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  • 1.
    Bayadsi, Haytham
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Bergman, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Hennings, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Invasiveness and Metastatic Aggressiveness in Small Differentiated Thyroid Cancers: Demography of Small Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in the Swedish Population2020In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The western world is seeing a rising incidence of thyroid cancer. Improved diagnostic methods do not entirely explain this increase. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer. Small PTC (<= 20 mm) and especially papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC <= 10 mm) are considered to be low-risk tumors but some cases are considerably more aggressive. Sufficient understanding of these mechanisms is a long-term goal for more efficient and safer treatment of these tumors.

    Methods: We identified 959 cases of small PTCs in the validated Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery, grouped according to lymph node metastasis. These were analyzed according to age, gender, tumor size and geographic region.

    Results: Patients with N1b disease (lateral lymph nodes metastases) had a smaller tumor size compared to patients with N1a disease (8.6 mm vs 10.1 mm respectively, p < 0.05). Patients and specifically females with N1b disease were younger than those with N0 or N1a disease. Patients with N1b disease had a lower proportion of females (60%) compared to N0 and N1a groups (81% and 78%, respectively). The incidence of operated small PTCs and of lymph node engagement differs between geographic regions in Sweden.

    Conclusions: Small PTC and especially PTMC seem to show different patterns of aggressiveness and demography regarding lateral lymph node metastases and 7% had N1b disease and tumor <1 cm, underscoring the importance of lymph node evaluation in PTMC patients. More understanding of predictive factors, mechanisms for metastatic disease and causes of regional differences, is needed.

  • 2.
    Dahlstrand, Ursula
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden ; CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Center for Digestive Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Center for Digestive Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wollert, Staffan
    Department of Surgical Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Center for Digestive Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Limited potential for prevention of emergency surgery for femoral hernia2014In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1931-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Femoral hernias are frequently operated on as an emergency. Emergency procedures for femoral hernia are associated with an almost tenfold increase in postoperative mortality, while no increase is seen for elective procedures, compared with a background population.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare whether symptoms from femoral hernias and healthcare contacts prior to surgery differ between patients who have elective and patients who have emergency surgery.

    METHODS: A total of 1,967 individuals operated on for a femoral hernia over 1997-2006 were sent a questionnaire on symptoms experienced and contact with the healthcare system prior to surgery for their hernia. Answers were matched with data from the Swedish Hernia Register.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,441 (73.3%) patients responded. Awareness of their hernia prior to surgery was denied by 53.3% (231/433) of those who underwent an emergency procedure. Of the emergency operated patients, 31.3% (135/432) negated symptoms in the affected groin prior to surgery and 22.2% (96/432) had neither groin nor other symptoms. Elective patients had a considerably higher contact frequency with their general practitioner, as well as the surgical outpatient department, prior to surgery compared with patients undergoing emergency surgery (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients who have elective and patients who have emergency femoral hernia surgery differ in previous symptoms and healthcare contacts. Patients who need emergency surgery are often unaware of their hernia and frequently completely asymptomatic prior to incarceration. Early diagnosis and expedient surgery is warranted, but the lack of symptoms hinders earlier detection and intervention in most cases.

  • 3.
    Enell, Jacob
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Bayadsi, Haytham
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Lundgren, Ewa
    Hennings, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Primary Hyperparathyroidism is Underdiagnosed and Suboptimally Treated in the Clinical Setting2018In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 2825-2834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate whether patients presenting with laboratory results consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) are managed in accordance with guidelines. The laboratory database at a hospital in Sweden, serving 127,000 inhabitants, was searched for patients with biochemically determined pHPT. During 2014, a total of 365 patients with biochemical laboratory tests consistent with pHPT were identified. Patients with possible differential diagnoses or other reasons for not being investigated according to international guidelines were excluded after scrutinizing records, after new blood tests, and clinical assessments by endocrine surgeons. Altogether, 92 patients had been referred to specialists and 82 had not. The latter group had lower serum calcium (median 2.54 mmol/L) and PTH (5.7 pmol/L). Out of these 82 cases, 9 patients were diagnosed with pHPT or had some sort of long-term follow-up planned as outpatients. Primary hyperparathyroidism is overlooked and underdiagnosed in a number of patients in the clinical setting. It is important to provide local guidelines for the management of patients presenting with mild pHPT to ensure that these patients receive proper evaluation and follow-up according to current research.

  • 4. Gustafsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Jestin, Pia
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindforss, Ulrik
    Higher Frequency of Anastomotic Leakage with Stapled Compared to Hand-Sewn Ileocolic Anastomosis in a Large Population-Based Study2015In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1834-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stapling technique was recommended in a recent Cochrane analysis based on relatively small randomized trials between 1970 and 2009. Data from a large Swedish population-based quality register were analyzed in order to compare the leakage frequency between stapled and hand-sewn ileocolic anastomoses in colon cancer surgery. Three-thousand four-hundred and twenty-eight patients with an ileocolic anastomosis were entered in a Swedish regional quality register for colon cancer, including the type of anastomosis used. The patients were analyzed by logistic regression regarding risk for leakage, and Cox proportional hazard regression for survival associated with the technique used for anastomosis. Analyses were made for gender, age, elective or emergency surgery, duration of surgery, bleeding, cancer stage, and local radicality. Most anastomoses were hand sewn (1,908 of 3,428, 55.7 %, p < 0.001), whereas stapling was more common among emergency cases (342 of 618, 55.3 %, p < 0.001). Clinically relevant leakage appeared in 58 patients (1.7 %), of whom 51 (87.9 %) were re-operated. Leakage was found to be more frequent after stapled anastomosis (2.4 vs. 1.2 %, p = 0.006), and in multivariate analysis, stapled anastomosis was the only risk factor (OR = 2.04 95 % CI 1.19-3.50). There was no difference in overall survival related to the technique. Hand-sewn anastomosis is not associated with a higher leakage rate when comparing to a stapling procedure and is recommended for routine and emergency right-sided colon cancer surgery. This recommendation is based on what appears to be a lower leakage rate, similar survival and lower material cost.

  • 5.
    Israelsson, Leif A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Preventing and treating parastomal hernia2005In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1086-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parastomal hernia represents a major surgical challenge. There is no uniform definition of parastomal hernia, and the true rate is therefore difficult to establish, although it is probably higher than 30%. Many surgical techniques have been tried to prevent and treat parastomal hernia; but despite these efforts, herniation continues to be a problem. The only method that has reduced the rate of parastomal hernia in a randomized trial is the use of a prophylactic prosthetic mesh. A large-pore low-weight mesh with reduced polypropylene content and a high proportion of absorbable material placed in a sublay position at the primary operation significantly reduces the rate of parastomal hernia. Recurrence rates after surgical treatment of parastomal hernia are high unless mesh is used. Relocation of the stoma, with prophylactic mesh in a sublay position at the new site and sublay mesh repairing the incisional hernia at the primary site, is the standard method for treating parastomal hernia in our department.

  • 6. Jaafar, Gona
    et al.
    Hammarqvist, Folke
    Enochsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Patient-Related Risk Factors for Postoperative Infection After Cholecystectomy2017In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 2240-2244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of patient-related risk factors on the incidence of postoperative infection after cholecystectomy is relatively unknown.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore potential patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) and septicaemia following cholecystectomy.

    Materials and methods: All cholecystectomies registered in the Swedish national population-based register for Gallstone Surgery and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (GallRiks) 2006–2014 were identified. The study cohort was cross-matched with the Swedish National Patient Register in order to obtain data on patient history and postoperative infections. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the impact of various comorbidities on the risk for SSI and septicaemia.

    Results: A total of 94,557 procedures were registered. A SSI was seen following 5300 procedures (5.6%), and septicaemia following 661 procedures (0.7%). There was a significantly increased risk for SSI in patients with connective tissue disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.404, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.208–1.633), complicated diabetes (OR 1.435, CI 1.205–1.708), uncomplicated diabetes (OR 1.391, CI 1.264–1.530), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.788, CI 1.458–2.192), cirrhosis (OR 1.764, CI 1.268–2.454) and obesity (OR 1.630, CI 1.475–1.802). There was a significantly higher risk for septicaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (OR 3.065, CI 2.120–4.430) or cirrhosis (OR 5.016, CI 3.019–8.336).

    Conclusion and discussion: Certain comorbidities have an impact on the risk for postoperative infection after cholecystectomy, especially SSI. This should be taken into account when planning the procedure and when deciding on prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  • 7.
    Jänes, Arthur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Cengiz, Yucel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Israelsson, Leif A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Experiences with a prophylactic mesh in 93 consecutive ostomies2010In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 1637-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parastomal hernia may be present in half of patients after one year. A prophylactic low-weight prosthetic mesh in a sublay position at the index operation reduces the risk of parastomal hernia, without increasing the rate of complications. MATERIAL: Between April 2003 and November 2006 all patients with an ostomy created at an open laparotomy were followed for at least one year. RESULTS: A prophylactic mesh was used in 75 of 93 patients. In 9 a prophylactic mesh could not be placed due to scarring after previous surgery. In 9 a mesh was omitted after surgeon's decision. In 19 patients a mesh was used in severely contaminated wounds. With a mesh 6 of 73 (8%) patients developed a surgical site infection and without a mesh 4 of 15 (27%). With a mesh parastomal hernia was present in 8 of 61 (13%) patients and without a mesh in 8 of 12 (67%). CONCLUSIONS: Creating a stoma in routine open surgery a prophylactic mesh can be placed in most patients. A mesh does not increase the rate of complications and can be used in severely contaminated wounds.

  • 8.
    Jänes, Arthur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Cengiz, Yucel
    Kirurgkliniken, Sundsvalls sjukhus, Department of Surgery, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Leif A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Preventing parastomal hernia with a prosthetic mesh: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized study2009In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 118-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parastomal hernia is a major clinical problem. In a randomized, clinical trial, a prosthetic mesh in a sublay position at the index operation reduced the rate of parastomal hernia at 12-month follow-up, without any increase in the rate of complications. This study was designed to evaluate the rate of complications after 5 years.

    METHODS: Between January 2001 and April 2003, 54 patients who had a permanent ostomy were randomized to a conventional stoma or to a stoma with the addition of a mesh in a sublay position. A large-pore, lightweight mesh with a reduced polypropylene content and a high proportion of absorbable material was used.

    RESULTS: After 5 years, 21 patients with a conventional stoma were alive and parastomal herniation was recorded in 17 patients, of whom repair had been demanded in 5. In 15 patients operated on with the addition of a mesh herniation, that did not require repair, was present in 2 (P<0.001). No fistulas or strictures developed. No mesh infection was noted and no mesh was removed during the study period.

    CONCLUSIONS: At stoma formation, a prophylactic low-weight mesh in a sublay position is a safe procedure that reduces the rate of parastomal hernia.

  • 9. Jänes, Arthur
    et al.
    Israelsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Cengiz, Yucel
    Department of General Surgery, Kirurgkliniken, Sundsvalls sjukhus, 851 86, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Preventing parastomal hernia with a prosthetic mesh: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized study: reply to letter2009In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 1541-1541Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lindmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Strigård, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Löwenmark, Thyra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Dahlstrand, Ursula
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Risk factors for surgical complications in ventral hernia repair2018In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 3528-3536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for an adverse event, i.e. early surgical complication, need for ICU care and readmission, following ventral hernia repair. Our hypothesis was that there is an association between an increased complication rate following ventral hernia repair and specific factors, including hernia size, BMI > 35, concomitant bowel surgery, ASA-class, age, gender and method of hernia repair.

    METHODS: Data from a hernia database with prospectively entered data on 408 patients operated for ventral hernia between 2007 and 2014 at two Swedish university hospitals were analysed. A 3-month follow-up of complications, need for intensive care and readmission, was performed by reviewing the medical records.

    RESULTS: Eighty-one of 408 patients (20%) had a registered complication. Fifty-eight (14%) of these were classed as Clavien I-IIIa, and in 19 cases a Clavien IIIb-IV complication was reported. Large hernia size was associated with increased risk for early complication. A Kendall Tau test analysis revealed a proportional relationship between hernia size and modified Clavien outcome class (p < 0.001). Morbid obesity, ASA-class, method, hernia recurrence, age and concomitant bowel surgery were not statistically significant predictors of adverse events.

    CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of hernia aperture size is of great importance in the preoperative evaluation of ventral hernia patients to consider risk for post-operative complications. These results suggest a careful attitude when applying watchful waiting concepts and when postponing hernia surgery to achieve weight loss. A delaying attitude may result in increased risk of complications caused by increasing hernia size.

  • 11.
    Lundberg, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Kristoffersson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Effect of pneumoperitoneum induced by carbon dioxide and air on tumor load in a rat model.1998In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 470-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laparoscopic surgery for malignant disease is highly controversial mainly due to the large number of abdominal wall metastases being reported. Previous experimental studies have particularly studied CO2 pneumoperitoneum and its effect on tumor development. The purpose of this study was to compare CO2- and air-induced pneumoperitoneum with regard to intraperitoneal tumor growth. Altogether 39 rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10(5) colonic tumor cells and randomly allocated into three groups: 13 rats had a pneumoperitoneum created with CO2, 13 with air, and 13 served as controls. Tumor development was determined semiquantitatively by a peritoneal cancer index scale after 12 days. CO2 and air pneumoperitoneum equally increased intraperitoneal tumor growth compared to controls. Pneumoperitoneum induced by CO2 and air seems to increase tumor load, but the mechanisms are not established. This finding supports the hypothesis that insufflation not only by causing tumor cell movements but in fact pneumoperitoneum per se and the used gas are involved in the development of abdominal wall metastases after laparoscopic surgery.

  • 12. Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Fränneby, Ulf
    Sondén, A.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Dahlstrand, Ursula
    The Short-Form Inguinal Pain Questionnaire (sf-IPQ): An Instrument for Rating Groin Pain After Inguinal Hernia Surgery in Daily Clinical Practice2019In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 806-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Inguinal Pain Questionnaire (IPQ) is a standardised and validated instrument for assessing persisting pain after groin hernia surgery. The IPQ is often perceived as being too extensive for routine use. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a condensed version of the IPQ in order to facilitate its use in daily clinical practice.

    Methods: The condensed form, i.e. Short-Form Inguinal Pain Questionnaire (sf-IPQ), comprises two main items taken from the IPQ. Four hundred patients were recruited from the Swedish Hernia Register and were sent the IPQ, sf-IPQ and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) three years after hernia repair. Ratings from the IPQ and the sf-IPQ were converted to a 12-point scale. The reported scores for the two shared items in the IPQ and sf-IPQ were compared using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Cohen’s kappa and McNemar’s test.

    Results: After two reminders, the response rate was 69.8% (n = 279/400). The ICC for the IPQ and sf-IPQ scores was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.73–0.82, p < 0.001). Cohen’s kappa was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.55–0.77, p < 0.001). The sf-IPQ systematically indicated a higher pain score than the IPQ (p = 0.013).

    Conclusions: Despite the systematic difference in level of pain scored, correlation, consistency and agreement were seen between the IPQ and sf-IPQ. The forms appear to be interchangeable, though the sf-IPQ may be a more sensitive instrument. The condensed structure of the sf-IPQ is more user-friendly and shows promise as a useful tool in daily clinical practice.

  • 13. Ruhling, Victoria
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Dahlstrand, Ursula
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Wound Healing Following Open Groin Hernia Surgery: The Impact of Comorbidity2015In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 2392-2399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the impact of chronic concomitant disease on the risk for postoperative complications following open groin hernia surgery. Methods During the study period (2002-2011), 133,074 open repairs were registered in the Swedish Hernia Register. History of peripheral vascular disorders, connective tissue disease, chronic renal failure, obesity, and liver cirrhosis as well as data on hemorrhage or hematoma, wound dehiscence, postoperative infection, and reoperation for superficial infection or bleeding within 30 days after surgery were obtained by matching with the Swedish Patient Register. Results In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a significantly increased risk for hemorrhage or hematoma within 30 days after surgery was seen for older patients, males, liver cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease, and connective tissue disease (p < 0.05). High age (>80 years), previous history of peripheral vascular disease, connective tissue disease, and male gender were risk factors for wound dehiscence (p < 0.05). Liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, BMI > 25, and male gender were associated with increased risk for postoperative wound infection (p < 0.05). A significantly increased risk for reoperation for superficial infection or bleeding was seen in patients with peripheral vascular disease and elderly patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion Risk for postoperative complications in open groin hernia surgery is increased in elderly patients, patients with liver cirrhosis, and those with peripheral vascular disease. The indications for surgery should be weighed against the risk for wound-healing complications in these patient groups. Watchful waiting may be an alternative, although this carries the risk of emergency surgery.

  • 14.
    Sandzén, Birger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Haapamäki, Markku M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Stenlund, Hans C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Öman, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Treatment of Common Bile Duct Stones in Sweden 1989-2006: An Observational Nationwide Study of a Paradigm Shift2012In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 2146-2153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The preferred strategies for treatment of common bile duct stones have changed from choledochotomy with cholecystectomy to sphincterotomy with or without cholecystectomy. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of these treatment strategies on a nationwide level in Sweden. METHODS: All patients with hospital care for benign biliary diagnoses 1988-2006 were identified in Swedish registers. Patients with common bile duct stones and a first admission with choledochotomy and or endoscopic sphincterotomy from 1989 through 2006 comprised the study group. These patients were analyzed with respect to readmission for biliary diagnoses and acute pancreatitis. RESULTS: Incidence of open and laparoscopic choledochotomy decreased from 19.4 to 5.2, whereas endoscopic sphincterotomy increased from 5.1 to 26.1 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, respectively. Among patients treated for common bile duct stones (n = 26,815), 60.0 % underwent cholecystectomy during the first hospital admission in 1989-1994, compared to 30.1 % in 2001-2006. The treatment strategy that included endoscopic sphincterotomy was associated with more readmissions for biliary diagnoses and increased risk for acute pancreatitis than the treatment strategy with choledochotomy. However, patients treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy and concurrent cholecystectomy at the index admission had the lowest risk of readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Cholecystectomy has been increasingly separated from treatment of bile duct stones, and endoscopic sphincterotomy has superseded choledochotomy as a first alternative for bile duct clearance in Sweden. In patients fit for surgery, clearance of the common bile duct can be combined with cholecystectomy, as it probably reduces the need for biliary related readmissions.

  • 15. Schlickum, Marcus
    et al.
    Hedman, Leif
    Enochsson, Lars
    Henningsohn, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kjellin, Ann
    Fellander-Tsai, Li
    Surgical Simulation Tasks Challenge Visual Working Memory and Visual-Spatial Ability Differently2011In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 710-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background New strategies for selection and training of physicians are emerging. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between visual-spatial ability and visual working memory with surgical simulator performance. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed analysis on how these abilities are associated with metrics in simulator performance with different task content. The hypothesis is that the importance of visual-spatial ability and visual working memory varies with different task contents.

    Methods Twenty-five medical students participated in the study that involved testing visual-spatial ability using the MRT-A test and visual working memory using the RoboMemo computer program. Subjects were also trained and tested for performance in three different surgical simulators. The scores from the psychometric tests and the performance metrics were then correlated using multivariate analysis.

    Results MRT-A score correlated significantly with the performance metrics Efficiency of screening (p = 0.006) and Total time (p = 0.01) in the GI Mentor II task and Total score (p = 0.02) in the MIST-VR simulator task. In the Uro Mentor task, both the MRT-A score and the visual working memory 3-D cube test score as presented in the RoboMemo program (p = 0.02) correlated with Total score (p = 0.004).

    Conclusions In this study we have shown that some differences exist regarding the impact of visual abilities and task content on simulator performance. When designing future cognitive training programs and testing regimes, one might have to consider that the design must be adjusted in accordance with the specific surgical task to be trained in mind.

  • 16. Schlickum, Marcus Kolga
    et al.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center for Advanced Medical Simulation, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Enochsson, Lars
    Kjellin, Ann
    Fellander-Tsai, Li
    Systematic video game training in surgical novices improves performance in virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulators: a prospective randomized study2009In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 2360-2367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous studies have shown a correlation between previous video game experience and performance in minimally invasive surgical simulators. The hypothesis is that systematic video game training with high visual-spatial demands and visual similarity to endoscopy would show a transfer effect on performance in virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulation.

    Methods A prospective randomized study was performed. Thirty surgical novices were matched and randomized to five weeks of systematic video game training in either a first-person shooter game (Half Life) with high visual-spatial demands and visual similarities to endoscopy or a video game with mainly cognitive demands (Chessmaster). A matched control group (n = 10) performed no video game training during five weeks. Performance in two virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulators (MIST-VR and GI Mentor II) was measured pre- and post-training. Before simulator training we also controlled for students' visual-spatial ability, visual working memory, age, and previous video game experience.

    Results The group training with Half Life showed significant improvement in two GI Mentor II variables and the MIST-VR task MD level medium. The group training with Chessmaster only showed an improvement in the MIST-VR task. No effect was observed in the control group. As recently shown in other studies, current and previous video game experience was important for simulator performance.

    Conclusions Systematic video game training improved surgical performance in advanced virtual reality endoscopic simulators. The transfer effect increased when increasing visual similarity. The performance in intense, visual-spatially challenging video games might be a predictive factor for the outcome in surgical simulation.

  • 17. Sellgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Koman, Anna
    Nordenström, Erik
    Hellman, Per
    Hennings, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Muth, Andreas
    Outcomes After Surgery for Unilateral Dominant Primary Aldosteronism in Sweden2019In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for unilateral dominant PA, but reported cure rates varies. The aim of the present study was to investigate contemporary follow-up practices and cure rates after surgery for PA in Sweden.

    Methods: Patients operated for PA and registered in the Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery (SQRTPA) 2009–2015 were identified. Patient data were extracted, and follow-up data (1–24 months) was recorded. Doses of antihypertensive medication and potassium supplementation were calculated using defined daily doses (DDD), and the Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome (PASO) criteria were used to evaluate outcomes.

    Results: Of 190 registered patients, 171 (47% female, mean age 53 years, median follow-up 3.7 months) were available for analysis. In 75 patients (44%), missing data precluded evaluation of biochemical cure according to the PASO criteria. Minimal invasive approach was used in 168/171 patients (98%). Complication rate (Clavien-Dindo >3a) was 3%. No mortality was registered. Pre/postoperatively 98/66% used antihypertensives (mean DDD 3.7/1.5). 89/2% had potassium supplementation (mean DDD 2.0/0) before/after surgery. Complete/partial biochemical and clinical success according to the PASO criteria were achieved in 92/7% and 34/60%, respectively.

    Conclusion: In this study, reflecting contemporary clinical practice in Sweden complete/partial biochemical and clinical success after surgery for PA was 92/7% and 34/60%. Evaluation of biochemical cure was hampered by lack of uniform reporting of relevant outcome measures. We suggest mandatory reporting of surgical outcomes using the PASO criteria for all units performing surgery for PA.

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