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  • 1.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Duncan, Alison
    Pepper, John
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Persistent Ventricular Asynchrony after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Predicts Cardiac Events2010In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 27, no 1, 32-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify echocardiographic LV systolic and diastolic measurements that predict clinical events post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: We collected data from 27 patients (age 70 +/- 7 years) who underwent elective CABG, before and within 6 weeks after surgery. LV systolic function was assessed by conventional echocardiographic parameters. A number of LV filling measurements were also made, which included total isovolumic time (t-IVT), Tei index, and restrictive filling pattern. Postoperative cardiac events were death or hospitalization for chest pain, breathlessness, or arrhythmia. Results: Patient's follow-up period was 17 +/- 10 months. Of the 27 patients (age 70 +/- 7 years, 22 male), 10 had postoperative cardiac events. LV ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were lower (P = 0.01, and P = 0.007, respectively), t-IVT longer (P < 0.001), and Tei index was higher (P < 0.001) preoperatively in patients with events compared to those without. The same differences between groups remained after surgery; EF (P = 0.002), FS (P = 0.002), t-IVT (P < 0.001), and Tei index (P < 0.001). T-IVT was the only preoperative predictor of events (P = 0.038) but its postoperative value as well as that of FS predicted events (P = 0.034, and P = 0.042, respectively). T-IVT of 12.2 s/min and FS of 26% were 80% sensitive and 88% specific for predicting postoperative events. Conclusion: Despite successful surgical revascularization residual impairment of LV systolic function and persistent asynchrony in the form of prolonged t-IVT are associated with postoperative events. Since these abnormalities remained despite full medical therapy, they may thus suggest a need for electrical resynchronization therapy.

  • 2.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. University Clinical Center of Kosova, University of Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    The clinical dilemma of quantifying mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony for cardiac resynchronization therapy: segmental or global?2015In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 32, no 1, 150-155 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart failure (HF) represents a serious clinical and public cause of mortality, morbidity, as well as healthcare expenditures. Guidelines for treatment of HF join in recommending multimedical regimen at targeted doses as the best medical strategy, despite that a significant percentage of patients remain symptomatic. Studies have shown that these patients might benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), particularly those presenting with broad QRS duration, >135 msec. Trials have already shown that CRT results in improved morbidity and survival of these patients particularly those in New York Heart Association class III-IV HF, but almost 30% do not show any symptomatic or survival benefit, hence are classified as nonresponders. Exhaustive efforts have been made in using noninvasive methods of assessing left ventricle (LV) dyssynchrony in predicting nonresponders to CRT, including Doppler echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and even single photon emission computed tomography analysis, but only with modest success. In this report, we aimed to review the available evidence for assessing markers of mechanical LV dyssynchrony by various echocardiographic modalities and their respective strength in predicting favorable response to CRT treatment, comparing global with segmental ones. While the accuracy of segmental markers of dyssynchrony in predicting satisfactory response to CRT remains controversial because of various technical limitations, global markers seem easier to measure, reproducible, and potentially accurate in reflecting overall cavity response and its clinical implications. More studies are needed to qualify this proposal.

  • 3.
    Calcutteea, Avin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    Global and regional right ventricular dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension2014In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 31, no 2, 164-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is known to affect the right ventricular (RV) function.

    AIMS: To assess the extent of global and regional RV dysfunction in PH patients.

    METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on 20 controls (age 62 ± 15 years, 7 males) and 35 patients (age 67 ± 12 years, 13 males) with PH of mixed etiologies and assessed RV inflow and outflow tracts (OTs) function, using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) based myocardial deformation and its time relations. RV inlet and OT dimensions (2D), inlet myocardial velocities (TDI), myocardial strain and strain rate (SR), TAPSE (M-mode), ejection and filling times (pulsed-wave [PW] Doppler), and pulmonary artery acceleration (PAc) were measured.

    RESULTS: RV inlet and OT were dilated (P < 0.001 for both) and TAPSE (P < 0.001), inlet velocities (P < 0.001), basal and mid-cavity strain, SR and longitudinal displacement reduced (P < 0.001 for all). The time to peak systolic SR at basal, mid-cavity (P < 0.001 for both), and RVOT (P = 0.007) was short as was that to peak displacement (P < 0.001 for all). The time to peak pulmonary ejection correlated with time to peak SR at RVOT (r = 0.7, P < 0.001) in controls, but with that of the mid-cavity in patients (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). PAc was faster (P = 0.001) and RV filling time shorter in patients (P = 0.03) with respect to controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: PH has drastic effects on RV structure and intrinsic myocardial function, significantly disturbing its ejection time relations and overall pump performance. Increased RV afterload results in RV configuration changes with the inflow tract determining peak ejection rather than OT.

  • 4.
    Engvall, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Henein, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Can myocardial strain differentiate hypertrophic from infiltrative etiology of a thickened septum?2011In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 28, no 4, 408-415 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Septal systolic strain measurements showed reduced longitudinal function but its localized nature failed to demonstrate radial disturbances in patients with pathologically thickened septum. No difference was found in systolic strain between patients according to the etiology of septal thickness. This limitation might be either technical or is explained by the maintained radial function in all patient groups.

  • 5.
    Henein, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Mörner, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå Heart Center.
    The normal impact of age and gender on right heart structure and function2014In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 31, no 1, 5-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As the proportion of elderly population increases rapidly, it might be difficult to differentiate physiological changes in cardiac function due to age from the pathophysiological ones. In addition, cardiac function variations with gender are well established. The right ventricular (RV) plays an important role in the overall cardiac function, but reference values varying with age and gender are lacking.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 255 healthy individuals from a general population register, mean age of 58 ± 19 (range 22-89) years, 125 were females. We used 2D and M-mode echocardiography to measure RV inflow tract (RVIT) and RV outflow tract (RVOT) dimensions and fractional shortening (fs). Spectral Doppler echocardiography was also used.

    RESULTS: We found a modest decrease in RVIT dimensions (P < 0.05), but increase in RVOT dimensions with advancing age (P < 0.05). A small decrease in RVOT fs with age was also found (P < 0.05). Estimated pulmonary pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance increased (P < 0.001) as did RVOT wall thickness (P < 0.001), but RV diastolic function was not altered (P < 0.001) with age. Despite correction for the BSA, males showed larger RVIT dimensions (P < 0.001 for both), but RVOT end-diastolic dimension was larger in females (P < 0.05). RVIT and RVOT fractional shortening were increased in females (P < 0.01 for both).

    CONCLUSION: In a cohort of normal individuals, age has significant impact on RV structure and function, inlet area falls and outflow tract dimensions increase and fractional shortening also increase in females. In addition, RVOT wall thickness significantly increases and Doppler markers of pulmonary vascular resistance show a consistent rise. The age-related changes should carefully be considered when commenting on normality and when using absolute values.

  • 6.
    Saha, Samir Kanti
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli
    Speckle tracking-derived mechanical dispersion of left atrial myocardial deformation: An essential parameter in atrial fibrillation management?2017In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 34, no 2, 159-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Saha, Samir Kanti
    et al.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Association of Right Atrial Mechanics with Hemodynamics and Physical Capacity in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Insight from a Single-Center Cohort in Northern Sweden2016In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 33, no 1, 46-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsRole of right atrial mechanics has not been studied in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). We sought to investigate the correlation between the right sided, particularly right atrial mechanics, hemodynamic parameters, and functional capacity prior to initiation of treatment. Methods and ResultsTwenty-five subjects (6317years, 13 males) with newly diagnosed IPAH by right heart catheterization (RHC) underwent speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) of the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). All the patients had a six-minute walk test (6MWD) performed, functional class (WHO-FC) assessed, and plasma NT-proBNP estimated. STE strain imaging of RA and RV was performed offline. STE of the RA myocardium yielded characteristic strain (S%) and strain rate (SR) curves with clear delineation of its reservoir (RA-RS%), conduit (RA-SR E), and booster pump functions (RA-SR A). In IPAH, RHC-obtained pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), respectively, were 7.3 +/- 5.6 Wood units and 66 +/- 24mmHg. RA-RS% was associated negatively with PVR (r=-0.46; P<0.05) and positively with stroke volume and cardiac output (all P<0.05). Both right atrial pressure (RAP) obtained by RHC as well as RA-SR E had significant association with WHO-FC (Multiple R=0.7; P=0. 01 and 0.007, respectively). RA strain rate during systole and RAP had significant association with 6MWD (Multiple R=0.7; P=0.01 and 0.006, respectively). ConclusionRight atrium mechanics not only correlate well with RHC-obtained hemodynamics, but also correlate with functional capacity in treatment-naive IPAH.

  • 8.
    Tossavainen, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Left Atrial Intrinsic Strain Rate Correcting for Pulmonary Wedge Pressure Is Accurate in Estimating Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in Breathless Patients2016In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 33, no 8, 1156-1165 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that left atrial deformation during atrial systole (LASRa) correlates with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), thus enabling echo-derived pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) estimation in a wide range of different subsets of patients.

    BACKGROUND: Various etiologies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) have different mechanisms and treatments for breathlessness. Irrespective of the location of the underlying pulmonary vascular pathology, pre- or postcapillary, the resulting PH is fairly easy to assess by Doppler echocardiography, but PVR remains a challenge.

    METHODS: We prospectively included 46 patients (mean age 61 ± 13 years) in sinus rhythm, who underwent right heart catheterization because of dyspnea. According to the NICE guidelines classification, 22 belonged to group 1 pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), 19 belonged to group 2 congestive heart failure (CHF), 1 belonged to group 4 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and 4 had normal hemodynamics. Simultaneous Doppler echocardiography using spectral, tissue Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography techniques for assessing LA structure and function was performed.

    RESULTS: PCWPrhc correlated with LASRa (r(2) = 0.65, P < 0.001). PCWPecho was calculated using the equation (PCWPecho = 26.12 - 11.09 × LASRa), and the resulting PVR echo strongly correlated with the respective catheter-based measurements PVRrhc (r(2) = 0.69. P < 0.001) with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 74% identifying a PVR ≥ 3 WU.

    CONCLUSIONS: Left atrial strain rate during atrial systole correlates closely with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and consequently the calculated pulmonary vascular resistance, irrespective of the etiology of PH.

  • 9. Vancheri, Federico
    et al.
    Vancheri, Sergio
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Effect of Age on Left Ventricular Global Dyssynchrony in Asymptomatic Individuals: A Population Study2016In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 33, no 7, 977-983 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Left ventricular (LV) segmental dyssynchrony is common in patients with heart failure or myocardial activation abnormalities and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Total isovolumic time (t-IVT) and Tei index are sensitive indexes of global ventricular dyssynchrony. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on t-IVT and Tei index. Methods: We evaluated 410 individuals with no evidence for coronary heart disease or activation abnormalities. T-IVT was calculated as 60 - (total ejection time + total filling time) and Tei index as t-IVT/total ejection time. The relationship between age, LV systolic and diastolic function parameters as well as t-IVT and Tei index was studied. Results: Ejection fraction and stroke volume did not change with age, whereas early diastolic filling velocity fell and atrial systolic velocity increased, reducing the E/A ratio. Isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) lengthened. With every 10 years of age, total LV ejection time shortened by 1.5 sec/min and total filling time by 2.1 sec/min. T-IVT and Tei index increased with age and strongly correlated with IVCT and E/A, but not with ejection fraction or QRS duration. Conclusion: Normal aging is associated with worsening of LV global dyssynchrony shown by prolongation of isovolumic times resulting in shortening of filling and ejection times. Age also affects diastolic function as shown by E/A but not systolic function parameters, ejection fraction or stroke volume. Worsening of global dyssynchrony correlates with that of diastolic function but not with QRS duration.

  • 10. Zhao, Ying
    et al.
    He, Yi Hua
    Liu, Wen Xu
    Sun, Lin
    Han, Jian Cheng
    Man, Ting Ting
    Gu, Xiao Yan
    Chen, Zhuo
    Wen, Zhao Ying
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Intramyocardial Dissecting Hematoma after Acute Myocardial Infarction: Echocardiographic Features and Clinical Outcome2016In: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 33, no 7, 962-969 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Intramyocardial dissecting hematoma (IDH) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a rare form of subacute cardiac rupture and hence management uncertainties. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical course of a small series of IDH patients and to review the available evidence for managing similar cases. Methods: Eight IDH patients from our center had echocardiographic, coronary angiographic and clinical outcome data reviewed. PubMed was also searched for IDH following MI. Cases were divided into three groups and compared according to the dissection location. Results: In our 8 patients, 3 had septal, 1 right ventricular (RV), and 4 left ventricular (LV) dissection. Five were medically treated and 3 surgically repaired. Reviewing the literature revealed 68 IDH patients, of mean age 66 +/- 10 years, 43 males. The percentage of IDH involving the LV free wall, septal, and RV free wall were 47%, 26.5%, and 26.5%, respectively. In the cohort as a whole, mortality was not different between surgically and medically treated patients (33.3% vs. 54.3%, P = 0.08), neither based on the IDH location (P = 0.49). While surgical and medical treatment of the LV free wall (20.0% vs. 40.9%, P = 0.25) and septal (46.2% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.60) were not different, surgical repair of RV free wall had significantly better survival (30.0% vs. 87.5%, P = 0.015). The LVEF (P = 0.82), mitral regurgitation (P = 0.49) failed to predict mortality. Conclusion: While survival following medical and surgical treatment of LV IDH is not different, patients with RV free wall dissection benefit significantly from surgical repair.

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