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  • 1.
    Ekici, Rifat
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Thay, Bernard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Enhanced capture of extramembranous IgM and IgG on B cells in the NOD mouse: implications for immune complex trapping2009Ingår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 533-541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Binding of various antibody isotypes to B cells through either FcgammaRs or complement receptors has been attributed to play several roles, e.g. in immune complex (IC) transportation and regulation of B cell receptor signaling. We have revealed a novel B cell intrinsic receptor for IgM and IgG which is present in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and is more abundant in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. As a consequence, the level of extramembranous IgG monomers and IgM pentamers on peripheral blood B cells from NOD mice was significantly higher compared with B6 mice. The effect of this aberration was that all B cells in peripheral blood of (NOD.IgH(a) x B6(IgH(b)))F(1) mice carried both IgM allotypes on their surface. In addition, analysis of IC binding using IgG- or IgM-opsonized bacterial particles revealed a higher degree of binding in NOD mice compared with B6. We hypothesize that this novel Ig-binding receptor is part of the normal immune system function. The aberrant function in the NOD mouse could contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by altering normal B cell functions such as activation, IC transportation and B cell homeostasis.

  • 2.
    Forsberg, Göte
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Concomitant increase of IL-10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in intraepithelial lymphocyte subsets in celiac disease.2007Ingår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 993-1001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Celiac disease (CD) is a small intestinal enteropathy caused by permanent intolerance to wheat gluten. Active disease is characterized by a prominent cytokine response of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) to gluten-containing diet with concomitant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory IFN-gamma and down-regulatory IL-10 without increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The aim was to understand the local immune reaction by determining which intraepithelial T cell subsets produce the different cytokines. The three major IEL-subsets gammadeltaIELs, CD4(+)alphabetaIELs and CD8(+)alphabetaIELs, as well as CD94(+)CD8(+)alphabetaIELs, selectively expanded in active CD, were retrieved from small intestinal biopsies of children with active CD and controls and analyzed quantitatively for cytokine mRNA expression. In active CD, CD8(+)alphabetaIELs showed a significant increase in expression levels of both IFN-gamma and IL-10. CD8(+)alphabetaIELs were also the IEL subset with highest expression level per cell of both cytokines and constituted the cellular source for almost all IFN-gamma and most IL-10. Expression levels of both cytokines were higher in CD94(-)CD8(+)alphabetaIELs than CD94(+)CD8(+)alphabetaIELs. TNF-alpha levels were only increased in CD4(+)alphabetaIELs, which also showed the highest expression level per cell and constituted the major source of this cytokine. Interestingly, IL-10 was increased also in CD4(+)alphabetaIELs. Cytokine levels were low in gammadeltaIELs. 'Classical' CD94(-)CD8(+)alphabeta T cells within the epithelium are responsible for the excessive production of IFN-gamma, believed to drive the formation of intestinal lesions in active CD. Production of IL-10 may be a common feature of IELs producing pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby attempting to limit inflammation in an autocrine fashion.

  • 3.
    Leijon, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Hammarström, Barbro
    SYMBICOM, Box 1451, S-901 24 Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice display enhanced immune responses and prolonged survival of lymphoid cells1994Ingår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 339-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report that lymphoid cells originating from the non-obese diabetic (NOD) autoimmune prone mouse strain are resistant to several signals known to induce programmed cell death. In vitro culturing of lymphoid cells of splenic or lymph node origin showed that B cells and T cells of both CD4+ and CD8+ phenotypes from NOD mice display extended survival in vitro. By cytofluorimetric analysis, immature CD4+ CD8+ NOD thymocytes were shown to partially resist in vivo treatment with corticosteroids. Finally, immunization with protein antigens induced enhanced and prolonged immune responses in NOD mice compared with normal C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H/Tif control mice. We conclude that the NOD mouse displays a defect in the mechanism(s) mediating programmed cell death in T and B lymphocytes. These findings provide a novel explanation for the B cell aberrations observed in the NOD mouse and may have implications for the understanding of the autoimmune pathogenesis in this mouse strain.

  • 4.
    Lundqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Athlin, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Evidence for regional specialization and extrathymic T cell maturation in the human gut epithelium1995Ingår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 1473-1487Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The human gut epithelium is a unique immunological compartment, containing substantial amounts of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) with unknown functions. In this study we show that distinct and unusual subpopulations of IEL are present at different levels of human intestine. IEL phenotypes in normal jejunum, ileum and colon were compared using immunoflow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for recombination-activating gene-1 (RAG-1) in IEL from all three levels was compared using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the morphology of IEL in situ was determined using immunoelectron microscopy. Surface marker profiles of isolated intestinal epithelial cells at all three levels were also investigated. On average the proportion of TCR gamma delta IEL was comparable in jejunum than ileum and colon and varied in phenotype with gut level. CD4-CD8-TCR alpha beta IEL dominated in colon but were absent in jejunum. CD8+ TCR alpha beta IEL were present at all levels but only in jejunum did they constitute the majority of all IEL. CD4+ TCR alpha beta IEL were present in similar frequencies at all levels of the gut. In general, the majority of IEL had an activated phenotype (CD45RO+, alpha E beta 7+). Furthermore, IEL exhibited phenotypes which are rare in peripheral blood. The thymocyte markers CD1a and CD1c as well as the NK cell marker CD56 were expressed on a fraction of TCR alpha beta and TCR gamma delta IEL. A small population of 'null' cells (CD45+ TCR/CD#-CD20-CD14-CD15- cells) was also present at equal proportions along the gut. Jejunal but not colonic IEL expressed RAG-1 mRNA suggesting that extrathymic T cell maturation occurs in the epithelium of small intestine. RAG-1 was expressed in CD2+TCR/CD3- and CD3+/TCR-IEL. Ultrastructurally, IEL often formed small clusters and intimate contacts with epithelial cells, suggesting cell cooperation within the epithelium. Some IEL had pseudopodium-like extensions penetrating the epithelial basement membrane suggesting transmigration. Epithelial cells in small intestine but not colon expressed heat shock protein 60 and HLA-DR. CD1a, CD1b and CD1c were not expressed on intestinal epithelial cells at any level. The distinct surface marker profiles of IEL and epithelial cells along small and large intestine suggest functional regional specialization and are compatible with the hypothesis that TCR alpha beta IEL participate in immune reactions to lumenal antigens while TCR gamma delta IEL perform surveillance of the epithelium.

  • 5.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Immunologi/immunkemi.
    gammadelta T cells of human early pregnancy decidua: evidence for cytotoxic potency.2000Ingår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 585-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune compromise in decidua allows a semiallogeneic fetus to survive without impairing the ability of the maternal immune system to fight infections. Cytotoxic mechanisms are likely to be important in this compromise. Using RT-PCR, immunoflow cytometry and immunoelectron microscopy, the cytotoxic potential of isolated human decidual gammadelta T cells was studied. mRNA for perforin (Pf), granzymes A and B, granulysin and Fas ligand (FasL) was simultaneously expressed in decidual gammadelta T cells. Pf and FasL were not expressed on the cell surface. However, the cells constitutively synthesized Pf and stored it in cytolytic granules. Within the granules Pf mainly resided in the granule core formed by Pf-containing microvesicles. Ultrastructurally, three groups of Pf-containing granules were distinguished. They probably represent different stages of granule maturation in a process where Pf-containing microvesicles first attach to the core cortex and then are translocated across the cortex into the core. Presynthesized FasL was also stored in the core and microvesicles of the cytolytic granules. Upon degranulation by ionomycin/Ca(2+) treatment, FasL was rapidly translocated to the cell surface, demonstrating that its surface expression was not controlled by de novo biosynthesis. Thus decidual gammadelta T cells appear to perform Pf- and FasL-mediated cytotoxicity utilizing a common secretory mechanism based on cytolytic granule exocytosis. The first cytochemical visualization of lipids in the cytolytic granules is provided. These intragranular lipids probably wrap up the core and participate in packaging of the cytotoxic proteins as well as in the killing process. An ultrastructural model of a cytolytic granule is presented.

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