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  • 1. Alexeyev, O A
    et al.
    Linderholm, M
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wadell, G
    Juto, P
    Tärnvik, A
    Increased plasma levels of soluble CD23 in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; relation to virus-specific IgE.1997In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 351-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 15 consecutive patients hospitalized with nephropathia epidemica, a European form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Puumala virus, plasma concentrations of soluble CD23 (sCD23) and Puumala virus-specific IgE were determined. In the acute phase of illness, 11/15 patients had increased sCD23 levels (> 91 U/ml), whereas in convalescence, values of 8/10 patients were normalized. Maximal sCD23 values were correlated to maximal concentrations of Puumala virus-specific serum IgE (r = 0.597; P = 0.025). The results are compatible with a known ability of sCD23 to augment IgE production.

  • 2. Ekstrand-Hammarström, B
    et al.
    Österlund, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Lilliehöök, B
    Bucht, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Vitamin E down-modulates mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells.2007In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 147, no 2, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Fahlgren, A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, S
    Danielsson, A
    Hammarström, M-L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Increased expression of antimicrobial peptides and lysozyme in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis.2003In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 131, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of chronic inflammation on the expression of human alpha-defensins 5 and 6 (HD-5, HD-6), beta-defensins 1 and 2 (hBD-1, hBD-2) and lysozyme in epithelial cells of small and large intestine was investigated. Intestinal specimens from 16 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 14 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 40 controls with no history of inflammatory bowel disease were studied. mRNA expression levels of the five defence molecules were determined in freshly isolated epithelial cells by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Specific copy standards were used allowing comparison between the expression levels of the different defensins. HD-5 and lysozyme protein expression was also studied by immunohistochemistry. Colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC displayed a significant increase of hBD-2, HD-5, HD-6 and lysozyme mRNA as compared to epithelial cells in controls. Lysozyme mRNA was expressed at very high average copy numbers followed by HD-5, HD-6, hBD-1 and hBD-2 mRNA. HD-5 and lysozyme protein was demonstrated in metaplastic Paneth-like cells in UC colon. There was no correlation between hBD-2 mRNA levels and HD-5 or HD-6 mRNA levels in colon epithelial cells of UC patients. Colonic epithelial cells of Crohn's colitis patients showed increased mRNA levels of HD-5 and lysozyme mRNA whereas ileal epithelial cells of Crohn's patients with ileo-caecal inflammation did not. Chronic inflammation in colon results in induction of hBD-2 and alpha-defensins and increased lysozyme expression. hBD-1 expression levels in colon remain unchanged in colitis. The high antimicrobial activity of epithelial cells in chronic colitis may be a consequence of changes in the epithelial lining, permitting adherence of both pathogenic bacteria and commensals directly to the epithelial cell surface.

  • 4.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Danielsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hammarstrom, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    β-Defensin-3 and -4 in intestinal epithelial cells display increased mRNA expression in ulcerative colitis2004In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 137, no 2, p. 379-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    mRNA expression of two recently described human beta-defensins (hBD-3 and hBD-4) in epithelial cells of normal small and large intestine and the impact of chronic intestinal inflammation on their expression levels was investigated. Intestinal specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and controls with no history of inflammatory bowel disease were studied. hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNAs were determined in freshly isolated epithelial cells by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization. The effect of proinflammatory cytokines on hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA expression in colon carcinoma cells was also investigated. Purified epithelial cells of normal small and large intestine expressed both hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA, with higher expression levels of hBD-3 mRNA. In situ hybridization revealed higher levels of mRNA expression in the crypt- compared to the villus/luminal-compartment. Interferon (IFN)-gamma, but not tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or IL-1beta, augmented hBD-3 mRNA expression. None of these agents stimulated hBD-4 expression. Colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC displayed a significant increase in hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA compared to epithelial cells of controls. In contrast, small intestinal epithelial cells from CD patients did not show increased expression levels compared to the corresponding control cells. Moreover, Crohn's colitis did not show increased expression of hBD-4 mRNA, while the data are inconclusive for hBD-3 mRNA. We conclude that the chronic inflammatory reaction induced in the colon of UC patients enhances hBD-3 and hBD-4 mRNA expression in the epithelium, whereas in CD this is less evident.

  • 5. Hartana, C. A.
    et al.
    Ahlén Bergman, E.
    Broomé, A.
    Berglund, S.
    Johansson, M.
    Alamdari, F.
    Jakubczyk, T.
    Huge, Y.
    Aljabery, F.
    Palmqvist, K.
    Holmström, B.
    Glise, H.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Sherif, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Winqvist, O.
    Tissue-resident memory T cells are epigenetically cytotoxic with signs of exhaustion in human urinary bladder cancer2018In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 194, no 1, p. 39-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells are CD8+ T lymphocytes that reside in the tissues, including tumours. This T cell subset possesses a magnitude of cytotoxicity, but its epigenetic regulation has not been studied. Here, we investigate the impact of perforin DNA methylation in TRM cells and correlate it with their functional potential. Fifty-three urothelial urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients were recruited prospectively. The DNA methylation status of the perforin gene (PRF1) locus in TRM cells was investigated by pyrosequencing. Flow cytometry with ViSNE analysis and in-vitro stimulation were used to evaluate TRM cell phenotypes. We discovered that tumour TRM cells have low DNA methylation in the PRF1 locus (32·9% methylation), which corresponds to increased numbers of perforin-expressing TRM cells. Surprisingly, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression is high in tumour TRM cells, suggesting exhaustion. Following interleukin-15 and T cell receptor stimulation, perforin and T-bet expressions are enhanced, indicating that TRM cells from tumours are not terminally exhausted. Moreover, a high number of TRM cells infiltrating the tumours corresponds to lower tumour stage in patients. In conclusion, TRM cells from UBC tumours are epigenetically cytotoxic with signs of exhaustion. This finding identifies TRM cells as potential new targets for cancer immunotherapy.

  • 6. Hu, J.
    et al.
    Kinn, J.
    Zirakzadeh, A. A.
    Sherif, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Norstedt, G.
    Wikstrom, A. -C
    Winqvist, O.
    The effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation2013In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 490-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies indicate that chemotherapeutic agents may increase the anti-tumoral immune response. Based on the pivotal role of dendritic cells (DCs) in host tumour-specific immune responses, we investigated the effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs dexamethasone, doxorubicin, cisplatin and irinotecan and glucocorticoids on monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). Dexamethasone displayed the strongest inhibitory effect on DC differentiation. The effect of cisplatin and irinotecan was moderate, while only weak effects were noticed for doxorubicin. Surprisingly, when the functional consequence of chemotherapy-treated CD14+ monocytes and their capacity to activate CD4+ T responders cells were investigated, cisplatin-treated monocytes gave rise to increased T cell proliferation. However, dexamethasone, doxorubicin and irinotecan-pretreated monocytes did not stimulate any increased T cell proliferation. Further investigation of this observation revealed that cisplatin treatment during DC differentiation up-regulated significantly the interferon (IFN)- transcript. By contrast, no effect was evident on the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, IL-6 or IFN- transcripts. Blocking IFN- attenuated the cisplatin-enhanced T cell proliferation significantly. In conclusion, cisplatin treatment enhanced the immune stimulatory ability of human monocytes, a mechanism mediated mainly by the increased production of IFN-.

  • 7. Isaksson, H. S.
    et al.
    Farkas, S. A.
    Mueller, P.
    Gustafsson, D.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Whole genome microarray expression analysis in blood identifies pathways linked to signs and symptoms of a patient with hypercalprotectinaemia and hyperzincaemia2018In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 191, no 2, p. 240-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A child, 2 years with the hypercalprotectinaemia with hyperzincaemia' clinical syndrome, presented with atypical symptoms and signs, notably persistent fever of approximately 38 degrees C, thrombocythaemia of >700x10(9)/l and a predominance of persistent intestinal symptoms. In an effort to find a cure by identifying the dysregulated pathways we analysed whole-genome mRNA expression by the Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 20 array in blood on three occasions 3-5 months apart. Major up-regulation was demonstrated for the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway including, in particular, CD177, S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12, accounting for the thrombocytosis; a large number of interleukins, their receptors and activators, accounting for the febrile apathic state; and the high mobility group box 1 (HMBG1) gene, possibly accounting for part of the intestinal symptoms. These results show that gene expression array technology may assist the clinician in the diagnostic work-up of individual patients with suspected syndromal states of unknown origin, and the expression data can guide the selection of optimal treatment directed at the identified target pathways.

  • 8.
    Latvala, S.
    et al.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Infect Dis Surveillance & Control, Virol Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Makela, S. M.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Infect Dis Surveillance & Control, Virol Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Miettinen, M.
    Valio Ltd R&D, Helsinki, Finland.
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Julkunen, I.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Dept Infect Dis Surveillance & Control, Virol Unit, Helsinki 00271, Finland; Univ Turku, Dept Virol, Turku, Finland.
    Dynamin inhibition interferes with inflammasome activation and cytokine gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes-infected human macrophages2014In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 178, no 2, p. 320-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we have analysed the ability of Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococcus (GAS)] to activate the NACHT-domain-, leucinerich repeat-and PYD-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome complex in human monocyte-derived macrophages and the molecules and signalling pathways involved in GAS-induced inflammatory responses. We focused upon analysing the impact of dynamin-dependent endocytosis and the role of major streptococcal virulence factors streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS) in the immune responses induced by GAS. These virulence factors are involved in immune evasion by forming pores in host cell membranes, and aid the bacteria to escape from the endosome-lysosome pathway. We analysed cytokine gene expression in human primary macrophages after stimulation with live or inactivated wild-type GAS as well as with live SLO and SLS defective bacteria. Interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-10 cytokines were produced after bacterial stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and no differences in cytokine levels were seen between live, inactivated or mutant bacteria. These data suggest that streptolysins or other secreted bacterial products are not required for the inflammatory responses induced by GAS. Our data indicate that inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis in macrophages attenuates the induction of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN)-beta and CXCL-10 mRNAs. We also observed that pro-IL-1 beta protein was expressed and efficiently cleaved into mature-IL-1 beta via inflammasome activation after bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multiple signalling pathways are involved in GAS-stimulated inflammatory responses in human macrophages.

  • 9. Melgar, S
    et al.
    Yeung, M M-W
    Bas, A
    Forsberg, G
    Suhr, O
    Oberg, A
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Danielsson, A
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Over-expression of interleukin 10 in mucosal T cells of patients with active ulcerative colitis.2003In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 127-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, exhibits pronounced increase of T lymphocytes in the inflamed mucosa. To understand the role of intestinal T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of UC their cytokine production in the mucosa was analysed. Intestinal T lymphocytes of UC, Crohn's disease and control patients were analysed for cytokine mRNA levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) directly after isolation without in vitro stimulation. Frequencies of cytokine positive cells were determined in UC and control colon by immunomorphometry. T lymphocytes in normal colon expressed interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, but not IL-4, IL-5 or IL-10. In UC, a highly significant increase in IL-10 mRNA levels in T lymphocytes and an increased frequency of IL-10 positive cells was seen in colon. IL-10 mRNA levels were also elevated in T lymphocytes of the non-inflamed ileum and correlated with disease activity at both locations. CD4+ T lymphocytes were the major source of IL-10 mRNA. IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA levels were decreased in colonic T lymphocytes, and virtually no IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha or TGF-beta positive cells were detected in basal lymphoid aggregates. However, scattered IL-10 positive cells were found here. Lamina propria outside the aggregates contained IL-10-, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta but not IL-2 positive cells. T cells of UC patients did not express IL-4 or IL-5. Taken, together the data suggest a generalized activation of IL-10 producing CD4+ T cells along the intestine of UC patients. The local environment seems to determine the biological consequences of elevated IL-10.

  • 10.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Juto, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Human milk contains proteins that stimulate and suppress T lymphocyte proliferation.1990In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 463-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modulatory effect of human milk proteins from colostrum and late milk on the proliferative response of human T lymphocytes activated by mitogens (OKT3 and leucoagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris) and alloantigens was studied. High concentrations (10-100 micrograms/ml) of crude colostral milk proteins had an inhibitory effect on T cell growth while low concentrations (0.1-1 microgram/ml) enhanced T cells growth. In contrast, proteins from late milk did not inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation while the enhancing effect was retained. Colostrum was fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration on sepharose 6B. The inhibitory activity was recovered in a protein fraction containing lactoferrin as its major component. Lactoferrin was, however, not responsible for the observed inhibition. On the contrary, lactoferrin in most cases augmented the proliferative response induced by polyclonal activators. The inhibitory activity was found to bind concanavalin A-sepharose suggesting an association with glycoprotein. Inhibitory fractions contained glycoproteins of the following molecular sizes 26, 74/76 (doublet), 84, 145 and 160 kD under reducing conditions. The inhibitory effect appeared to be lymphocyte specific since the active fraction did not inhibit the growth of tissue culture cells (HeLa cells and human fibroblasts) or bacteria. Furthermore, the fraction was not toxic for lymphocytes. The inhibitory colostrum factor may prevent the newborn from overreacting immunologically against the environmental antigens encountered at birth.

  • 11.
    Neumann Andersen, Grethe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology.
    Mandrika, I
    Petrovska, R
    Muceniece, R
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology.
    Wikberg, J E
    MC(1) receptors are constitutively expressed on leucocyte subpopulations with antigen presenting and cytotoxic functions.2001In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 441-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of melanocortin MC(1) receptors on human peripheral lymphocyte subsets was analysed by flow cytometry using rabbit antibodies selective for the human MC(1) receptor and a panel of monoclonal antibodies against lymphocyte differentiation markers. The MC(1) receptor was found to be constitutively expressed on monocytes/macrophages, B-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and a subset of cytotoxic T-cells. Interestingly T-helper cells appeared to be essentially devoid of MC(1) receptors. The results were confirmed by RT-PCR which indicated strong expression of MC(1) receptor mRNA in CD14(+), CD19(+) and CD56(+) cells. However, only a faint RT-PCR signal was seen in CD3(+) cells, in line with the immuno-staining results that indicated that only part of the CD3(+) cells (i.e. some of the CD8(+) cells) expressed the MC(1) receptor. The MC(1) receptors' constitutive expression on immune cells with antigen-presenting and cytotoxic functions implies important roles for the melanocortic system in the modulation of immune responses.

  • 12. Olofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Hellström, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Abundance of intraepithelial gamma delta T cells in hypertrophic obstructive but not in chronically infected adenoids1996In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 396-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quantitative morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections we compared hypertrophic obstructive adenoids (HOA, n = 10) from children without middle ear disease with chronically infected adenoids (CIA, n = 10) from children with middle ear disease. gamma delta T cell receptor (TCR)+ cells constituted the dominating T cell population in the surface epithelium of HOA, while alpha beta TCR+ cells were the dominating intraepithelial T cell population in CIA. Intraepithelially CD8+ cells dominated over CD4+ cells in both diseases. Intraepithelially B cells were not detected. The cellular composition of follicles, with B cells dominating followed by activated CD4+ alpha beta TCR+ cells, was the same in both groups. However, the number of follicles in CIA was twice as many as in HOA. In the deeper interfollicular areas granulocytes were more abundant in CIA than in HOA. The latter two findings suggest a more pronounced inflammatory response in the adenoids of patients with middle ear disease. There was no significant difference with regard to pathogenic bacterial strains colonizing the adenoid surface when comparing the two patient groups. These results suggest that in patients with HOA gamma delta TCR+ T cells help to maintain the integrity of the surface epithelium, thereby preserving its protective function. On the basis of our results we speculate that CIA have a malfunctioning defence, thereby facilitating long-standing infections deep in the adenoid. This may be the main reason for development of middle ear disease and an indication for adenoidectomy in patients with CIA.

  • 13.
    Olofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Hellström, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    The surface epithelium of recurrent infected palatine tonsils is rich in gammadelta T cells1998In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a large panel of MoAbs in quantitative morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue sections, we compared the frequency and distribution of immune cells in palatine tonsils from patients with recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and patients with idiopathic tonsillar hypertrophy (ITH). We found that differences between the two patient groups in leucocyte populations were limited to the surface epithelium, whereas the cellular composition of interfollicular and follicular areas was similar. Most intraepithelial lymphocytes were CD8+ T cells in both groups. However, the number of intraepithelial T cells was significantly higher in RT compared with ITH. This was due to a selective increase in the number of intraepithelial CD8+ gammadelta T cells utilizing Vdelta1 and Vgamma9. In both patient groups the majority of the intraepithelial gammadelta T cells expressed Vdelta1 and Vgamma9. Subepithelially, gammadelta T cells utilizing Vgamma9 dominated over cells utilizing Vgamma8, while equal proportions expressed Vdelta1 and Vdelta2. These results suggest that cells utilizing the otherwise rare combination Vdelta1/Vgamma9 in their T cell receptors (TCR) may constitute a major gammadelta T cell population in palatine tonsils and are probably reactive to antigens specific to the tonsillar milieu. Furthermore, they indicate that preferentially this gammadelta T cell subpopulation is involved in immune reactions within the surface epithelium in RT. We speculate that gammadelta T cells are involved in clearing infectious bacteria at the tonsillar surface and in limiting inflammatory responses in the tonsils. Both local expansion and infiltration of blood cells probably contribute to the high numbers of gammadelta T cells in RT patients.

  • 14.
    Qian, Bi-Feng
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    El-Salhy, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Melgar, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Danielsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Neuroendocrine changes in colon of mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene2000In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 424-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroendocrine peptides have a variety of physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of IL-2 deficiency on the neuroendocrine system in normal colon, and the neuroendocrine changes during colonic inflammation. Mice with homozygous disrupted IL-2 gene (IL-2-/-) spontaneously developed a bowel disease with similarities to human ulcerative colitis. Different types of colonic endocrine cells and myenteric nerves were analysed in the IL-2-/- mice using immunomorphometry. The neuropeptide contents in the colonic tissues were determined by radioimmunoassay. Age-matched healthy IL-2+/- and IL-2+/+ mice served as controls and the colonic IL-2 levels were compared between these two groups of mice by ELISA. Our data showed that less than half the amount of IL-2 was synthesized in the colon of IL-2+/- mice compared with the IL-2+/+ wild-type mice. Two major differences in the neuroendocrine colon were found between the mice with an intact and disrupted IL-2 gene. One was age-related. The frequencies of various endocrine cells and myenteric nerves increased with age in the IL-2+/+ mice. However, no such increases were seen in the mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene. Instead, the volume densities of enteroglucagon, serotonin cells and substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and total myenteric nerves were lower in the older IL-2+/- and IL-2-/- mice compared with the wild type. The other was disease-related. Polypeptide YY (PYY) cells and tissue levels of PYY, SP and VIP were significantly decreased in the IL-2-/- mice during the course of bowel inflammation compared with the healthy IL-2+/- and IL-2+/+ controls. These findings indicate that colonic neuroendocrine alterations did occur in the mice with a disrupted IL-2 gene and diminished local IL-2 level, suggesting a role of IL-2 in the regulation of the neuroendocrine system and a prevalent interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems in normal colon. On the other hand, there were some changes that seemed to correlate with the bowel inflammatory process. They might be associated with the impaired function in inflamed gut and contribute to the development and/or prolongation of disease.

  • 15.
    Rahman, Arman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sundstedt, C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Danielsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Chronic colitis induces expression of β-defensins in murine intestinal epithelial cells2011In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 163, no 1, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-microbial peptides are important effectors in innate immunity. In the gut they defend against pathogens, shape the commensal microbiota and probably control intestinal homeostasis. Ulcerative colitis (UC), but not Crohn's disease, shows increased expression of inducible β-defensins (hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4) in colonic epithelial cells. Does inducible defensin production precede the chronic intestinal inflammation characteristic of UC, or is it a consequence of the T cell-driven chronic inflammation? The aim was to analyse defensin mRNA and protein expression in colonic epithelial cells in two colitis mouse models resembling UC, the interleukin (IL)-2(-/-) mouse and the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse. Defensin mRNA was assayed by in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Defensin peptide was assayed by immunohistochemistry. Mouse β-defensin 3 (mBD-3, orthologue to hBD-2) was up-regulated strongly in colonic epithelium of 15-week-old IL-2(-/-) mice and DSS-induced colitis mice with chronic bowel inflammation, but not in apparently healthy IL-2(-/-) 5-week-old mice, IL-2(+/-) 15-week-old mice or in acute stage DSS mice. Up-regulation was seen both at the mRNA- and at the protein level (only mBD-3 investigated). IL-17, but not several other cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-γ, induced mBD-3 mRNA expression in mouse colon carcinoma cells. The mRNA expression level of the constitutively expressed α-defensin, cryptdin-4, was up-regulated marginally in acute stage DSS-colitis mice and in IL-2(-/-) mice before signs of colitis. Inducible β-defensin expression in colonic epithelium is the consequence of the chronic bowel inflammation caused by activated T cells releasing cytokines including IL-17.

  • 16. Ryan, E J
    et al.
    Nilsson, L
    Kjellman, N
    Gothefors, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Mills, K H
    Booster immunization of children with an acellular pertussis vaccine enhances Th2 cytokine production and serum IgE responses against pertussis toxin but not against common allergens.2000In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) protect against severe pertussis in children. However, serum antibody responses decline quickly after immunization. Studies in animal models suggest that cell-mediated immunity also contributes to protection against Bordetella pertussis, and it has already been demonstrated that Pa induce T cells that secrete type-1 and type-2 cytokines in children. In this study we examined the persistence of the T cell response and the effect of booster immunization in 4-6-year-old children. Cell-mediated immunity to B. pertussis antigens was detected in a high proportion of children more than 42 months after their last immunization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the majority of children secreted interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and a smaller proportion IL-5, in response to specific antigen stimulation in vitro. However, following booster immunization, significantly higher concentrations of IL-5, but not IFN-gamma, were produced by PBMC in response to B. pertussis antigens. Furthermore, plasma IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations were increased, whereas IFN-gamma concentrations were reduced following booster immunization. It has been suggested that childhood immunization with Th2-inducing vaccines may predispose some children to atopic disease. Although we found that pertussis toxin (PT)-specific IgE was significantly increased after booster immunization in both atopic and non-atopic children, the levels of IgE to common allergens and the prevalence of positive skin prick test were unaffected by the booster vaccination. Thus, despite the enhancement of type-2 responses to B. pertussis antigens, booster vaccination with Pa does not appear to be a risk factor for allergy.

  • 17.
    Sitohy, Basel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Danielsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Basal lymphoid aggregates in ulcerative colitis colon: a site for regulatory T cell action2008In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 151, no 2, p. 326-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory T cells seem to play a central role in maintaining immune tolerance in the gut mucosa. Previously we have shown that interleukin (IL)-10 is produced at high levels in the inflamed colonic tissue of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. The cellular source was CD4+ T cells, suggesting local activation of regulatory T cells. The present study was performed to determine whether the frequency of regulatory T cells is increased in UC colon and whether they are present in the basal lymphoid aggregates, the prominent microanatomical structure in UC colon. Colonic tissue specimens from UC and control patients were analysed for frequencies of lamina propria lymphocytes expressing the regulatory T cell markers forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), CD25 and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR) as well as CD28, CD4 and CD3 by using marker specific reagents in immunomorphometry. Two-colour immunohistochemistry was used for detection of CD25/IL-10, FoxP3/IL-10 and CD25/FoxP3 double-positive cells. GITR+ and FoxP3+ cells were present in normal colon mucosa, although at a relatively low frequency, and were located preferentially within the solitary follicles. UC was associated with significantly increased frequencies of CD25+, GITR+ and FoxP3+ lamina propria lymphocytes both within the basal lymphoid aggregates and in the lamina propria outside. Many of the CD25+ cells co-expressed FoxP3 as well as IL-10, suggesting that these are indeed IL-10 secreting regulatory T cells, activated in an attempt to counteract the inflammation. Increased frequency of regulatory T cell subtypes seems insufficient to control the disease activity in UC.

  • 18. Sjöwall, J
    et al.
    Carlsson, A
    Vaarala, O
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ernerudh, J
    Forsberg, P
    Ekerfelt, C
    Innate immune responses in Lyme borreliosis: enhanced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-12 in asymptomatic individuals in response to live spirochetes2005In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innate immunity is important for early defence against borrelia spirochetes and should play a role in the clinical outcome of the infection. In order to study early cytokine responses, in vitro differentiated dendritic cells (DCs) and whole blood cells from 21 patients with different clinical outcomes of Lyme neuroborreliosis were stimulated with live borrelia spirochetes. The borrelia-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in DCs and IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-alpha, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta and eotaxin in whole blood cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and multiplex arrays, respectively. We found increased numbers of TNF-alpha-secreting DCs (P = 0.018) in asymptomatic seropositive individuals compared to patients with subacute neuroborreliosis and seronegative controls. Asymptomatic individuals were also found to have elevated levels of IL-12p70 (P = 0.031) in whole blood cell supernatants compared to seronegative controls. These results are in line with previous experiments using cells of the adaptive immune response, indicating that strong T helper type 1 (Th1) proinflammatory responses might be associated with a successful resolution of Lyme disease.

  • 19. Talme, T
    et al.
    Ivanoff, Jyrki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Sundqvist, Karl Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Somatostatin is a specific inhibitor of SDF-1alpha-induced T cell infiltration.2004In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 434-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is a potent stimulator of T cell infiltration into three-dimensional type I collagen matrices as demonstrated using T cells freshly isolated from blood and an activated T cell clone. The neuropeptide somatostatin selectively inhibits SDF-1alpha induced T cell infiltration by the same T cells including CD4 as well as CD8 positive cells, while somatostatin does not inhibit 'spontaneous' T cell infiltration. A number of other neuropeptides and opioids do not inhibit SDF-1alpha-induced T cell infiltration, indicating that the inhibitory effect is somatostatin-specific. The neuropeptide antagonist cyclosomatostatin abrogated the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on T cell infiltration, indicating that the effect of somatostatin is mediated via specific somatostatin receptors. Somatostatin does not inhibit SDF-1alpha-induced T cell attachment to the collagen substrate, which indicates that this neuropeptide specifically inhibits the process of chemokine-induced T cell penetration and migration through the collagen.

  • 20. Tay, GK
    et al.
    Hui, J
    Gaudieri, S
    Schmitt-Egenolf, Marcus
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Martinez, OP
    Leelayuwat, C
    Williamson, JF
    Eiermann, TH
    Dawkins, RL
    PERB11 (MIC): a polymorphic MHC gene is expressed in skin and single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with psoriasis.2000In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 553-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility genes for psoriasis remain to be identified. At least one of these must be in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to explain associations with alleles at human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ and C4. In fact, most of these alleles are components of just two ancestral haplotypes (AHs) designated 13.1 and 57.1. Although relevant MHC gene(s) could be within a region of at least 4 Mb, most studies have favoured the area near HLA-B and -C. This region contains a large number of non-HLA genes, many of which are duplicated and polymorphic. Members of one such gene family, PERB11.1 and PERB11.2, are expressed in the skin and are encoded in the region between tumour necrosis factor and HLA-B. To investigate the relationship of PERB11.1 alleles to psoriasis, sequence based typing was performed on 97 patients classified according to age of onset and family history. The frequency of the PERB11.1*06 allele is 44% in type I psoriasis but only 7% in controls (Pc = 0.003 by Fisher's exact test, two-tailed). The major determinant of this association is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within intron 4. In normal and affected skin, expression of PERB11 is mainly in the basal layer of the epidermis including ducts and follicles. PERB11 is also present in the upper keratin layers but there is relative deficiency in the intermediate layers. These findings suggest a possible role for PERB11 and other MHC genes in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

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