI: 1.45-11.62). The combination of high leptin levels and increased blood pressure (systolic or diastolic) was associated with a strong positive interaction in males with hemorrhagic stroke.

    CONCLUSION: Leptin may be an important link for the development of cerebrovascular disease in the insulin resistance syndrome in men.

  • 27.
    Åström, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Åström, T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Life before and after Stroke: Living Conditions and Life Satisfaction in Relation to a General Elderly Population1992In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living conditions and life satisfaction before and after stroke were assessed in 80 patients with acute stroke (mean age 73 years). The results were compared with a general elderly population. Already prior to their stroke the patients had more health problems, lower functional ability, more passive leisure time and lower global life satisfaction. Low life satisfaction was associated with dependence in the activities of daily living (ADL). Economic resources, social network and psychiatric morbidity before stroke did not differ from the general elderly population. At 3 months of follow-up, almost half of the patients reported low life satisfaction, compared to only 2% in the national sample. Major depression and ADL dependence were associated with low life satisfaction after stroke. We conclude that much of the disability and handicap seen in stroke patients is present already before the stroke. Stroke-related deterioration of ADL performance, major depression and social disintegration after stroke interact to further reduce life satisfaction for the stroke victims and their families.

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