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  • 1.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Zhao, Ying
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Aortic valve replacement normalizes left ventricular twist function2011In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 701-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of aortic valve replacement (AVR) on left ventricular (LV) twist function. We studied 28 severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with normal LV ejection fraction (EF) before and six months after AVR. LV long axis function was assessed using M-mode and tissue Doppler and twist function using speckle tracking echocardiography. The data were compared with 28 age and sex-matched normal controls. In patients, LVEF remained unchanged after AVR. LV long axis function was reduced before surgery but normalized after AVR. LV twist was increased before (19.7 ± 5.7° vs. 12.9 ± 3.2°, P<0.001) and normalized after AVR (14.4 ± 5.2 °, P < 0.001). In normals, LV twist correlated with LV fractional shortening (r = 0.81, P<0.001) but not with EF. This relationship was reversed in patients before ( r= 0.52, P < 0.01) and after AVR (r = 0.34, P = ns). In patients with severe AS and normal EF, LV twist is exaggerated suggesting potential compensation for the reduced long axis function. These disturbances normalize within six months of AVR but lose their relationship with basal LV function.

  • 2.
    Smulter, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cardiothoracic Division, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Cardiothoracic Division, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Engström, Karl Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cardiothoracic Division, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Delirium after cardiac surgery: incidence and risk factors2013In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 790-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Delirium after cardiac surgery is a problem with consequences for patients and healthcare. Preventive strategies from known risk factors may reduce the incidence and severity of delirium. The present aim was to explore risk factors behind delirium in older patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    METHODS: Patients (≥70 years) scheduled for routine cardiac surgery were included (n = 142). The patients were assessed and monitored pre-/postoperatively, and delirium was diagnosed from repeated assessments with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale, using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Variables were analysed by uni-/multivariable logistic regression, including both preoperative variables (predisposing) and those extracted during surgery and in the early postoperative period (precipitating).

    RESULTS: Delirium was diagnosed in 78 patients (54.9%). Delirium was independently associated with both predisposing and precipitating factors (P-value, odds ratio, upper/lower confidence interval): age (0.036, 1.1, 1.0/1.2), diabetes (0.032, 3.5, 1.1/11.0), gastritis/ulcer problems (0.050, 4.0, 1.0/16.1), volume load during operation (0.001, 2.8, 1.5/5.1), ventilator time in ICU (0.042, 1.2, 1.0/1.4), highest temperature recorded in ICU (0.044, 2.2, 1.0/4.8) and sodium concentration in ICU (0.038, 1.2, 1.0/1.4).

    CONCLUSIONS: Delirium was common among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Both predisposing and precipitating factors contributed to delirium. When combined, the predictive strength of the model improved. Preventive strategies may be considered, in particular among the precipitating factors. Of interest, delirium was strongly associated with an increased volume load during surgery.

  • 3.
    Svenmarker, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Häggmark, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Serum markers are not reliable measures of renal function in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass2011In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 713-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explored the influence of haemodilution on estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac surgery. Ninety-eight patients (n = 98) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with the aid of CPB were examined. The serum concentration of cystatin C and creatinine was analysed prior to surgery, after completion of CPB and in the intensive care the day after surgery. The estimated GFR was calculated using standard equations based on the serum concentration of cystatin C and creatinine. It was found that haemodilution induced by CPB had significant effects on the estimated GFR. For cystatin C, the GFR increased by 50.5 ± 2.5 ml/min (P = 0.000) and for creatinine based GFR with 22.5 ± 0.9 ml/min (P = 0.000) using the 4-variable modification of diet renal disease formula and with 22.1 ± 0.93 ml/min (P = 0.000) for the Cockcroft-Gault formula, respectively. Similar effects of haemodilution on GFR were also detected postoperatively. Haemodilution induced by CPB may therefore significantly overestimate the renal function as indicated by GFR based on serum markers.

  • 4.
    Svenmarker, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Häggmark, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Östman, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Central venous oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass predicts 3-year survival2013In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term survival after cardiac surgery is determined by a number of different risk factors. Central venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) measures the balance between oxygen delivery and demand. SvO2 levels in the intensive care situation are reported to be associated with patient outcome. The present report explores the connection between SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and survival after cardiac surgery. Retrospective analysis of one thousand consecutive cardiac surgical patients was undertaken. SvO2 during CPB was monitored online. Registry data combining specific risk factors with SvO2 were selected for Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to examine the influence on 30-day and 3-year survivals. Nine-hundred and thirty-two patient records were eligible for analysis. SvO2 below 75% during CPB was associated with significantly shorter 30-day and 3-year survivals. Based on Kaplan-Meier statistics, the survival rate decreased by 3.1% (98.1-95.0), P = 0.011 and 6.1% (92.7-86.6), P = 0.003, respectively. The influence of SvO2 on 3-year survival remained statistically significant after controlling for a series of risk factors in the Cox regression analysis. Patients with SvO2 < 75% carried a 2-fold (odds ratio 2.1) increased relative risk of shortened 3-year survival (P = 0.003). Other risk factors statistically significantly associated with 3-year survival were age, gender, duration of CPB, blood temperature, hypertension, haematocrit and type of surgical procedure. We report decreased 30-day and 3-year survival expectancy for patients experiencing SvO2 lower than 75% during CPB.

  • 5.
    Zhao, Ying
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Henein, Michael Y
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Trans-catheter aortic valve implantation: early recovery of left and preservation of right ventricular function2011In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to assess the early effect of trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function in severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients. Twenty AS patients (age 79±6 years) were examined before, one week and six weeks after TAVI using Doppler echocardiography. LV ejection fraction (EF), long-axis [mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE)] and RV long-axis [tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)] function, septal radial motion were studied. Results were compared with 30 AS patients before and one week after aortic valve replacement (AVR) as well as 30 normals (reference group). Before TAVI, LVEF was reduced and E/A was higher than the reference and AVR groups (P<0.05 for all). MAPSE, TAPSE and septal motion were equally reduced in TAVI and AVR patients (P<0.05 for all). One week after the TAVI, EF increased in patients with values <50% before the procedure. In contrast, AVR resulted in reversed septal motion (P<0.001) and depressed TAPSE (P<0.001). The extent of reversed septal motion correlated with that of TAPSE in the patients group as a whole after procedures (r=0.78, P<0.001). Six weeks after TAVI, RV function remained unchanged, but LVEF increased and E/A decreased (P<0.05 for both). Thus, TAVI procedure results in significant early improvement of LV systolic and diastolic function particularly in patients with reduced EF and preserves RV systolic function.

  • 6.
    Åberg, Torkel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Hentschel, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Improved total quality by monitoring of a cardiothoracic unit. Medical, administrative and economic data followed for 9 years.2004In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe monitoring of a cardio-thoracic department from a total quality aspect point of view and to follow the development over 9 years. During the time period 1994-2002 a total of 10,828 cardio-thoracic operations were performed. Capacity, demographic, risk, quality, outcome and economic data were prospectively collected in various registries and analysed. Mean (and median) age increased from 64.2 to 65.3 (66-67). Patients above 70 years increased from 33.6 to 38.7% and above 80 from 2.9 to 5.5%. Operative mortality was unchanged over the time periods at slightly over 2%, with 1-year mortality 6-7%. Mortality for primary, elective coronary artery bypass grafting was 0.26% during the last 3 years. The rate of postoperative complications remained unchanged or decreased with few exceptions: Patients with postoperative confusion increased from 5.0 to 8.1% and patients with a need for face mask ventilation increased from 2.4 to 4.0%. Mean postoperative ventilation time was unchanged at around 22 h, whereas the median decreased from 9.5 to 5.3 h. The workload created by elderly patients was especially noticeable in the intensive care unit (ICU) as both number of postoperative deviations and ICU hours increased as a function of age. Cost per operation decreased by 11%. Total medical rationalisation was higher as salaries increased over time. Mean length of stay decreased by 3 days. Hospital staff hours per operation decreased whereas hospital staff hours per patient hour increased. Physician cost per operation was unchanged. Patient, staff and referring physician satisfaction was high. Several areas for improvement have been found. Monitoring and general feedback of total quality factors has shown itself a powerful tool to detect and follow large and subtle changes in the practice of cardio-thoracic surgery. Most followed factors show improvement in spite of an increase in mean and median age. Several areas may be defined where further development might decrease the trauma to the patient. Aiming at a total quality and patient safety system, monitoring is an essential prerequisite.

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